|Government of Portugal|
|Portuguese: Governo de Portugal|
|Established||24 September 1834|
|Appointed by||President of the Republic|
|Main organ||Council of Ministers|
|Responsible to||Assembly of the Republic|
|Headquarters||Official Residence of the Prime Minister|
The Government of Portugal is one of the four sovereignty bodies of the Portuguese Republic, together with the President of the Republic, the Assembly of the Republic and the courts. It is both the body of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the Portuguese public administration.
The Government of Portugal is also referred to as the Government of the Portuguese Republic, the Portuguese Government or simply the Government.
The term "constitutional government" or simply "government" also refers to the team of ministers and its period of management under one Prime Minister. This concept is similar to an "administration" in the parlance of a presidential republic or to an "collective ministry" in the parlance of some Commonwealth countries. Each government in this sense is identified by a roman number, with the present one (formed in October 2019) being the XXII Constitutional Government of Portugal.
The Government comprises the Prime Minister, ministers and secretaries of state (junior ministers). Governments may also include one or more deputy prime ministers and deputy secretaries of state. Each minister usually heads a ministry and has assigned to him or her one or more secretaries of state, while certain governments may also assign one or more deputy ministers, as well.
After the elections for the Assembly of the Republic or the resignation of the previous government, the President listens to the parties in the Assembly of the Republic and invites someone to form a government.
The Prime Minister chooses the persons that he or she finds fit. Then the President swears in the Prime Minister and the Government.
The Government has political, legislative and administrative functions. These include, among other things, the power to negotiate with other countries or international organizations, to submit bills to the Assembly of the Republic, to issue decrees and to take administrative choices.
The government guides its actions by the governmental program and implements it in the State budget that is submitted to Assembly of the Republic each year, in the laws that it proposes, in the decrees that it issues in the Portuguese Council of Ministers, and in individual decisions made by its members.
There are no guarantees that the government will stick to its government program, but if it fails to do so, its actions will be judged by the citizens in forthcoming elections.
The Government may also be questioned by the other three sovereignty organs: the President of the Republic, the Assembly of the Republic and the courts. The President may veto governmental decrees and a government bill may fail to pass in the Assembly of the Republic, where a motion of no confidence may be approved.
The Council of Ministers is a collegial executive body within the Government of Portugal. It is usually presided over by the Prime Minister, but the President of the Republic can preside over it at the Prime Minister's request. Besides the Prime Minister, the vice prime ministers and all ministers are members of the Council of Ministers. When the Prime Minister finds it fit, certain Secretaries of State can also attend its meetings, but without being able to vote.
|Number||Start||End||Prime Minister||Parties in Government||Notes and main political events|
|I||1976-07-23||1978-01-23||Mário Soares||PS||1976 election (34.9%), minority government, motion of no confidence|
|II||1978-01-23||1978-08-29||Mário Soares||PS + CDS||Coalition government, President António Ramalho Eanes dismisses the government|
|III||1978-08-29||1978-11-22||Alfredo Nobre da Costa||Independent||Nobre da Costa is appointed by President Ramalho Eanes to form government, government resigned|
|IV||1978-11-22||1979-07-07||Carlos Mota Pinto||PSD||Mota Pinto is appointed by President Ramalho Eanes to form government, prime-minister resigns|
|V||1979-08-01||1980-01-03||Maria de Lurdes Pintasilgo||Independent||Lurdes Pintasilgo is appointed by President Ramalho Eanes to form a caretaker government|
|VI||1980-01-03||1981-01-09||Francisco Sá Carneiro||AD (PSD + PPM + CDS)||1979 election (45.3%), 1980 election (47.6%), Sá Carneiro's death|
|VII||1981-01-09||1981-09-04||Francisco Pinto Balsemão||AD||Pinto Balsemão is chosen by his party (PSD) to replace Sá Carneiro, prime-minister resigned|
|VIII||1981-09-04||1983-07-09||Francisco Pinto Balsemão||AD||Pinto Balsemão is chosen by his party to become prime-minister again, prime-minister resigned|
|IX||1983-07-09||1985-11-06||Mário Soares||PS + PSD||1983 election (36.1% + 27.2%), coalition government (Central Bloc)|
|X||1985-11-06||1987-08-17||Aníbal Cavaco Silva||PSD||1985 election (29.9%), minority government, motion of no confidence|
|XI||1987-08-17||1991-10-31||Aníbal Cavaco Silva||PSD||1987 election (50.2%)|
|XII||1991-10-31||1995-10-25||Aníbal Cavaco Silva||PSD||1991 election (50.6%)|
|XIII||1995-10-28||1999-10-25||António Guterres||PS||1995 election (43.8%), minority government|
|XIV||1999-10-25||2002-04-06||António Guterres||PS||1999 election (44.1%), minority government|
|XV||2002-04-06||2004-07-17||Durão Barroso||PSD + CDS||2002 election (40.2% + 8.7%), coalition government, prime-minister resigned|
|XVI||2004-07-17||2005-03-12||Santana Lopes||PSD + CDS||Santana Lopes replaced Durão Barroso after the latter's resignation|
|XVII||2005-03-12||2009-10-26||José Sócrates||PS||2005 election (45.0%)|
|XVIII||2009-10-26||2011-06-20||José Sócrates||PS||2009 election (36.6%), minority government, government resigned|
|XIX||2011-06-20||2015-10-30||Pedro Passos Coelho||PSD + CDS||2011 election (38.7% + 11.7%), coalition government|
|XX||2015-10-30||2015-11-26||Pedro Passos Coelho||PàF (PSD + CDS)||2015 election (38.6%), minority government, motion of no confidence|
|XXI||2015-11-26||2019-10-26||António Costa||PS||President Cavaco Silva appoints the 2015 elections second largest party leader, minority government|
|XXII||2019-10-26||present||António Costa||PS||2019 election (36.4%), minority government|