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The Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement was a bilateral treaty that was signed by the foreign minister of Austria, Karl Gruber, and the prime minister of Italy, Alcide De Gasperi, on 5 September 1946. Recognized by international law, it granted the German-speaking population of the Province of Alto Adige/Südtirol the right to autonomy and to preserve its cultural identity and customs. It also recognized German and Italian as official languages.
People were granted the right to return to their original German given and family names, which had been abandoned by many during the Fascists' programme of forced assimilation.