15 July 1613
|Died||15 February 1682(aged 68)|
|Other names||Gu Zhongqing |
Lord Tinglin ?
|Occupation||Student of the Guozijian (1643)|
|Known for||One of the Five Great Qing scholars (Huang Zongxi, Fang Yizhi, Wang Fuzhi, Zhu Zhiyu)|
|Parent(s)||Gu Tongying (father)|
Lady He (mother)
|Relatives||Great grandfather: Gu Zhangzhi|
Nephew: Xu Qianxue, Xu Bingyi, Xu Yuanwen
Gu Yanwu (Chinese: ) (July 15, 1613 - February 15, 1682), also known as Gu Tinglin (Chinese: ), was a Chinese philologist and geographer. He spent his youth during the Manchu conquest of China in anti-Manchu activities after the Ming dynasty had been overthrown. He never served the Qing dynasty. Instead, he traveled throughout the country and devoted himself to studies.
Gu, a native of Jiangsu, was born as Gu Jiang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ). Gu began his schooling at the age of 14. In the spring of 1645, Gu was recommended to be the position of Bingbu Siwu in the royal court at Nanjing. There he proposed many ideas. Unsatisfied with the royal court's organization, Gu resigned and returned to his hometown. In 1655, local officials laid charges against him and threw him into prison. He was released from prison with the help of a friend.
Inspired by Chen Di, who had demonstrated that the Old Chinese has its own phonological system, Gu divided the words of Old Chinese into 10 rhyme groups, the first one to do so. His positivist approach to a variety of disciplines, and his criticism of Neo-Confucianism had a huge influence on later scholars. His works include Yinxue Wushu (?), Ri Zhi Lu () and Zhao Yu Zhi ().
Alternatively, The rise and fall of the nation concerns everyone; or Everyone bears responsibility for the prosperity of society.
Gu is commemorated by Tinglin Park and the Gu Yanwu Museum in Tinglin Park of Kunshan. In 2005, the Central Propaganda Department of China named the Gu Yanwu Museum located at Gu's former residence in Qiandeng town as a "national patriotism education base".
The former residence of Gu Yanwu is located in Qiandeng town of Kunshan, a Ming dynasty complex with main hall, living quarter, a study and a garden. Gu Yanwu's grave is located in a quiet corner of the garden.