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H?reki (), also known as Horyaku,[1] was a Japanese era name (, neng?, "year name") after Kan'en and before Meiwa. The period spanned the years from October 1751 through June 1764.[2] The reigning emperor and empress were Momozono-tenn? (?) and Go-Sakuramachi-tenn? ().[3]

Change of era

  • 1751 H?reki 1 (?): The new era of H?reki (meaning "Valuable Calendar" or "Valuable Almanac") was said to have been created to mark the death of the retired Emperor Sakuramachi and the death of the former sh?gun Tokugawa Yoshimune.

The previous era could be said to have ended and the new era is understood to have commenced in Kan'en 4, on the 27th day of the 10th month; however, this neng? was promulgated retroactively. The Keik? Kimon records that the calendar was amended by Imperial command, and the era was renamed H?reki on December 2, 1754, which then would have become 19th day of the 10th month of the 4th year of H?reki.[4]

Events of the H?reki era


  1. ^ Pnkala, Maria. (1980) "A survey of Japanese ceramics: a handbook for the collector, p. 245.
  2. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "H?reki" Japan Encyclopedia, p. 352, p. 352, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
  3. ^ a b Titsingh, Isaac. (1834) Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 418.
  4. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 321.
  5. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Imperial House, p. 119.
  6. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 419.
  7. ^ Hall, John. (1988). The Cambridge History of Japan, p. xxiii.
  8. ^ Kim, Jinwung. (2012). A History of Korea: From 'Land of the Morning Calm' to States in Conflict, p. 255.


  • Hall, John Whitney. (1988). Early Modern Japan (The Cambridge History of Japan, Vol. 4). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521223553; OCLC 489633115
  • Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301
  • Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A. B. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital, 794-1869. Kyoto: Ponsonby-Fane Memorial. OCLC 36644
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon ?dai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691.

External links

Preceded by
Kan'en ()
Era or neng?
H?reki ()

Succeeded by
Meiwa ()

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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