The origin of haftarah reading is lost to history, and several theories have been proposed to explain its role in Jewish practice, suggesting it arose in response to the persecution of the Jews under Antiochus Epiphanes which preceded the Maccabean revolt, wherein Torah reading was prohibited, or that it was "instituted against the Samaritans, who denied the canonicity of the Prophets (except for Joshua), and later against the Sadducees." Another theory is that it was instituted after some act of persecution or other disaster in which the synagogue Torah scrolls were destroyed or ruined - it was forbidden to read the Torah portion from any but a ritually fit parchment scroll, but there was no such requirement about a reading from Prophets, which was then "substituted as a temporary expedient and then remained." The Talmud mentions that a haftarah was read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, who lived c.70 CE, and that by the time of Rabbah (the 3rd century) there was a "Scroll of Haftarot", which is not further described, and in the ChristianNew Testament several references suggest this Jewish custom was in place during that era.
No one knows for certain the origins of reading the haftarah, but several theories have been put forth. The most common explanation, accepted by some traditional Jewish authorities is that in 168 BCE, when the Jews were under the rule of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes, they were forbidden to read the Torah and made do with a substitute. When they were again able to read the Torah, they kept reading the haftarah as well. However this theory was not articulated before the 14th century, when it was suggested by Rabbi David Abudirham, but this explanation has several weaknesses.
An alternative explanation, offered by Rabbis Reuven Margolies and Samson Raphael Hirsch (except where otherwise identified, this is the Hirsch cited throughout this article), is that the haftarah reading was instituted to fight the influence of those sects in Judaism that viewed the Hebrew Bible as consisting only of the Torah.
However, all offered explanations for the origin of reading the haftarah have unanswered difficulties.
Certainly the haftarah was read — perhaps not obligatorily nor in all communities nor on every Sabbath -- as far back as circa 70 CE: The Talmud mentions that a haftarah was read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, who lived at that time. The New Testament indicates that readings from the Prophets - but not necessarily a fixed schedule - was a common part of the Sabbath service in Jerusalem synagogues even earlier than 70 CE.
Who reads the haftarah
Only one person reads the haftarah portion. This differs from the procedure in Torah reading, wherein the text is divided into anywhere from three to seven portions, which may be read by one person or divided amongst several.
The haftarah is traditionally read by the maftir, or the last person to be called up to the Torah scroll.
Traditions varied or evolved with regard to which person could read the haftarah. As an indication that, perhaps to make clear that the haftarah reading was not the same status as the Torah reading, a minor (i.e., a boy not yet bar mitzvah age) was permitted to chant the haftarah (at least on an ordinary Sabbath), and there were even communities where the haftarah reading was reserved exclusively for minor boys. In recent centuries, when the attainment of bar mitzvah age is celebrated with a distinct ceremony, the bar mitzvah boy (now an adult) will read the maftir portion and the haftarah. In some other communities, the haftarah could only be read by one who had participated in the Torah reading (in some practices, the maftir - the last man to have read from the Torah), or even the whole congregation would read the haftarah to themselves from the available humashim - this evidently to avoid embarrassing a reader who might make a mistake.
Rabbi Yosef Karo (16th century) reported that for many years there were no set haftarot: the maftir chose an appropriate passage from the Nevi'im. Over time, certain choices became established in certain communities; in contemporary Jewish observance one may not choose his or her own haftarah, explained Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, as that would run against accepted custom. Rabbi Karo's explanation, however, helps to explain why communities have varying customs regarding what to read as haftarah.
What form of the text is read
Unlike the Torah portion, the haftarah is, nowadays, normally read from a printed book. This may be either a Tanakh (entire Hebrew Bible), a Chumash (or "Humash") (volume containing the Torah with haftarot) or, in the case of the festivals, the prayer book; there are also books containing the haftarot alone in large print. Even when a scroll of haftarah readings is used, that scroll - unlike the Torah scroll - may be made of paper and may include such embellishments as the vowel points and trope.
However, according to most halakhic decisors (posqim ), it is preferable to read the haftarah out of a parchment scroll, and according to a small minority of posqim (mainly the followers of the Vilna Gaon), such a parchment scroll is an absolute requirement. This may take various forms.
According to some older traditions, the haftarot were read out of a special scroll containing just the selections of the Prophetic Books which were used in actual haftarot; this was known as a Sifra De'aftarta (? ?), and can still be found in a few communities today, both Ashkenazic and Sephardic; in some communities the scroll is made of paper. These scrolls sometimes contain vowel points and te`amim (cantillation signs), and sometimes do not.
However, the Vilna Gaon instituted that haftarot be read only from scrolls which contained the full text of a Prophetic Book (e.g., full text of Joshua, or full text of Judges, or full text of Isaiah), just as a Torah scroll contains the full text of the Pentateuch. These scrolls are written in accordance with the laws of writing Torah scrolls, and thus - in the opinion of the Vilna Gaon - do not contain vowel points or cantillation signs. Such scrolls are used for the reading of the haftarot in many, perhaps most, Lithuanian-style yeshivot, and in a number of Ashkenazic synagogues, especially in Israel.
Some (few) Orthodox insist that a scroll of haftarot is not sufficient, nor the scroll of an individual prophetic book, but require a scroll of the entire Prophetic segment of the Bible (Sefer Navi), which is relatively uncommon (and would necessarily be much larger than a Torah scroll), although some would allow such a scroll to be written in ordinary ink or on ordinary paper (unlike Torah scrolls), and if such a scroll is unavailable the entire congregation must read the haftarah for themselves, silently or in a murmur, from books rather than the maftir reciting aloud from something other than a scroll.
It would seem that the initial resistance to using a printed book has diminished as the technology of printing, and therefore the accuracy and characteristics of the printed books, has improved. There were opinions that a haftarah scroll should not be stored in the holy ark, but other opinions (such as Rabbi Ovadiah Yosef) were that it was permitted; however the haftarah scroll is not decorated in the manner of the Torah scrolls but may be given distinctive (and inferior, such as copper) decorations.
Blessings both precede and follow the haftarah reading. One reason the reading of the haftarah is a special honor is because of the voluminous blessings the accompany the reading. These blessings are derived from the minor (and uncanonical) Talmudic tractate Massekhet Soferim - also called, simply, Soferim, which dates back to the 7th or 8th century CE. But it is possible that these blessings, or at least some of them, date from before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. At least some haftarah blessings were in use by the second century. The blessings are read by the person designated to read the haftarah portion; the blessing before the haftarah is read in the tune of the haftarah. The Sephardic practice is to recite, immediately after the text of the haftarah and before the concluding blessings, the verse of Isaiah 47:4 ("Our Redeemer! The Lord of Hosts is his name, the Holy One of Israel!"). The blessings following the haftarah are standard on all occasions the haftarah is read, except for the final blessing, which varies by date and is omitted on some days.
There are five blessings, one before, and the others after, the haftarah reading. These blessings may go back as far as the haftarah ritual itself. It will be immediately noticed that the haftarah has more, and longer, blessings than the reading of the Torah itself; it is plausible that the reading from the Prophets was given this distinction in order to emphasize the sacred nature of the Prophetic books in the face of Samaritan rejection. If the haftarah is read by the maftir, then he had already recited two blessings for the Torah reading and the five haftarah blessings means he has recited a total of the significant number of seven blessings. The first blessing is not recited until the Torah scroll has been rolled shut. And, similarly, the haftarah text itself - whether a book or a scroll - remains open on the lectern until after the final haftarah blessing is concluded. The blessings have changed but only a little over the centuries, the current text apparently coming from the late 11th century Machzor Vitry, with slight differences from the texts perpetuated in the tractate Massekhet Soferim (possibly 7th or 8th century), and the writings of Maimonides, dating back to the 12th century.
The first blessing, chanted before the haftarah portion read, uses the same melody as the haftarah chant itself, also in minor mode. For this reason, many prayerbooks print this first blessing with the cantillation marks used in the Bible itself for the books of the Prophets, possibly the only instance of a non-biblical text to be equipped with such marks. This initial blessing is only two verses, but both begin with blessing God, yet are not interrupted by an intervening Amen.
The blessings are as follows: The first blessing precedes the reading:
Blessed are you, Lord [YHVH], our God, King of the universe,
Who has chosen good prophets,
And was pleased with their words spoken in truth.
Blessed are you, Lord, who has chosen the Torah, and his servant Moses,
And his people Israel,
And the prophets of truth and righteousness. [congregation: Amen.]
This is a somewhat free translation from the poetic Hebrew text which is the same in both Ashkenazic and Sephardic prayerbooks. This first blessing is straight from the minor tractate Massekhet Soferim, chapter 13, paragraph 7. The first verse praises God, "who has chosen good prophets" (presumably distinguished from false prophets not called by God), the second verse is one of the few places in the Sabbath liturgy that mentions Moses, also chosen by God as were the prophets. "Pleased with their words" because, while Moses wrote the Torah of words dictated verbatim by God, the prophets were each speaking their own words, which won Divine approval after they were spoken. In this context, 'Israel' means world Jewry wherever they may be.
Immediately after the last word of the haftarah has been read, many Sefardic, Mizrahi, and Italic congregations traditionally recite two Bible verses, which are then repeated by the maftir:
Our Redeemer - the Lord of Hosts is his name - the holy one of Israel.
Blessed be the Lord forever. Amen and Amen.
The blessings that follow the reading of the haftarah are chanted in the pentatonic scale.
The second blessing follows the end of the Prophetic reading:
Blessed are you, Lord, our God, King of the universe,
Rock of all the worlds, righteous through all eras,
The trustworthy God, who says and does, who speaks and fulfills,
For all his words are true and just.
Trustworthy are you, Lord, and trustworthy are your words,
And not a single one of your words is recalled as unfulfilled,
Because you are God, king, trustworthy.
Blessed are you Lord, the God who is trustworthy in all his words. [congregation: Amen.]
Again, this is straight from Massekhet Soferim, paragraphs 8 and 10; Paragraph 9 set out a congregational response which seems not to have been adopted; after the first verse the congregation would rise and say "Faithful are you Lord our God, and trustworthy are your words. O faithful, living, and enduring, may you constantly rule over us forever and ever." This response apparently was in use in antiquity - the Jews of the eastern diaspora would recite this while seated, the Jews of Eretz Yisrael would stand. This practice appears to have ceased during the Middle Ages (it is not in Amram's prayerbook of the 9th century although a phrase of it ["Trustworthy are you Lord our God, living and enduring forever", right after "words are true and just"] is in the Mahzor Vitry , (ca. 1100), but in the 18th century Rabbi Jacob Emden criticized its omission. The second half of the blessing echoes Isaiah 45:23 and 55:11.
The third blessing follows immediately:
Be merciful to Zion, because it is the home of our life,
And save the downtrodden soon, in our own days.
Blessed are you Lord, who makes glad the children of Zion [or: makes Zion to rejoice in her children]. [congregation: Amen.]
Very similar to Massekhet Soferim, paragraph 11, which begins "Comfort [Nahem, instead of rahem ], Lord our God, Zion your city..." and ends "who comforts the children of Zion." Zion means Mount Zion, the hill in Jerusalem on which the Temple stood, although it had been destroyed centuries before this blessing was composed. It is possible that Mount Zion is mentioned deliberately to refute the Samaritans, who centered their devotion to Mount Gerizim instead of Mount Zion. Instead of "save" (toshiya) the downtrodden, Massekhet Soferim has "avenge" (tenikum), which is used in the Yemenite version of the blessing. By the time of Amram Gaon (9th century) and Saadiah Gaon (10th century), as well as Mahzor Vitry (ca. 1100), 'be merciful' had replaced 'comfort' - but 'avenge' was still part of the text--and into the last century was still part of both Romaniot and Yemenite versions. It has been suggested that "save" replaced "avenge" in so many communities because of Christian and Moslem censorship or intimidation.
The fourth blessing follows immediately:
Make us glad, Lord our God,
with the Prophet Elijah, your servant,
and with the kingdom of the house of David, your anointed,
May he arrive soon and bring joy to our hearts.
Let no stranger sit upon his throne,
Nor let others continue to usurp his glory.
For you swore by your holy name that through all eternity his lamp will never go dark.
Blessed are you Lord, shield of David. [congregation: Amen.]
This is virtually identical to the text in Massekhet Soferim, paragraph 12, until the last line. Before the second "Blessed are you", Soferim contains the line: "And in his days may Judah be made safe, and Israel to dwell securely, and he shall be called, 'the Lord is our vindicator'." This line remained in Romaniot liturgy. Instead of "Shield of David", Soferim has "who brings to fruition the mighty salvation of his people Israel." But by the 3rd century, "shield of David" was the text in use, predating Soferim. "He" and "his" refer to the Messiah, a descendant of King David. The lines "let no stranger sit on his throne" and "others continue to usurp his glory" might date back to the earliest Talmudic times, when the Hasmoneans and Herodians, rather than true descendants of the royal house of David, were rulers of the Holy Land.
The fifth (final) blessing follows immediately:
For the Torah reading, and for the worship service, and for [the reading from] the Prophets,
And for this Sabbath day [or: for this (holiday)], which you have given us, Lord our God,
For holiness and for respite, for honor and for splendor,
For all of this, Lord our God,
We gratefully thank you, and bless you.
May your name be blessed by every living mouth,
Always and forever.
Blessed are you Lord, who sanctifies the Sabbath. [congregation: Amen.]
This is from paragraph 13 of Soferim, which does not contain the phrase "by every living mouth", and which concludes with "who sanctifies Israel and the Day of [holiday name]." Amram Gaon and Maimonides concluded with "who rebuilds Jerusalem," but this appears to have been discarded by all factions. This final blessing is modified for the various festivals and holidays. In all traditions that last phrase, "who sanctifies the Sabbath", is replaced by the appropriate substitute when the occasion is something other than an ordinary Sabbath, if a holiday falling on a Sabbath the phrasing is "And for this Sabbath day and for this day of this...." (if not on a Sabbath, then merely "and for this day of ..."); e.g. (for Passover) "Festival of Matzos", (on Shavuous) "Festival of Shavuous", (on Succos) "Festival of Succos, (on Shemini Atzeres or Simhas Torah) "Festival of the Assembly", (on Rosh Hashana) "Day of Remembrance", (on Yom Kippur) "Day of Atonement", - but it appears from Kol Bo (14th century) that Yom Kippur is the only fast day with a name and therefore this final blessing is not recited at all on other fast days, such as Gedaliah or Esther or Tisha B'Av, since they have no such names that can be inserted into the blessing - and then the festival version of the blessing concludes:
"... which you have given us, Lord our God, [(on Sabbaths) for holiness and respite,]
for gladness and joy [on Yom Kippur this is replaced with: for pardon, forgiveness, and atonement],
for honor and splendor.
For all this Lord our God we thank you and praise you.
May your name be blessed by every living mouth, always and forever.
Blessed are you Lord, who sanctifies [the Sabbath and] Israel and the Festivals."
And on Yom Kippur, replace the last line with :
Blessed are you Lord,
the King who pardons and forgives our sins and the sins of his people, the family of Israel,
and who removes our iniquities year after year,
King over all the earth, who sanctifies [the Sabbath,] Israel, and the Day of Atonement.
In ancient times the haftarah, like the Torah, was translated into Aramaic as it was read, and this is still done by Yemenite Jews. The Talmud rules that, while the Torah must be translated verse by verse, it is permissible to translate other readings (such as the Haftarah) in units of up to three verses at a time.
Some generalities have been drawn from the haftarah choices, but they have exceptions. For example, that the haftarot have something in common, or some relevancy, with the Torah reading. But, for example, the relevance for the parsha Bamidbar is the one word, "wilderness", in Hosea 12:16 (and, of course, the haftarot for special Sabbaths and holidays do not require any relation to the Torah reading for that week). Or, that the haftarah should be at least 21 verses in length, to match the minimal Torah reading, but, e.g., the haftarah for Ki Teitzei for Ashkenazim and Sephardim is only 10 verses; and the haftarah for Miketz is, for Ashkenazim and Sephardim only 15 verses, and for Italic Jews only 14 verses. The Tosefta mentions a haftarah in antiquity (before the 2nd century CE) that was just one verse, namely Isaiah 52:3, and some others that were only four or five verses. Another, that the haftarah reading should not end on a macabre or distressing verse, and therefore either the penultimate verse is repeated at the very end or else verses from elsewhere (sometimes even from different prophetic books) are used as a coda, such as with the haftarah for Tzav (Ashkenazim and Sephardim skip ahead in the same prophet to avoid concluding with the description of the dire fate of the wicked, a total of 19 verses; Chabad and Yemenite also skip ahead to avoid concluding with a different disquieting verse, a total of 16 verses; Karaites and Romaniote go back and repeat the penultimate verse, promising the reappearance of Elijah, rather than end with the word "desolation" - and the same applies when everyone else reads the same passage on Shabbat Hagadol ). Among the consistent characteristics is that entire verses are read; never is only a part of a verse read.
In antiquity there was no prescribed list of haftarah readings for the year, although the Talmudic literature (including the Midrash and Tosefta) does report some recommendations for specific holidays. It would appear that, in antiquity, the choice of portion from the Prophets was made ad hoc, without regard for the choice of previous years or of other congregations, either by the reader or by the congregation or its leaders; this is evidenced by recommendations in Talmudic literature that certain passages should not be chosen for haftarah readings, which indicates that, to that time, that a regular list for the year's readings did not exist. Further evidence of the lack of an ancient authoritative list of readings is the simple fact that, while the practice of reading a haftarah every Sabbath and most holy days is ubiquitous, the different traditions and communities around the world have by now adopted differing lists, indicating that no solid tradition from antiquity dictated the haftarah selections for a majority of the ordinary Sabbaths.
The haftarah is read with cantillation according to a unique melody (not with the same cantillation melody as the Torah). The tradition to read Nevi'im with its own special melody is attested to in late medieval sources, both Ashkenazic and Sephardic. A medieval Sephardic source notes that the melody for the haftarot is a slight variation of the tune used for reading the books of Nevi'im in general (presumably for study purposes), and Jews of Iraqi origin to this day preserve separate "Neviim" and "Haftarah" melodies.
Note that although many selections from Nevi'im are read as haftarot over the course of the year, the books of Nevi'im are not read in their entirety (as opposed to the Torah). Since Nevi'im as a whole is not covered in the liturgy, the melodies for certain rare cantillation notes which appear in the books of Nevi'im but not in the haftarot have been forgotten. For more on this, see Nevi'im.
As a generality, although the Torah was chanted in a major key (ending in a minor key), the haftarah is chanted in a minor key (as is the blessing before the reading of the haftarah) and ends in a pentatonic mode (and the blessings following the haftarah reading are also pentatonic).
The Haftarot for the morning of Tisha b'Av, and for the Shabbat preceding it, are, in many synagogues, predominantly read to the cantillation melody used for the public reading of the Book of Lamentations, or Eicha.
Some Rishonim, including Rabbenu Tam, report that a custom in the era of the Talmud was to read a haftarah at the mincha service each Sabbath afternoon — but that this haftarah was from the Ketuvim rather than from the Nevi'im. Most halachic authorities maintain that that was not the custom in Talmudic times, and that such a custom should not be followed. In the era of the Geonim, some communities, including some in Persia, read a passage from Nevi'im (whether or not in the form of a haftarah) Sabbath afternoons. Although this practice is virtually defunct, most halachic authorities maintain that there is nothing wrong with it.
Rabbi Reuven Margolies claims that the now-widespread custom of individuals' reciting Psalm 111 after the Torah reading Sabbath afternoon derives from the custom reported by Rabbenu Tam. Louis Ginzberg makes the analogous claim for the custom of reciting Psalm 91 in Motza'ei Shabbat.
As a B'nai Mitzvah ritual
In many communities the haftarah is read by a Bar Mitzvah or Bat Mitzvah at his or her respective ceremonies, along with some, all, or, sometimes none of the Torah portion. This is often referred to, mainly in Hebrew schools and bar preparatory programs, as a haftarah portion.
The reading of the haftarah by the Bar Mitzvah is a relatively new custom, since it is not derived from either Bible nor Talmud. According to the Talmud, the lesson from the Prophets may be read by a minor (i.e., a boy younger than 13), if he is sufficiently educated to do it. A tradition that might have dated back to medieval times was that a boy would read the haftarah on the Sabbath prior to his Bar Mitzvah, and on the day of his Bar Mitzvah read the portion from the Torah but not the haftarah; this custom changed, in the United States, in the late 19th century or early 20th century, when the Bar Mitzvah would read both the Torah and haftarah on the Sabbath immediately following his 13th birthday. The custom of the Bar Mitzvah reading the haftarah is so recent that the appropriate procedure for a haftarah reading when two boys are Bar Mitzvah on the same day is still unresolved.
List of Haftarot
The selections of haftarot readings for the various weeks, and holy days, of the year differs from tradition to tradition - Ashkenazic from Sefardic from Yemenite from Mizrachi, etc. And even within a tradition there is no one authoritative list, but a multitude of different lists from different communities and congregations, usually differing from each other by only one or two haftarot. A study of the antiquity of each of these lists, and how they differ from each other, is beyond the scope of this (or any other brief) article but may be most informative on the history (including the contacts and separations) of the various communities.
The selection from Nevi'im [the Prophets] read as the haftarah is not always the same in all Jewish communities. When customs differ, this list indicates them as follows: A=Ashkenazic custom (AF=Frankfurt am Main; AH=Chabad; AP= Poland); I=Italian custom; S=Sephardic and Mizrahi custom (SM=Maghreb [North Africa]; SZ= Mizrahi [Middle and Far East]); Y=Yemenite custom; R=Romaniote (Byzantine, eastern Roman empire, extinct) custom; and K=Karaite custom. In some instances Isr.Wikip = the Israeli version of popflock.com resource (in Hebrew) of this article had different readings in its list. In several instances, authorities did not agree on the readings of various communities.
Because, in the Diaspora, certain holy days and festivals are observed for an additional day, which day is not so observed in Eretz Yisrael, sometimes different haftarot are read simultaneously inside and outside Eretz Yisrael.
(° This haftarah may be the most rarely read, - e.g., in 1996, 2000, 2020, 2023, 2040, 2047, 2067, 2070, 2074, 2094, 2098 - because this Sabbath is usually the first, sometimes the second, Sabbath in Hanukka, in which case a specific holiday haftarah is substituted.)
(This haftarah is very seldom read -- e.g., in 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2033, 2035, 2038, 2052, 2062 -- because this Sabbath is often combined with that of Pekudei and very often is also the Sabbath of Shekalim or of Hahodesh or of Parah, in which case another haftarah is substituted.)
A: First Kings 7:40–50 (AF ends at 8:1) (this is the S haftarah for Pekudei, next week)
S, AH, I: First Kings 7:13-26 (in Sephardic practice, this haftarah is very rarely read)
(both Hirsch and the ArtScroll humashim note that there is some confusion over the correct Haftarah. In most years this parsha is combined with next, Kedoshim, so the two are seldom distinguished from each other:)
A (acc to Hirsch, Dotan, & ArtScroll), AH: Amos 9:7-15
A, S (acc to Hertz, Hirsch), Berlin, (and, acc to Hirsch, A in Israel): Ezekiel 22:1-19 °
S, K, AF (and A, acc to Cassuto, Koren, IDF, Jerusalem Crown, Benisch, & Hebrew Wikipedia): Ezekiel 22:1-16 °
R: Ezekiel 22:1-20
(° This reading contains the verse, disparaging the city of Jerusalem, which Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus disfavored in Megilla 25b. It was therefore the practice of the Vilna Gaon, of Rabbi Joseph Soloveichik, and others, to read the haftarah for the next parsha from Amos, even if this meant repeating the same Amos reading two weeks in a row.)
(In most years Pinchas falls after 17 Tammuz, and the haftarot for Matot is read instead. The haftarah for Pinchas is read rarely - and only in some of the years that have a Second Adar, and - because of peculiarities in observing holidays in the Diaspora - is read in the Diaspora - as it is in the summers of 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2035, 2052, 2062, 2065, 2079, 2092 - only about half as often as it is read in Eretz Yisrael. See the note for the next Sabbath)
A, S, I: First Kings 18:46-19:21
R: First Kings 18:46-19:16
K, some R, Syracuse (Sicily): Malachi 2:5-3:3 (Syracuse ends at 3:4, R ends 3:8)
(This Sabbath, or the preceding one, begins the three Sabbaths before Tisha B'Av, the Three Sabbaths of Calamity, whose haftarot, at least for A and S, are two prophecies of Jeremiah, and one from Isaiah. In most years, Matot is combined with Masei and only the haftarah for Masei is read; only in the same years that Pinchas occurs before 18 Tammuz are Matot and Masei read on separate Sabbaths.)
(According to the Shulchan Aruch, if Rosh HodeshElul - which has its own haftarah, namely Isaiah 66 - coincides with Shabbat Re'eh, the haftarah of Re'eh, not for Rosh Hodesh Elul, is read because the Seven Sabbaths of Consolation must not be interrupted)
(It appears that Vayelech has no haftarah portion of its own, because Vayelech either takes the haftarah of Shabbat Shuvah or the haftarah of Netzavim. If Vayelech falls between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur, which usually happens, the haftarah for the Shabbat Shuva is read; otherwise Shabbat Shuvah coincides with Netzavim and so the haftarah of Netzavim is shifted to the week of Vayelech. Several editions - e.g., Hirsch, Hertz, ArtScroll - have assigned the Shabbat Shuva reading as the customary haftarah for Vayelech, some others - such as the IDF and JPS1985 - have no haftarah listed specifically for Vayelech.)
A, S (acc to ArtScroll, JPS1917), I, Y, Algiers, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Syracuse: Isaiah 55:6-56:8 (This reading from Isaiah is also used as the afternoon (minchah ) haftarah for minor fast days, such as Gedaliah or Esther.)
In general, on the dates below, the haftarot below are read, even if that entails overriding the haftarah for a Sabbath Torah portion. However, in certain communities, the first two haftarot below (that for Rosh Hodesh and that for the day preceding Rosh Hodesh) are replaced by the regular weekly haftarah when the weekly reading is Masei(occurring in mid-summer) or later. Some of these occasions also have specific Torah readings, which (for A and S) are noted parenthetically.
Sabbath coinciding with Rosh Hodesh, except Rosh Hodesh of the months of Adar, Nisan, Tevet, or (in some communities) Av or Elul; and except Rosh Hashanah
(Torah reading: Numbers 28:9-15, acc to JPS, Hirsch, Soncino Chumash; Numbers 28:1-15, acc to Hertz, ArtScroll)
Hosea 14:2-10. Also, some communities add either Joel 2:15 (or 2:11)–27 or Micah 7:18–20. Hirsch says, because the Hosea reading ends on a sad note, A added the passage from Joel, S added the one from Micah. However, many communities nowadays add both these passages.
R, (Y, acc to Jerusalem Crown): Hosea 14:2-10
(acc to Hirsch as "prevalent custom") A, S: Hosea 14:2-10, Micah 7:18-20, Joel 2:11-27 (Dotan notes that this is done in "some communities" although contrary to the halachic practice) (ArtScroll has Joel as second, Micah as last; Dotan notes this is used in "a few communities", Hirsch says this is the practice in Eretz Israel.)
(acc to Hertz) A, S: Hosea 14:2-10, Micah 7:18-20, Joel 2:15-27
A (acc to Dotan, Koren, Hirsch, Jerusalem Crown, Lindo, & Isr.Wikip.): Hosea 14:2–10, and Joel 2:15–27 (Benisch lists this as the A haftarah for Haazinu)
S (acc to Dotan, Koren, Hirsch, Benisch, Lindo, & Jerusalem Crown), & AH: Hosea 14:2–10, and Micah 7:18–20
The choice of the reading from Hosea is almost universal because its opening words are Shuvah Yisrael - "Return, O Israel, to the Lord your God". "Some few congregations" (acc to ArtScroll) read Isaiah 55:6–56:8 (the haftarah associated with Vayelech and with the minchah of fast days) instead. (Some lists or books have no specific entry for Shabbat Shuva, leading to the supposition that the haftarah usually associated with the week's parsha - usually Vayelech - is to be read; and some apply a more complex exchange of haftarot if there is - as often occurs - a Sabbath in the four days between Yom Kippur and the beginning of Sukkot;in which case that Sabbath is Parsha Haazinu.)
(This haftarah is recommended in the Talmud (Megillah 31a), in all traditions, includes Zechariah 3:2, which contains the very rarely used cantillation accent of mercha kefula, under zeh - "this [burning stick]". It appears there was an ancient custom to read, or to read additionally, First Kings 7:51-8:21, describing the dedication of the first Temple.)
A, S, AH: Zechariah 2:14–4:7
Y: Zechariah 2:14–4:9
Second Sabbath of Hanukkah
A, S, Y, I: First Kings 7:40–50 (this is also the A haftarah for Yayakhel, which is also very seldom read because it often coincides with Pekudei or with a special Sabbath, and in fact the two readings of this haftarah will never occur in the same year.)
A, Y: Second Kings 12:1–17 (this is the selection recommended in the Talmud, Megillah 29b)
S, AH: Second Kings 11:17–12:17
R, K: Ezekiel 45:12-46:5 (° The first of four Sabbaths preceding Passover. It occurs on the Sabbath that either coincides with the New Moon, or precedes the New Moon that occurs during the following week, of the month of Second Adar -- or of Adar in an ordinary year. These four Sabbaths may be the oldest assigned haftarot, from Tosefta, Megillah ch.4.)
Sabbath immediately preceding the second day of Nisan (Shabbat HaChodesh): ° (Torah reading: Exodus 12:1-20)
A: Ezekiel 45:16–46:18
S, AF (& AH acc to Dotan): Ezekiel 45:18–46:15
AH: Ezekiel 45:18–46:16
Algiers: Ezekiel 45:18-46:15 & 47:12
Y: Ezekiel 45:9–46:11
I: Ezekiel 45:18–46:18
(° If Rosh Hodesh Nisan coincides with Parshat Hahodesh, then the haftarah for Hahodesh, not for Rosh Hodesh, is read because the obligation of this special parsha is greater. Dotan says that if Shabbat Hahodesh coincides with Rosh Hodesh, then S and SZ add to the Hahodesh haftarah the first and last verses of the haftarah of Rosh Hodesh [namely, Isaiah 66:1 & 66:23], if Shabbat Hahodesh falls on the day before Rosh Hodesh, then they add the first and last verses of the haftarah for the Eve of Rosh Hodesh [namely First Samuel 20:18 & 20:42].)
Y, some AH, AF, some SM: read the regular haftarah for that week°
°Several sources report that "some communities" (including some A and Hassidic, including Chabad) read the special haftarah only when Erev Pesach falls on Shabbat Hagadol (meaning the first seder is celebrated that Saturday night) - which occurs infrequently, and "other communities" (including some other A and Hassidic) read the special haftarah on Shabbat HaGadol only if Erev Pesach falls on another day of the week. Erev Pesach falls on Shabbat HaGadol in the spring of 1994, 2001, 2005, 2008, 2021, 2025, 2045, 2048, 2052, 2072, 2075, 2079, and 2099.
First day of Passover (Torah reading: Exodus 12:21-51, and Numbers 28:16-25)
Joshua 5:2-6:1 & 6:27
AH, (and A, acc to Dotan, SCJ, and Benisch): Joshua 3:5–7, 5:2-6:1, & 6:27 (the Munkatcher Rebbe omitted verse 3:7), ('Hertz' omitted Joshua 3:5-7)
Second day of Passover (in the Diaspora, outside of Eretz Yisrael) (Torah reading: Leviticus 22:26-23:44 and Numbers 28:16-25)
A, S, AH: Second Kings 23:1–9 & 23:21–25 °
(° Many, perhaps most, skip verses 23:10-20, but the Vilna Gaon recommended that these verses be read - except verse 13, because it mentions a shameful deed by King Solomon. Some congregations begin the reading at 23:4.)
Y: Second Kings 22:1–7 & 23:21–25
I: Second Kings 23:1–9 & 23:21–30
K: Second Kings 23:21–30
Sabbath of the intermediate days of Passover (Shabbat Hol Hamoed Pesach) ° (Torah reading: Exodus 33:12-34:26 and Numbers 28:19-25)
A, S: Ezekiel 37:1–17
AH: Ezekiel 37:1–14
Y: Ezekiel 36:37–37:14
I, R (and A and S, acc to Benisch): Ezekiel 36:37–37:17 (acc to Benisch, S stop at 37:14)
Seventh day of Passover (Torah reading: Exodus 13:17-15:26 and Numbers 28:19-25)
Second Samuel 22:1–51 (Aleppo begins at 21:15)
Eighth day of Passover (in the Diaspora) (Torah reading: if not a Sabbath, Deuteronomy 15:19-16:17, if on a Sabbath Deuteronomy 14:22-16:17, and Numbers 28:19-25)
First day of Shavuot (Torah reading: Exodus 19:1-20:23 and Numbers 28:26-31)
A, S, AH: Ezekiel 1:1–28 & 3:12 °
Y: Ezekiel 1:1–2:2 & 3:12 °
K: Habakkuk 1:1–3:19
(° The Shulchan Aruch directs the reading of Ezekiel 1:1 through 3:12 continuously, but most skip all or part of chapter 2 and skip to 3:12. Because the first chapter of Ezekiel describes the Heavenly Chariot, this haftarah is customarily read and expounded by a rabbi or an esteemed scholar, in keeping with the direction of the Mishna, Hagigah 2:1.)
Second day of Shavuot (in the Diaspora) (Torah reading: if not a Sabbath Deuteronomy 15:19-16:17, if on a Sabbath Deuteronomy 14:22-16:17, and Numbers 28:26-31)
Habakkuk 2:20–3:19 °
(° Many A congregations, after reading the first verse of the haftarah (namely 2:20), then read an Aramaic piyyut (poem), Yetziv Pisgam, extolling God's infinite power, after which the reading from Habakkuk resumes. A minority of congregations recite a different poem, Ata Vedugma, instead, and some do not interrupt the haftarah with any poem.)
Isaiah 66:1–24 & repeat 66:23 (° According to the Shulchan Aruch, if Rosh Hodesh [the new moon] - which has its own haftarah (namely Isaiah 66) - coincides with Shabbat Re'eh, then the haftarah of Re'eh (Isaiah 54:11-55:5), not the haftarah for Rosh Hodesh, is read because the seven Sabbaths of Consolation must not be interrupted. However, in Frankfurt and Eastern Europe, it is the custom in such an occurrence to read the haftarah for Rosh Hodesh instead, and the second Sabbath afterward, which would be Parsha Ki Tetze, would double up and read first the haftarah Ki Tetze (Isaiah 54:1-10) and then haftarah Re'eh.)
For a bridegroom
It was customary in many communities to read Isaiah 61:10 - 62:8 (Italic would read 61:9 - 62:9) if a bridegroom (who had married within the previous week) was present in the synagogue.
In some communities, this entire haftarah was read, supplanting the usual haftarah of that week.
In some communities, only a few verses (possibly Isaiah 61:10 - 62:5, although the literature is unclear) were read. They were read after the usual haftarah, either before or after — depending on local custom — the closing blessings of the haftarah.
When a Talmudically specified haftarah was to be read on a certain Sabbath (e.g., on Sabbath of Hanukkah), some communities did not read the bridegroom's haftarah, preferring to keep to the standard haftarah of the week. Again, customs varied:
In some communities, the bridegroom's haftarah was read.
Some communities, even though they normally read the entire bridegroom's haftarah for a bridegroom, now merely appended a few verses of it to the weekly haftarah.
Some communities omitted the bridegroom's haftarah altogether, reading the weekly haftarah instead.
Nowadays, this custom has virtually disappeared. No one reads a special haftarah for a bridegroom any longer, except the Karaites and perhaps intensely Orthodox congregations.
^Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, The Hirsch Siddur (orig. German 1868, English transl. 1978 (1978, NY, Feldheim Publrs) page 339, "The term Haftarah, derived from [feter], 'to dismiss' [as in 2nd Chron. 23:8] is the designation used.... It is the concluding portion of the Schaharith [morning] service, and marks the 'dismissal' of the congregation from the first part of the service, as it were." Or feter can mean "to set free", as in 1st Chron. 9:33 and Prov. 17:14. Solomon Gaon, Minhath Shelomo: A Commentary on the Book of Prayer of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews (1990, NY, Union of Sephardic Congregations) page 147; Israel Abrahams, A Companion to the Authorised Daily Prayer Book (1922, rev. ed., London) pages clvi-clvii; Israel Abrahams, Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels (1917, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1st series) page 4-5; it appears that in antiquity the Sabbath service ended with the haftarah so that the congregation was dismissed and free to go home. The word haftaro - - is used in Midrash Rabbah of Genesis, sec. 69 (last paragraph), for "farewell speech".
^Goswell argues that the arrangement "suggests we should understand the books of Joshua - Kings as illustrating and applying the theology and ethics of the Pentateuch." Gregory Goswell, "The Hermeneutics of the Haftarot," Tyndale Bulletin 58 (2007), 100.
^ abRabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 4.
^Matthew B. Schwartz, Torah Reading in the Ancient Synagogue, Ph.D. dissertation, Wayne State Univ., 1975, page 181.
^Tosefta, Megillah, 4 (3): 1, gives the haftarot for the Four Special Sabbaths. A baraita in Megillah 31a, which has later additions by the Babylonian amoraim who add the haftarot for the second days of the festivals (and who sometimes change the order of the haftarot as a result) - gives the haftarot for every one of the festivals, including their intermediate Sabbaths, as well as a Sabbath which is also Rosh Hodesh, the Sabbath which immediately precedes Rosh Hodesh, and Hanukkah.
^Acts 13:15 states that "after the reading of the law and the prophets" Paul was invited to deliver an exhortation. Luke 4:17 states that during the Sabbath service in Nazareth the Book of Isaiah was handed to Jesus, "and when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written," the passage being Isaiah 61:1-2. Unfortunately, the Greek word used there meaning "found" does not make it clear whether the passage read was fixed beforehand or whether it was chosen at random. See Rabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Also Matthew B. Schwartz, Torah Reading in the Ancient Synagogue, Ph.D. dissertation, Wayne State Univ., 1975, page 184, "In fact, the selection must have been made beforehand.", The earliest source for evidence of haftarah readings is the New Testament, but it has been suggested that Jewish authorities following the New Testament period very deliberately avoided using as a haftarah any selection of the Prophets that had been mentioned in the New Testament. Hananel Mack, What happened to Jesus' haftarah? Haaretz, Aug. 12, 2005. But D. Monshouwer, The Reading of the Prophet in the Synagogue at Nazareth, Biblica, vol. 72, nr. 1 (1991) page 90-99, suggests that the quotation of Isaiah 61:1 is not a haftarah reading but the beginning of a sermon or homily, and suggests that the occasion was Yom Kippur.
^Sol Scharfstein, The Book of Haftarot for Shabbat, Festivals, and Fast Days (2006, NJ, KTAV Publ.) page 14; Samuel N. Hoenig, "Haftarah-Sidrah: Mirror Images" in Michael A. Schmidman, ed., Turim: Studies in Jewish History and Literature Presented to Dr. Bernard Lander (2007, L.A., Touro College Press) vol.1, page 59.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 4-5. Among the reasons for doubting, ancient sources list many oppressive acts by Antiochus but none mentions this, the reading of Haftarot also dates from antiquity in places that Antiochus never ruled, and it seems doubtful that any anti-Jewish villain would be so punctilious as to forbid only the Mosaic books but permit the Prophetic books. Stephen Gabriel Rosenberg, The Haphtara Cycle (2000, NJ. Jason Aronson) page xxi, "But this [attribution to the Seleucid era] is a doubtful proposition as the Book of Maccabees tells us that the Jews were not permitted to even keep the Sabbath (I Macc. 1:45-50 and II Macc. 6:11) and that all scrolls of the Law were burnt (I Macc. 1:56). So all forms of Sabbath worship would have been prohibited in the Temple or outside of it. Josephus in his version of the events adds that all sacred books of the Law were destroyed (Antiquities XII:256). There is no reason to think therefore that the books of the Nevi'im [Prophets] would be allowed any more than the scrolls of the Law (Torah) themselves, and in any case it is hardly likely that such manuscripts were available to ordinary people." (emphasis in original). Also, Jacob Mann, "Changes in the Divine Service of the Synagogue Due to Religious Persecutions", Hebrew Union College Annual vol. 4 (1927) pages 282-284.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 120-121, citing Megillah 25b. Oddly, the Talmudic story is that the Rabbi found fault with the choice of haftara - but that selection is still read as the haftara for another parsha. Moreover, a study of the writings of Philo Judaeus, who died circa 50 CE, shows extensive reliance ("an overwhelming degree of correlation") on the same prophetic passages read as the haftarot for various special Sabbaths and holidays, which indicates that those haftarot were part of the liturgy decades earlier than the Talmud suggests; see Naomi G. Cohen, Philo's Scriptures: Citations from the Prophets and Writings, Evidence for a Haftarah Cycle in Second Temple Judaism (2007, Leiden, NL: E.J. Brill, Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism, vol. 123) page 69. A fragment from the 11th or 12th century in Cairo lists a few haftarot not now in use -- but also shows that the Torah readings used were different from what is now virtually universal (e.g. one Torah portion is Numbers 25:1-10, but the ubiquitous practice for the past several centuries is that one Torah portion, Balak, ends with verse 9, and the next week's, Pinchas, begins with verse 10). E.N. Adler, "MS. of Haftaras of the Triennial Cycle", Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 8, nr. 3 (April 1896) page 529.
^Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelphia, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146.
^Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music & Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 26; Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelphia, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146.
^Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music & Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) pages 26-27; Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelphia, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146.
^Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelphia, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146. The first printed Humash was published in Brescia, Italy, in 1492; C. David Ginsburg, Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Editions of the Hebrew Bible (1897, London, Trinitarian Bible Soc.; reprinted 1966, NJ, KTAV Publ'g) pages 865-871 (its description as the first is in the index, page 1010, s.v. "Haphtaroth") - it was also the first Biblical publication of the famous Soncino family of Hebrew printers.
^There was, in fact, an early opinion that scrolls of haftarah selections were forbidden because it was forbidden to write less than a complete Biblical book. cf. Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 203 (citing Rashi).
^See Binyomin Hamburger, Shorshei Minhag Ashkenaz, volume III, chapter "Sifra De'aftarta"; Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelphia, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146.
^Aharon Ziegler, "Halachic Positions: Reading the Haftara", The Jewish Press, 20 March 1998; Hershel Schachter, "Lesser-Known Laws of Torah Reading", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 7 (1984) page 7; Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 199
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) chap. 38, pages 199-208.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 210.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 211.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 77-78.
^Joseph H. Hertz, Authorised Daily Prayer Book (NYC: Bloch Publishing Co., rev.ed. 1948) page 497. A.Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Liturgy and Its Development (NY: Henry Holt, 1932, reprinted NY: Dover Publications, 1995) page 140, citing Soferim 13:9-14.
^Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page p.27; H. Martin James Loewe, introduction to C.G. Montefiore & H. Loewe, edd., The Rabbinic Anthology.(1960, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society) page lxvii.
^Arnold S. Rosenberg, Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (2000, NJ: Jason Aronson) page 127; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 113.
^Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) pages 279-280.
^Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 113; Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 27; Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) page 270.
^Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelphia, Jewish Publ'n Society) pages 143 and 146 (citing Sotah 39b); Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 114.
^Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 114; Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 27; Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 40.
^Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) pages 270-280. Mentions of variants in the blessings are from this reference and from Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" pages 112-115, and Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelphia, Jewish Publ'n Society) pages 147-148; Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 40-41, 94, 96, 99. etc.
^ abMacy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 30.
^Arnold S. Rosenberg, Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (2000, NJ: Jason Aronson) page 129; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 113.
^Rabbinical Council of America, Siddur Avodat HaLev (2018, RCA, Jerusalem) pages 548-549; Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 91.
^Abraham Benisch, The Pentateuch and the Haftaroth, newly translated (Rodelheim, 2nd ed. 1864) vol.1, Genesis page 227, Exodus page 195, etc.; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 113; Rabbi Eliezer Toledano, The Orot Sephardic Shabbat Siddur ("Siddur Kol Sassoon")(Lakewood, NJ, Orot, 1995) page 434.
^See Talmud Babli, Megilla 23a & 23b, which mentions this as a doubtful requirement
^Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelphia, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 145; Arnold S. Rosenberg, Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (2000, NJ: Jason Aronson) page 127. The Tosefta mention is in Megillah 4:18.
^Adolf Büchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triennial Cycle (part ii)" Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 6, nr. 1 (Oct. 1893) page 2 (citing the Mishna of Megilla iv, 10, which discourages the use of 2nd Samuel, chap. 13 - the rape of Tamar - and Ezekiel, chap. 1 - the vision of the heavenly chariot. Also, Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 117-123.
^See, generally, Adolf Büchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triennial Cycle (part i)" Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 5, nr. 31 (April 1892) pages 420-468 and "part ii)" (Oct. 1893) pages 1-73.
^Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music & Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) pages 29-30.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah - Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md., Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) chapter 4, pages 54-58.
^David E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint pages 5-12 and the accompanying notes).
^"The prophetic readings of the Byzantine ritual differed fundamentally from those of the other Rabbanite Jews of the diaspora. They have been preserved in the editions of the haftarot published with the Commentary of David Kimchi in Constantinople, 1505; and in the edition of the Pentateuch and haftarot, published in Constantinople, 1522" (and theorizing the Romaniote readings were a perpetuation of the selections of early medieval Eretz Yisrael). Louis Finkelstein, "The Prophetic Readings According to the Palestinian, Byzantine, and Karaite Rites", Hebrew Union College Annual, vol. 17 (1942-1943) page 423; Adolf Büchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triennial Cycle (part ii)" Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 6, nr. 1 (Oct. 1893) pages 1-73, discusses in some detail evidence of very early choices of haftarot, particularly of the Karaites.
^Among the authorities used were editions of humashim
by: Joseph H. Hertz,(1937, 2nd ed. 1960 [the second edition added several holiday haftarot, probably on the authority of someone other than Hertz (see article on Etz Hayim by Stein)], London, Soncino Press)(cited as "Hertz"; Nosson Scherman, The Stone Edition (1993, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns, the ArtScroll Series)(cited as "ArtScroll"); Samson Raphael Hirsch, T'rumatch Tzvi, one-volume edition (1990, NY, Judaica Press)(cited as "Hirsch"); and lists appearing in editions of the Bible, including Jerusalem Crown: The Bible of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2000, Jerusalem)(cited as "Jerusalem Crown"); Umberto Cassuto (1969, Hebrew Univ. in Jerusalem)(cited as "Cassuto"); Koren Publishers (2006, Jerusalem)(cited as "Koren"); Elias Hiam Lindo, A Jewish Calendar for 64 Years [1838-1902] (London, 1838)(cited as "Lindo", sets forth the 1838 list of major Sephardic and Ashkenazic ("German") London congregations, his end verse numbers are invariably a verse beyond all the other sources so it appears that his end verse number is excluded rather than included. Lindo does not set forth any of the Special/Festival occasions nor the combined parshot); Bible Society in Israel (1991, Jerusalem)(cited as "Isr. Bible Soc."; Aron Dotan, Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia (2001, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publ'rs)(cited as "Dotan"); also by Aron Dotan, the Bible published for the chaplains and troops of the Israeli Defense Forces (1973, Tel Aviv)(cited as IDF); Jewish Publication Society translations in English (generally as "JPS"; specifically, the American Jewish Version cited as "JPS1917", and the JPS Tanakh cited as "JPS1985"); Abraham Benisch, The Pentateuch and the Haftaroth, newly translated (Rodelheim, 2nd ed. 1864)(cited as "Benisch"); Rabbinical Assembly, United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism (organization formerly known as United Synagagues of America), Etz Hayim: Torah and Commentary (2001, Phil., Jewish Publ'n Society)(cited as "SCJ"; see article on Etz Hayim by Stein). And, of course, the very extensive list published as an appendix to volume 10 of the Encyclopedia Talmudit (1961, Tel Aviv) cols. 701-728. The 1854 book, A Jewish Calendar for Fifty Years from A.M. 5614 till A.M. 5664 [Sept 1853 to Sept 1904] by Jacques J. Lyons and Abraham De Sola (rabbis of similarly named synagogues, respectively Ashkenazic in New York and Sephardic in Montreal), which provided lists identified as the "German" and "Portuguese" custom, presumably the practice in their own congregations (cited as "Lyons"). All of these provided both Ashkenazic and Sephardic lists; Yemenite lists were provided in Koren, Cassuto, Jerusalem Crown, IDF; Italic lists were provided in Cassuto, Dotan; Mahgreb, Frankfurt-on-Main, and some others were provided in Hirsch, Dotan; the Encyclopedia Talmudit provided all of these and some others, citing more than a dozen sources. The Hebrew language version of this popflock.com resource article, worked up by an Israeli team, as it read in the Spring of 2014 was also used (cited as "Isr.Wikip."). It is very probable that various lists represent the practices only temporarily favored, perhaps more than century ago, by only a few or even one congregation, possibly under the leadership of a particular rabbi or while using a particular humash then available, and therefore the lists were subject to change and might well have changed and changed again in the intervening decades. No two lists were entirely the same, and compiling such lists required different materials and expertise than used to edit or comment on the Bible.
^David E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint pages 1-2).
^David E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint page 2).
^ abShlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 192.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 187-190.
^ abDavid E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint pages 2-3).
^Exceptionally, on combined weeks Syrian Jews used to read the haftarah for Behar. Those in the United States now follow the general Sephardic custom.
^Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music & Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 29.
^ abDavid E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint page 3).
^David E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint pages 3-5 and notes on pages 15-18).
^Menahem Ben-Yashar, The Haftarah Readings of Shabbat (Te)shuvah, Bar-Ilan University's Parashot Hashavua Study Center, Rosh Hashana 5768 (Sept. 2007); and Rabbi Mosheh Lichtenstein, Shabbat Shuva, the Israel Koschitzky Virtual Beit Midrash. It would appear these special rules have been long discarded, except perhaps by the intensely Orthodox; this calendar situation occurred in recent years in the week after Yom Kippur in 2005, 2008, 2012 and 2014, but checking the back issues of the liturgical calendars in the weekly Jewish Press (Brooklyn) and the Ezras Torah Fund annual luach and the Colelchabad luach for the Lubavitcher hassidim, as well the assortment of humashim and other resources used for writing this article, finds no mention of it.
^Hirsch and the additional pages to the revised edition of Hertz say Numbers 29:17-31, but JPS says the "daily portion from Numbers 29"; the Margolin Edition of The Torah (1999, Jerusalem & NY, Feldheim) provides the list for the intermediate Sabbath of Sukkot depending on which day it falls: outside the Land of Israel: 1st day Numbers 29:17-22, 3rd day Numbers 29:23-28, 4th day Numbers 29:26-31; inside the Land of Israel: 2nd day Numbers 29:20-22, 4th day Numbers 29:26-28, 5th day Numbers 29:29-31. However, the ArtScroll Tikkun, Kestenbaum Edition (3rd ed. 2004, Brooklyn, Mesorah) has a different list: 1st day Numbers 29:17-22, 2nd day Numbers 29:20-25; 4th day Numbers 29:26-31 (presumably outside the Land of Israel).
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 170.
^Abraham P. Bloch, The Biblical and Historical Background of Jewish Customs and Ceremonies (1980, NY, KTAV Publishing) page 208; and Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 169-170; because it mentions Solomon dedicating the Temple during Sukkos [Megillah 31a], but Rav Amram Gaon (9th century) instead preferred the first chapter of Joshua since it dealt with events following the completion of the Torah and the death of Moses.
^Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page p.29.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 139-140.
^This appears only in the second (not the first) edition of Hertz, meaning it was a reading added by someone other than Hertz, the inclusion of 6:27 - which the second edition of Hertz identifies in a footnote as a S reading - is based on a "few communities". David E. S. Stein, "The Haftarot of Etz Hayim", Conservative Judaism vol.54 nr.3 (spring 2002)(reprint page 2, and notes on pages 13-14).
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 140.
^Abraham P. Bloch, The Biblical and Historical Background of Jewish Customs and Ceremonies (1980, NY, KTAV Publishing) page 305.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 142.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 145; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Yetziv Pitgam" page 375.
^Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A comprehensive history (Germany 1913, Engl. transl. 1993, Philadelphia, JPS) page 148.
^Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 34 and 149-150.