Hadith of the Ten Promised Paradise
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Hadith of the Ten Promised Paradise

The Islamic prophet, Muhammad, specified ten of his companions who were promised paradise. Those companions named in this hadith are referred to as The Ten With Glad Tidings Of Paradise (Arabic: ‎; al-`Asharaa al-Mubasharûn bi-l-Janna).

Narrated Abdur Rahman bin Awf that the Messenger of Allah said:

1 Abu Bakr is in Paradise, 2 Umar is in Paradise, 3 Uthman is in Paradise, 4 Ali is in Paradise, 5 Talhah is in Paradise, 6 Az-Zubayr is in Paradise, 7 Abdur Rahman bin Awf is in Paradise, 8 Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas is in Paradise, 9 Sa'id ibn Zayd is in Paradise, 10 Abu 'Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah is in Paradise.

Collected by Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi|Jami` at-Tirmidhi[1]

Muslim view

Muslims put different weight on this hadith, the majority of the Sunnis, viewing it as very favourable whilst the Shiites dismissed it in its entirety.[2][3][4] This hadith was narrated in three collections by Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood, and Ibn Majah.

The Sunni collection of hadith, called the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections), includes: Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawood, Al-Sunan al-Sughra, Jami` at-Tirmidhi and Sunan ibn Majah. Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim are considered the most reliable of these collections.[5]

Sunnis say that Muhammad's companions were sorted into twelve groups and of these the ten promised paradise were ranked first.[6]

Shiite view

Issues with the source

The hadith has several problems in the source, some of them are:

  • The hadith hasn't been mentioned in the most important hadith sources of the Sunnis; Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. Therefore there is a probability that the authors of the two mentioned books didn't believe the source was authentic.
  • The hadith in Sunan Tirmidhi and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal has been narrated by Humayd ibn 'Abd al-Rahman, who according to these two books says he has heard the hadith from his father 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf. But he was a baby less than one year old when his father died according to valid historical books.[7]
  • This hadith has been narrated in different ways with the names of persons in the source that aren't even reliable according to the Sunnis, like 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn Muhammad al-Darawardi, whom Abu Hatam believed wasn't reliable.[8]
  • In Sunan Abi Dawud, where the hadith has been narrated by Sa'id ibn Zayd,[9] a person named 'Abdullah ibn Zalim al-Mazini has been named in the source whom Bukhari and Muslim abstained from trusting and whose hadith Bukhari explicitly said isn't authentic.[10]

Issues with the content

  • The main problem with the content in the hadith is the difference between the persons whose names are mentioned in it. Some of them walked on completely opposite paths after the demise of the prophet which led to them drawing their swords against each other and even slaughter each other. For example, Talhah and Az-Zubair broke their allegiance after their allegiance to Imam Ali and were in the group called "Nakithin" and fought against him in a battle called Jamal. In this war, Talhah and a number of Muslims were killed.[11]
  • The text differs in different narrations. For example Abu 'Ubaydah is one of the ten persons in one narration.[12] In Hakim Nayshaburi's narration the name of 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud has been mentioned instead of him.[13] In Sunan Abi Dawud and Sunan ibn Majah the name of the two persons aren't mentioned, and instead of them the name of the Islamic prophet has been mentioned.[14]

References

  1. ^ "Hadith - Chapters on Virtues - Jami` at-Tirmidhi - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad ( ? ? ? )". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ " «? » (? ? (?)) ? ? - ? - - ? ? ? ?". www.islamquest.net. Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Companions of the Prophet". Al-Islam.org. 2013-01-09. Retrieved .
  4. ^ " ?". ? ? (in Arabic). Retrieved .
  5. ^ Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah, pg. 160 Dar al-Ma'aarif edition; al-Tirmithi, under #3748; al-Tirmithi, Volume 5, Page 605, Hadith 3748; Abu Daoud, #4649 and #4650
  6. ^ Twelve Ranks of the Companions Archived 2011-04-23 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 3, p. 40-41 and vol. 6, p. 222 - Fa.wikishia.net
  8. ^ Dhahabi, Mizan al-I'tidal, vol. 2, p. 634 - Fa.wikishia.net
  9. ^ Sunan ibn Dawud, vol. 3, p. 401.
  10. ^ Hakim Nayshaburi, al-Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahihain bidhaylih al-Takhlis li al-Dhahabi, the third part, p. 317.
  11. ^ Fa.wikishia.net
  12. ^ Muhammad ibn 'Isa, al-Jami' al-Sahih, vol. 5, p. 647.
  13. ^ Hakim Nayshaburi, al-Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 317.
  14. ^ Sunan Abi Dawud, vol. 3 and 4, p. 401-402; Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 1, p. 48.

External links


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