Golden Age of Netherlandish Cartography
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Golden Age of Netherlandish Cartography

Mercator's 1569 World Map (Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata)
World map Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the Orb of the World) by Abraham Ortelius, 1570. Note that Ortelius' map depicts "Terra Australis Nondum Cognita" as a hypothetical vast continent occupying the southernmost part of the southern hemisphere.

This article covers the science, art and industry of cartography by the (especially Dutch-speaking) people of the Low Countries in the early modern period, especially in the early 16th to early 18th centuries. It includes cartography of the Northern Netherlands, Southern Netherlands and Low Countries in general (i.e. history of surveying and creation of maps of modern-day Belgium, Netherlands and Low Countries in general). It also includes Dutch colonial cartography, i.e. cartography in the Dutch overseas world,[a] in the early modern period (especially in the Age of Discovery).

In the history of cartography, especially in the 16th-18th centuries, early modern Netherlandish (Dutch and Flemish) cartography,[b] both as science and art, has a very special place. From both national and international perspectives, early modern Netherlandish cartographers, geographers, explorers and navigators played a highly significant historical role - who helped revolutionize and shape cartographic, geographic, geodetic, surveying, navigational, hydrographic, cosmographic and astronomical knowledge of the modern-day world as we know today. For example, the concept and genre of 'atlas', in its modern sense, was the brainchild and one of the pioneering contributions of early modern Netherlandish cartographers, geographers and cosmographers;[c] most notably Gerardus Mercator (who first used the term 'atlas' for a collection of maps)[1] and Abraham Ortelius (who often recognized as the creator of the first true atlas in the modern sense).[2]

In the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (approximately 1590s-1720s), using their expertise in doing business, mapmaking, shipbuilding, seafaring and navigation, the Dutch traveled to the far corners of the world, leaving their language embedded in the names of many places. Dutch exploratory voyages resulted in the charting and revealing of largely unknown huge landmasses,[d]vast waters,[e] and far skies[f] to the civilized world and undisputedly put their names on the published atlases.[g] As Dutch ships reached into the unknown corners of the globe, Dutch cartographers incorporated new discoveries into their work. Instead of using the information themselves secretly, they published it, so the maps multiplied freely. For almost 200 years, the Dutch dominated world trade.[3] Dutch ships carried goods, but they also opened up opportunities for the exchange of knowledge.[4] The commercial networks of Dutch transnational companies, e.g. the Dutch East India Company/United East Indies Company (VOC) and Dutch West India Company (WIC/GWIC), provided an infrastructure which was accessible to people with a scholarly interest in the exotic world.

The period of late 16th and much of the 17th century (approximately 1570s-1670s) has been called the "Golden Age of Netherlandish (Dutch and Flemish) cartography". The Netherlandish Golden Age is considered one of the most remarkable periods in the history of cartography and geography in general. During the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography, the Dutch-speaking peoples came to dominate the art[h] and industry[i][5][6] of cartography in the early modern world.[j] They were leaders in supplying maps and charts for almost all of Europe. As a special part of early modern Netherlandish art, some Golden Age cartographic works like monumental atlases such as Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theater of the Whole World), Speculum Orbis Terrarum, Speculum Orbis Terrae (Mirror of the World), Spieghel der Zeevaerdt (Mariner's Mirror), Mercator-Hondius Atlas, Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem, Atlas Maior, Atlas van Loon, Klencke Atlas, and Harmonia Macrocosmica are also considered artistic masterpieces. As James A. Welu (1987) notes, "For roughly a century, from 1570 to 1670, mapmakers working in the Low Countries brought about unprecedented advances in the art of cartography. The maps, charts, and globes issued during this period, at first mainly in Antwerp and later in Amsterdam, are distinguished not only by their accuracy according to the knowledge of the time, but also by their richness of ornamentation, a combination of science and art that has rarely been surpassed in the history of mapmaking."[7]

Blaeu's world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his Atlas Maior, published in the first book of the Atlas Van Loon (1664).
Dutch Golden Age painter Jan Vermeer's "obsession" with early modern Netherlandish cartography (and geography) is evidenced by his masterpiece The Art of Painting, c. 1665-68. There was always a cultural relationship between many Dutch Golden Age artists (like Vermeer) and cartographic works. The "Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography" (of the 16th and 17th centuries) was a period of the unique combination of scientific, artistic, political, and economic elements in the history of mapmaking.
The Geographer by Jan Vermeer, c. 1668-1669. Note that there is a terrestrial globe on the shelf and a map on the wall.
The Astronomer by Jan Vermeer, c. 1668. The astronomer's profession is shown by the celestial globe (version by Jodocus Hondius, 1600).
Role of cartographic elements in early modern Netherlandish visual art (landscape art in particular, notably the cityscape genre). Jan Vermeer's View of Delft (ca. 1659-1661) as a topographical view of the town/city. The word "landscape", in fact, entered the modern English language as "landskip", an anglicization of the Dutch "landschap", around the start of the 17th century, purely as a term for works of art.

Origins

Until the fall of Antwerp (1585), the Dutch and Flemish were generally seen as one people.[k] The center for cartographic activities in sixteenth-century Low Countries was Antwerp, a city of printers, booksellers, engravers, and artists. But Leuven was the center of learning and the meeting place of scholars and students at the university. Mathematics, globemaking, and instrumentmaking were practiced in and around the University of Leuven as early as the first decades of the sixteenth century. The university is the oldest in the Low Countries and the oldest center of both scientific and practical cartography. Without the influence of several outstanding scholars of the Leuven University (such as Gemma Frisius, Gerardus Mercator, and Jacob van Deventer), cartography in the Low Countries would not have attained the quality and exerted the influence that it did.[8]

Notable figures of the Netherlandish school of cartography and geography (1500s-1600s) include: Franciscus Monachus, Gemma Frisius, Gaspard van der Heyden, Gerard Mercator, Abraham Ortelius, Christophe Plantin, Lucas Waghenaer, Jacob van Deventer, Willebrord Snell, Hessel Gerritsz, Petrus Plancius, Jodocus Hondius, Henricus Hondius II, Hendrik Hondius I, Willem Blaeu, Joan Blaeu, Johannes Janssonius, Andreas Cellarius, Gerard de Jode, Cornelis de Jode, Michiel van Langren, Claes Visscher, Nicolaes Visscher I, Nicolaes Visscher II, and Frederik de Wit. Leuven, Antwerp, and Amsterdam were the main centres of the Netherlandish school of cartography in its golden age (the 16th and 17th centuries, approximately 1570-1670s). The Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography that was inaugurated in the Southern Netherlands (current Belgium; mainly in Leuven and Antwerp) by Mercator and Ortelius found its fullest expression during the seventeenth century with the production of monumental multi-volume atlases in the Dutch Republic (mainly in Amsterdam) by competing mapmaking firms such as Lucas Waghenaer, Joan Blaeu, Jan Janssonius, Claes Janszoon Visscher, and Frederik de Wit.[9]

During the Golden Age of Dutch exploration (c. 1590s-1720s) and the Golden Age of Dutch/Netherlandish cartography (c. 1570s-1670s), Dutch-speaking navigators, explorers, and cartographers were the firsts to chart/map many hitherto largely unknown regions of the earth and the sky. During roughly a century, Netherlandish (Dutch and Flemish) cartographers made important contributions to the science and art of mapmaking. Their publications are remarkable milestones in the history of cartography, the extant editions are not only valuable sources of contemporary geographic knowledge but also fine works of art. The main role in this was played by a special artistic atmosphere of the Netherlands (or the Low Countries) in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Low Countries experienced cultural and economic booms that was combined with enthusiasm of different classes of people for geography and maps. The unique atmosphere made mapmaking a form of art. Cartography and visual arts were related activities: art and mapmaking interacted with each other: many cartographic elements, such as images, colour, and lettering, were shared with art; tools and methods used to produce maps and artistic works were very similar in printmaking and in mapmaking: copperplate engravings, which were hand coloured in later, required specific artistic skills; a significant number of both little-known and the most outstanding artists were involved in decorating maps; maps and art works were often performed by the same artists, engravers and publishers who worked for both areas; artists, engravers and mapmakers belonged to the same group of society that determined the development of culture in many areas.

Gemma Frisius was the first to propose the use of a chronometer to determine longitude in 1530. In his book On the Principles of Astronomy and Cosmography (1530), Frisius explains for the first time how to use a very accurate clock to determine longitude.[10] The problem was that in Frisius' day, no clock was sufficiently precise to use his method. In 1761, the British clock-builder John Harrison constructed the first marine chronometer, which allowed the method developed by Frisius. Triangulation had first emerged as an efficient method in cartography (mapmaking) in the mid sixteenth century when Frisius set out the idea in his Libellus de locorum describendorum ratione (Booklet concerning a way of describing places). Dutch scientists Jacob van Deventer and Willebrord Snell were among the firsts to make systematic use of triangulation in modern surveying, the technique whose theory was described by Frisius in his 1533 book. Gerardus Mercator is considered as one of the founders of modern cartography with his invention of Mercator projection. Mercator was the first to use the term 'atlas' (in a geographical context) to describe a bound collection of maps through his own collection entitled "Atlas sive Cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mvndi et fabricati figvra" (1595). The hypothesis that continents might have 'drifted' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596.

Rise to the golden age and decline

Southern Netherlands (Flanders, Habsburg Netherlands)

Gerardus Mercator: Birth of Mercator projection and the concept of atlas

Gerardus Mercator, the German-Netherlandish[11] cartographer and geographer with a vast output of wall maps, bound maps, globes and scientific instruments but his greatest legacy was the mathematical projection he devised for his 1569 world map.

The Mercator projection is an example of a cylindrical projection in which the meridians are straight and perpendicular to the parallels. As a result, the map has a constant width and the parallels are stretched east-west as the poles are approached. Mercator's insight was to stretch the separation of the parallels in a way which exactly compensates for their increasing length, thus preserving shapes of small regions, albeit at the expense of global distortion. Such a conformal map projection necessarily transforms rhumb lines, sailing courses of a constant bearing, into straight lines on the map thus greatly facilitating navigation. That this was Mercator's intention is clear from the title: Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata which translates as "New and more complete representation of the terrestrial globe properly adapted for use in navigation". Although the projection's adoption was slow, by the end of the seventeenth century it was in use for naval charts throughout the world and remains so to the present day. Its later adoption as the all-purpose world map was an unfortunate step.[12]

Mercator spent the last thirty years of his life working on a vast project, the Cosmographia;[13] a description of the whole universe including the creation and a description of the topography, history and institutions of all countries. The word atlas makes its first appearance in the title of the final volume: "Atlas sive cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mundi et fabricati figura".[14] This translates as Atlas OR cosmographical meditations upon the creation of the universe, and the universe as created, thus providing Mercator's definition of the term atlas. These volumes devote slightly less than one half of their pages to maps: Mercator did not use the term solely to describe a bound collection of maps. His choice of title was motivated by his respect for Atlas "King of Mauretania"[15]

Abraham Ortelius: Hypothesis of continental drift and the era of modern world atlases

Abraham Ortelius generally recognized as the creator of the world's first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World). Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (1570) is considered the first true atlas in the modern sense: a collection of uniform map sheets and sustaining text bound to form a book for which copper printing plates were specifically engraved. It is sometimes referred to as the summary of sixteenth-century cartography.[16][17][18][19]

Northern Netherlands (Dutch Republic)

Early depiction of a "Dutch telescope" (1624): Role of the Dutch Golden Age's revolutionary optical inventions like the telescope and microscope in early modern Netherlandish cartography, geography and cosmography.
In the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (c. 1590s-1720s), Dutch navigators were the first non-natives to undisputedly explore and map many largely unknown isolated areas of the world, such as the Svalbard archipelago and Jan Mayen in the Arctic Ocean.
Regions of Oceania (including Australasia, Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia). "The Island Continent" Australia, sometimes in the role of "Earth's largest island but smallest continent", was the last human-inhabited continent to be largely revealed to the civilized world. In the 17th-century the Dutch were the most remarkable navigators and explorers of the world.
A typical map from the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. Australasia during the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (c. 1590s-1720s): including Nova Guinea (New Guinea), Nova Hollandia (mainland Australia), Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), and Nova Zeelandia (New Zealand).

During the Age of Discovery (the Dutch Golden Age in particular, approximately 1580s-1702), using their expertise in doing business, cartography, shipbuilding, seafaring and navigation, the Dutch traveled to the far corners of the world, leaving their language embedded in the names of many places.[20][21]Dutch exploratory voyages revealed largely unknown landmasses to the civilized world and put their names on the world map. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Dutch-speaking cartographers[22] helped lay the foundations for the birth and development of modern cartography, including nautical cartography and stellar cartography (celestial cartography). The Dutch-speaking people came to dominate the map making and map printing industry by virtue of their own travels, trade ventures, and widespread commercial networks.[23] The Dutch initiated what we would call today the free flow of geographical information. As Dutch ships reached into the unknown corners of the globe, Dutch cartographers incorporated new discoveries into their work. Instead of using the information themselves secretly, they published it, so the maps multiplied freely. The Dutch were the first (non-natives) to undisputedly discover, explore and map many unknown isolated areas of the world such as Svalbard, Australia,[24]New Zealand, Tonga, Sakhalin,[25] and Easter Island. In many cases the Dutch were the first Europeans the natives would encounter.[26] Australia (originally known as New Holland), never became a permanent Dutch settlement,[27] yet the Dutch were the first to undisputedly map its coastline. The Dutch navigators charted almost three-quarters of the Australian coastline, except the east coast. During the Age of Exploration, the Dutch explorers and cartographers were also the first to systematically observe and map (chart) the largely unknown far southern skies - the first significant scientific addition to the celestial cartography since Ptolemy's time (2nd century AD). Among the IAU's 88 modern constellations, there are 15 Dutch-created constellations, including 12 southern constellations.[28][29][30]

From Frisius to Snellius: Early systematic uses of the triangulation method in modern surveying and mapping

Triangulation had first emerged as a map-making method in the mid sixteenth century when Gemma Frisius set out the idea in his Libellus de locorum describendorum ratione (Booklet concerning a way of describing places).[31][32][33][34][35][36] Dutch cartographer Jacob van Deventer was among the first to make systematic use of triangulation, the technique whose theory was described by Gemma Frisius in his 1533 book.

The modern systematic use of triangulation networks stems from the work of the Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snell (born Willebrord Snel van Royen), who in 1615 surveyed the distance from Alkmaar to Bergen op Zoom, approximately 70 miles (110 kilometres), using a chain of quadrangles containing 33 triangles in all.[37][38][39] The two towns were separated by one degree on the meridian, so from his measurement he was able to calculate a value for the circumference of the earth - a feat celebrated in the title of his book Eratosthenes Batavus (The Dutch Eratosthenes), published in 1617. Snell's methods were taken up by Jean Picard who in 1669-70 surveyed one degree of latitude along the Paris Meridian using a chain of thirteen triangles stretching north from Paris to the clocktower of Sourdon, near Amiens.

Lucas Waghenaer and the rise of Dutch maritime cartography

Portugal by Waghenaer (1584). The publication of Waghenaer's De Spieghel der Zeevaerdt (1584) is widely considered as one of the most important developments in the history of nautical cartography.

The first printed atlas of nautical charts (De Spieghel der Zeevaerdt or The Mirror of Navigation / The Mariner's Mirror) was produced by Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer in Leiden in 1584. This atlas was the first attempt to systematically codify nautical maps. This chart-book combined an atlas of nautical charts and sailing directions with instructions for navigation on the western and north-western coastal waters of Europe. It was the first of its kind in the history of maritime cartography, and was an immediate success. The English translation of Waghenaer's work was published in 1588 and became so popular that any volume of sea charts soon became known as a "waggoner" (an atlas book of engraved nautical charts with accompanying printed sailing directions), the Anglicized form of Waghenaer's surname.[40][41][42][43][44][45][46]

Dutch celestial and lunar cartography in the Age of Discovery

The Dutch celestial cartographers were the first to systematically observe and map (chart) the largely unknown far southern skies in the late 16th century. Among the 88 IAU-recognized constellations, there are 15 constellations created by Dutch celestial cartographers, including 12 southern constellations.[47]

The constellations around the South Pole were not observable from north of the equator, by the ancient Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Indians, or Arabs. During the Age of Exploration, expeditions to the southern hemisphere began to result in the addition of new constellations. The modern constellations in this region were defined notably by Dutch navigators Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser and Frederick de Houtman,[48][49][50][51][52] who in 1595 traveled together to the East Indies (First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia). These 12 newly Dutch-created southern constellations (that include Apus, Chamaeleon, Dorado, Grus, Hydrus, Indus, Musca, Pavo, Phoenix, Triangulum Australe, Tucana, and Volans) first appeared on a 35-cm diameter celestial globe published in 1597/1598 in Amsterdam by Dutch cartographers Petrus Plancius and Jodocus Hondius. The first depiction of these constellations in a celestial atlas was in Johann Bayer's Uranometria of 1603.

In 1645, Dutch-born Michiel van Langren published the first known map of the Moon with a nomenclature.[53][54][55]

In 1660, German-born Dutch cartographer Andreas Cellarius' star atlas (Harmonia Macrocosmica) was published by Johannes Janssonius in Amsterdam.

Competing mapmaking firms in the age of corporate cartography

Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East Indies Company (VOC). The VOC was a major force behind the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (c. 1590s-1720s). Also, during the Golden Age of Dutch/Netherlandish cartography (c. 1570s-1670s), VOC navigators, explorers, and cartographers[l] helped shape cartographic and geographic knowledge of the modern-day world.[56][57][58]
Australia (Nova Hollandia) was the last human-inhabited continent to be explored and mapped (by non-natives). The Dutch were the first to undisputedly explore and map Australia's coastline. In the 17th century, the VOC's navigators charted almost three-quarters of the Australian coastline, except the east coast.

The Dutch dominated the commercial cartography (corporate cartography) during the seventeenth century through the publicly traded companies (such as the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company) and the competing privately held map-making houses/firms. In the book Capitalism and Cartography in the Dutch Golden Age (University of Chicago Press, 2015), Elizabeth A. Sutton explores the fascinating but previously neglected history of corporate (commercial) cartography during the Dutch Golden Age, from ca. 1600 to 1650. Maps were used as propaganda tools for both the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the Dutch West India Company (WIC/GWIC) to encourage the commodification of land and an overall capitalist agenda.

In the long run the competition between map-making firms Blaeu and Janssonius resulted in the publication of an 'Atlas Maior' or 'Major Atlas'. In 1662 the Latin edition of Joan Blaeu's Atlas Maior appeared in eleven volumes and with approximately 600 maps. In the years to come French and Dutch editions followed in twelve and nine volumes respectively. Purely judging from the number of maps in the Atlas Maior, Blaeu had outdone his rival Johannes Janssonius. And also from a commercial point of view it was a huge success. Also due to the superior typography the Atlas Maior by Blaeu soon became a status symbol for rich citizens. Costing 350 guilders for a non-coloured and 450 guilders for a coloured version, the atlas was the most precious book of the 17th century. However, the Atlas Maior was also a turning point: after that time the role of Dutch cartography (and Netherlandish cartography in general) was finished. Janssonius died in 1664 while a great fire in 1672 destroyed one of Blaeu's print shops. In that fire a part of the copperplates went up in flames. Fairly soon afterwards Joan Blaeu died, in 1673. The almost 2,000 copperplates of Janssonius and Blaeu found their way to other publishers.

Dutch colonies and overseas world

VOC World cartography

The meeting room of the Heren XVII [nl], the Dutch East India Company's board of directors, in the Oost-Indisch Huis (Amsterdam).
VOC-sponsored discovery, exploration, and mapping of mainland Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and various islands

In terms of world history of geography and exploration, the VOC can be credited with putting most of Australia's coast (then Hollandia Nova and other names) on the world map, between 1606 and 1756.[59][60][61][62][63][64] While Australia's territory (originally known as New Holland) never became an actual Dutch settlement or colony, Dutch navigators were the first to undisputedly explore and map Australian coastline. In the 17th century, the VOC's navigators and explorers charted almost three-quarters of Australia's coastline, except its east coast. The Dutch ship, Duyfken, led by Willem Janszoon, made the first documented European landing in Australia in 1606.[65] Although a theory of Portuguese discovery in the 1520s exists, it lacks definitive evidence.[66][67][68] Precedence of discovery has also been claimed for China,[69] France,[70] Spain,[71]India,.[72]

Hendrik Brouwer's discovery of the Brouwer Route, that sailing east from the Cape of Good Hope until land was sighted and then sailing north along the west coast of Australia was a much quicker route than around the coast of the Indian Ocean, made Dutch landfalls on the west coast inevitable. The first such landfall was in 1616, when Dirk Hartog landed at Cape Inscription on what is now known as Dirk Hartog Island, off the coast of Western Australia, and left behind an inscription on a pewter plate. In 1697 the Dutch captain Willem de Vlamingh landed on the island and discovered Hartog's plate. He replaced it with one of his own, which included a copy of Hartog's inscription, and took the original plate home to Amsterdam, where it is still kept in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.

In 1627, the VOC's explorers François Thijssen and Pieter Nuyts discovered the south coast of Australia and charted about 1,800 kilometres (1,100 mi) of it between Cape Leeuwin and the Nuyts Archipelago.[73][74]François Thijssen, captain of the ship 't Gulden Zeepaert (The Golden Seahorse), sailed to the east as far as Ceduna in South Australia. The first known ship to have visited the area is the Leeuwin ("Lioness"), a Dutch vessel that charted some of the nearby coastline in 1622. The log of the Leeuwin has been lost, so very little is known of the voyage. However, the land discovered by the Leeuwin was recorded on a 1627 map by Hessel Gerritsz: Caert van't Landt van d'Eendracht ("Chart of the Land of Eendracht"), which appears to show the coast between present-day Hamelin Bay and Point D'Entrecasteaux. Part of Thijssen's map shows the islands St Francis and St Peter, now known collectively with their respective groups as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen's observations were included as soon as 1628 by the VOC cartographer Hessel Gerritsz in a chart of the Indies and New Holland. This voyage defined most of the southern coast of Australia and discouraged the notion that "New Holland" as it was then known, was linked to Antarctica.

In 1642, Abel Tasman sailed from Mauritius and on 24 November, sighted Tasmania. He named Tasmania Anthoonij van Diemenslandt (Anglicised as Van Diemen's Land), after Anthony van Diemen, the VOC's Governor General, who had commissioned his voyage.[75][76][77] It was officially renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856.[78]

In 1642, during the same expedition, Tasman's crew discovered and charted New Zealand's coastline. They were the first Europeans known to reach New Zealand. Tasman anchored at the northern end of the South Island in Golden Bay (he named it Murderers' Bay) in December 1642 and sailed northward to Tonga following a clash with local M?ori. Tasman sketched sections of the two main islands' west coasts. Tasman called them Staten Landt, after the States General of the Netherlands, and that name appeared on his first maps of the country. In 1645 Dutch cartographers changed the name to Nova Zeelandia in Latin, from Nieuw Zeeland, after the Dutch province of Zeeland. It was subsequently Anglicised as New Zealand by James Cook. Various claims have been made that New Zealand was reached by other non-Polynesian voyagers before Tasman, but these are not widely accepted.

VOC-sponsored inland exploration and mapping of Southern Africa

WIC/GWIC World cartography

Gallery

Legacy and recognition

An asteroid is named for Gerardus Mercator. On 5 March 2015, Google celebrated his 503rd birthday with a doodle.

On 20 May 2018, Google Doodle celebrated the anniversary of Ortelius' atlas which was published on 20 May, 1570.

Australia on the Map is the history and heritage division of the Australasian Hydrographic Society. It seeks to enhance Australians' knowledge, understanding and appreciation of the nation's early history, beginning in 1606 with the voyages of Willem Janszoon in the Duyfken

Crater Langrenus, on the Moon, is named after Michiel van Langren.

Field of (early modern) Netherlandish cartographic and geographic studies

Some notable scholars/historians of Netherlandish cartography and geography include Cornelis Koeman,[79] Peter van der Krogt, Günter Schilder,[80][81][82][83][84] Benjamin Schmidt,[85] Elizabeth A. Sutton,[86][87][88] Claudia Swan, James A. Welu, and Kees Zandvliet.[89][90]

Professional organizations

Publications

Timeline and historical firsts

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For more details about Dutch colonial cartography (or cartography in the Dutch overseas world), see: New Netherland, Dutch East Indies, Dutch Formosa, Dutch Cape Colony; Dutch exploration and mapping of the Americas, Dutch exploration and mapping of Southern Africa, Dutch exploration and mapping of the Pacific, First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia, Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia, Dutch exploration and mapping of the East Indies (cartography of the Dutch East Indies), European maritime exploration of Australia, Dutch exploration and mapping of the Australian continent, Dutch exploration and mapping of Australasia, Dutch exploration and mapping of New Zealand, Cartography in the VOC world, Cartography in the WIC/GWIC world; Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, Willem Barentsz, Adriaen Block, Willem Janszoon, Pieter Nuyts, Abel Tasman, Jan van Riebeeck, Simon van der Stel, Hendrik van Rheede, Isaq Schrijver, François Levaillant, Robert Jacob Gordon
  2. ^ The English adjective "Netherlandish", meaning "from the Low Countries", derived directly from the Dutch adjective Nederlands. Apart from its use to describe paintings, it is as adjective not common in English. It is typically used in reference to paintings or music produced anywhere in the Low Countries during the 15th and early 16th century, which are collectively called Early Netherlandish painting (Dutch: Vlaamse primitieven, "Flemish primitives" -- also common in English before the mid 20th century), or (regarding music) the Netherlandish School. Later art and artists from the southern Catholic provinces of the Low Countries are usually called Flemish and those from the northern Protestant provinces Dutch, but art historians sometimes use "Netherlandish art" for art of the Low Countries produced before 1830, i.e., until the secession of Belgium from the Netherlands.
  3. ^ Including notable contributors like Gerardus Mercator, Abraham Ortelius, Gerard de Jode, Cornelis de Jode, Lucas Waghenaer, Jodocus Hondius, Henricus Hondius, Johannes Janssonius, Willem Blaeu, Johannes Blaeu, Claes Visscher, Andreas Cellarius, Frederik de Wit.
  4. ^ See: Cartography in the Dutch colonies and overseas world
  5. ^ See: Dutch maritime cartography in the Age of Discovery (Dutch nautical cartography in the Age of Discovery), Cartography in the Dutch overseas world
  6. ^ See: Dutch celestial cartography in the Age of Discovery
  7. ^ See: Dutch corporate cartography in the Age of Discovery, Dutch commercial cartography in the Age of Discovery
  8. ^ See also: Netherlandish Renaissance art and Netherlandish Baroque art
  9. ^ See also: Economic history of the Dutch Republic
  10. ^ For more details about the art and industry of early modern Netherlandish cartography, see: Dutch corporate cartography in the Age of Discovery, Dutch commercial cartography in the Age of Discovery
  11. ^ Frisians, specifically West Frisians, are an ethnic group; present in the North of the Netherlands; mainly concentrating in the Province of Friesland. Culturally, modern Frisians and the (Northern) Dutch are rather similar; the main and generally most important difference being that Frisians speak West Frisian, one of the three sub-branches of the Frisian languages, alongside Dutch.
    West Frisians in the general do not feel or see themselves as part of a larger group of Frisians, and, according to a 1970 inquiry, identify themselves more with the Dutch than with East or North Frisians. Because of centuries of cohabitation and active participation in Dutch society, as well as being bilingual, the Frisians are not treated as a separate group in Dutch official statistics.
  12. ^ Including some notable figures of the Netherlandish school of cartography in its golden age (c. 1570s-1670s) like Petrus Plancius, Willem Blaeu, Johannes Blaeu, and Hessel Gerritsz were the official cartographers to the VOC.

References

  1. ^ a b Van der Krogt, Peter (2015), 'Chapter 6: Gerhard Mercator and his Cosmography: How the 'Atlas' became an Atlas,'; in: Gerhard Holzer, et al. (eds.), A World of Innovation: Cartography in the Time of Gerhard Mercator. (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015), pp. 112-130
  2. ^ a b Binding, Paul: Imagined Corners: Exploring the World's First Atlas. (London: Headline Book Publishing, 2003)
  3. ^ Israel, Jonathan Irvine: Dutch Primacy in World Trade, 1585-1740. (Oxford University Press, 1990)
  4. ^ Cook, Harold J.: Matters of Exchange: Commerce, Medicine, and Science in the Dutch Golden Age. (Yale University Press, 2008)
  5. ^ Castelnovi, Michele (2014), 'The Dutch Cartography's Gouden Eeuw, Between Art and Industry,'. Bollettino dell'Associazione Italiana di Cartografia 7(4) (2014): 657-667. doi:10.13128/bsgi.v7i4.380
  6. ^ Rasterhoff, Claartje: Painting and Publishing as Cultural Industries: The Fabric of Creativity in the Dutch Republic, 1580-1800. (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2016) ISBN 9789089647023
  7. ^ Welu, James A. (1987). The Sources and Development of Cartographic Ornamentation in the Netherlands, in Art and Cartography: Six Historical Essays, edited by David Woodward, University of Chicago Press, p. 147-173
  8. ^ Koeman, Cornelis; Schilder, Günter; van Egmond, M.; van der Krogt, Peter: Commercial Cartography and Map Production in the Low Countries, 1500-ca. 1672 (Part 2: Low Countries), pp. 1296-1383, David Woodward ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)
  9. ^ Carhart, George S.: Frederick de Wit and the First Concise Reference Atlas. (BRILL, 2016, ISBN 9789004299030)
  10. ^ Allaby, Michael (2009). Oceans: A Scientific History of Oceans and Marine Life (Discovering the Earth)
  11. ^ See the discussion in Gerardus Mercator#The question of nationality.
  12. ^ See the discussion in Mercator projection#Uses
  13. ^ See the discussion in Gerardus Mercator#Duisburg 1552-1594
  14. ^ See the discussion in Gerardus Mercator#atlas1595.
  15. ^ See the preface to the 1595 posthumous section of Mercator's atlas as translated in Sullivan (2000), pp34-38 (PDF pp103-108)
  16. ^ Thrower, Norman J. W. (2008). Maps and Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society, Third Edition, p. 81
  17. ^ Harwood, Jeremy (2006). To the Ends of the Earth: 100 Maps that Changed the World, p. 83
  18. ^ Woodward, David (1987). Art and Cartography: Six Historical Essays, p. 148
  19. ^ Goffart, Walter (2003). Historical Atlases: The First Three Hundred Years, 1570-1870, p. 1
  20. ^ Gottlieb, Mark (30 August 2006). "Continental Drifter - Dutch Treat: An unlikely nation in an unlikely corner of Europe boasts a remarkable record of unlikely achievement". IndustryWeek. Retrieved 2014.
  21. ^ McCloskey, Deirdre (17 March 2011). "Chapter 9 of the Bourgeois Revaluation: The Dutch Preached Bourgeois Virtue". Deirdremccloskey.com. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 2014. The Dutch became in the High Middle Ages the tutors of the Northerners in trade and navigation. They taught the English how to say skipper, cruise, schooner, lighter, yacht, wiveling, yaw, yawl, sloop, tackle, hoy, boom, jib, bow, bowsprit, luff, reef, belay, avast, hoist, gangway, pump, buoy, dock, freight, smuggle, and keelhaul. In the last decade of the sixteenth century the busy Dutch invented a broad-bottomed ship ideal for commerce, the fluyt, or fly-boat, and the German Ocean became a new Mediterranean, a watery forum of the Germanic speakers - of the English, Scots, Norse, Danish, Low German, Frisian, Flemish, and above all the Dutch - who showed the world how to be bourgeois.
  22. ^ including Southern Netherlands-based (Zuid-Nederlanders in Dutch) cartographers and geographers such as Gemma Frisius, Gerardus Mercator and Abraham Ortelius
  23. ^ Koeman, Cornelis; Schilder, Günter; van Egmond, M.; van der Krogt, Peter; Zandvliet, Kees: The History of Cartography, Volume 3: Cartography in the European Renaissance (Part 2: Low Countries), pp. 1246-1462, David Woodward ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)
  24. ^ that comprising mainland Australia, Tasmania and their surrounding islands
  25. ^ The first European known to visit Sakhalin was Martin Gerritz de Vries, who mapped Cape Patience and Cape Aniva on the island's east coast in 1643. The Dutch captain, however, was not aware of their being on an island, and 17th century maps usually showed these points--and often Hokkaido, too--as parts of the mainland.
  26. ^ McManamon, Francis; Cordell, Linda S.; Lightfoot, Kent; Milner, George (2009). Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia (4 volumes), p. 26
  27. ^ As Peter J. Taylor (2002) notes: 'The Dutch polity of the seventeenth century was famously unconcerned with territorial expansion: as long as the frontier operated effectively as a defensive shield no extra land was deemed necessary.'
  28. ^ Knobel, E. B. (1917). "On Frederick de Houtman's Catalogue of Southern Stars, and the Origin of the Southern Constellations". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 77 (5): 414-432. Bibcode:1917MNRAS..77..414K. doi:10.1093/mnras/77.5.414. The constellations around the South Pole were not observable from north of the equator, by Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese or Arabs. During the Age of Exploration, expeditions to the southern hemisphere began to result in the addition of new constellations. The modern constellations in this region were defined notably by Dutch navigators Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser and Frederick de Houtman, who in 1595 traveled together to the East Indies (First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia). These 12 newly Dutch-created southern constellations (that including Apus, Chamaeleon, Dorado, Grus, Hydrus, Indus, Musca, Pavo, Phoenix, Triangulum Australe, Tucana and Volans) first appeared on a 35-cm diameter celestial globe published in 1597/1598 in Amsterdam by Dutch cartographers Petrus Plancius and Jodocus Hondius. The first depiction of these constellations in a celestial atlas was in Johann Bayer's Uranometria of 1603.
  29. ^ Simpson, Phil (2012): Guidebook to the Constellations: Telescopic Sights, Tales, and Myths, p. 559-561, p. 599-600
  30. ^ Among 15 Dutch-created constellations (recognized by the IAU), three constellations including Camelopardalis, Columba, and Monoceros, formed by Petrus Plancius in 1592 and in 1613, are often erroneously attributed to Jacob Bartsch and Augustin Royer
  31. ^ Swann, G. M. Peter (2006). Putting Econometrics in Its Place: A New Direction in Applied Economics, pp. 29-32
  32. ^ Stachurski, Richard (2009). Longitude by Wire: Finding North America, p. 10
  33. ^ Henzel, Cynthia Kennedy (2010). Creating Modern Maps, p. 6
  34. ^ Bagrow, Leo (2010). History of Cartography, p. 159
  35. ^ Hewitt, Rachel (2011). Map of a Nation: A Biography of the Ordnance Survey. "Triangulation had first emerged as a map-making method in the mid sixteenth century when the Flemish mathematician Gemma Frisius set out the idea in his Libellus de locorum describendorum ratione (Booklet concerning a way of describing places), and by the turn of the eighteenth century it had become the most respected surveying technique in use."
  36. ^ Bellos, Alex (2014). The Grapes of Math: How Life Reflects Numbers and Numbers Reflect Life, p. 74
  37. ^ Kirby, Richard Shelton et al. (1990). Engineering in History, p. 131
  38. ^ Harwood, Jeremy (2006). To the Ends of the Earth: 100 Maps that Changed the World, p. 107
  39. ^ Devreese, Jozef T.; Vanden Berghe, Guido (2009). Magic is No Magic: The Wonderful World of Simon Stevin, p. 272
  40. ^ Struik, Dirk J. (1981). The Land of Stevin and Huygens: A Sketch of Science and Technology in the Dutch Republic during the Golden Century, p. 37
  41. ^ Kirby, David; Hinkkanen, Merja-Liisa (2000). The Baltic and the North Seas, p. 61-62
  42. ^ Buisseret, David (2003). The Mapmakers' Quest: Depicting New Worlds in Renaissance Europe
  43. ^ Harwood, Jeremy (2006). To the Ends of the Earth: 100 Maps that Changed the World, p. 88
  44. ^ Lasater, Brian (2007). The Dream of the West, Part II, p. 317
  45. ^ Thrower, Norman J. W. (2008). Maps and Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society, Third Edition, p. 84
  46. ^ Kieding, Robert B. (2011). Scuttlebutt: Tales and Experiences of a Life at Sea, p. 290
  47. ^ The 15 constellations are: Apus, Camelopardalis, Chamaeleon, Columba, Dorado, Grus, Hydrus, Indus, Monoceros, Musca, Pavo, Phoenix, Triangulum Australe, Tucana, and Volans.
  48. ^ Knobel, E. B. (1917). On Frederick de Houtman's Catalogue of Southern Stars, and the Origin of the Southern Constellations. (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 77, pp.  414-32)
  49. ^ Sawyer Hogg, Helen (1951). "Out of Old Books (Pieter Dircksz Keijser, Delineator of the Southern Constellations)". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 45: 215. Bibcode:1951JRASC..45..215S.
  50. ^ Dekker, Elly (1987). Early Explorations of the Southern Celestial Sky. (Annals of Science 44, pp.  439-70)
  51. ^ Dekker, Elly (1987). On the Dispersal of Knowledge of the Southern Celestial Sky. (Der Globusfreund, 35-37, pp.  211-30)
  52. ^ Verbunt, Frank; van Gent, Robert H. (2011). Early Star Catalogues of the Southern Sky: De Houtman, Kepler (Second and Third Classes), and Halley. (Astronomy & Astrophysics 530)
  53. ^ a b Whitaker, Ewen A. (1999), 'Chapter 3: Van Langren (Langrenus) and the Birth of Selenography,'; in Ewen A. Whitaker, Mapping and Naming the Moon: A History of Lunar Cartography and Nomenclature. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 37-47
  54. ^ a b Wood, Charles A. (27 December 2017). "Lunar Hall of Fame". Sky & Telescope (skyandtelescope.org). Retrieved 2020.
  55. ^ a b "Library Item of the Month: Giovanni Riccioli's Almagestum novum". Royal Museums Greenwich (rmg.co.uk). 19 September 2016. Retrieved 2020. Riccioli and Grimaldi's maps were not the first of the Moon. In 1645 Michael Van Langren published what is acknowledged as the first map of the Moon, introducing a scheme of names for its features, setting it apart from earlier unlabelled drawings of the Moon. Two years later, in 1647, Johannes Hevelius published maps of the Moon in his work Selenographia.
  56. ^ Schilder, Günter (1993). A Continent Takes Shape: The Dutch Mapping of Australia, in Changing Coastlines, ed. M. Richards, & M. O'Connor, pp. 10-16. Canberra: National Library of Australia, 1993
  57. ^ Zandvliet, Kees (1988). Golden Opportunities in Geopolitics: Cartography and the Dutch East India Company during the Lifetime of Abel Tasman, in Terra Australis: The Furthest Shore, ed. William Eisler and Bernard Smith, pp. 67-82. Sydney: International Cultural Corporation of Australia
  58. ^ Schilder, Günter; Kok, Hans: Sailing for the East: History and Catalogue of Manuscript Charts on Vellum of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), 1602-1799. [Explokart: Utrecht Studies in the History of Cartography]. (BRILL, 2010, ISBN 9789061942603)
  59. ^ Robert, Willem C.H.: The Dutch Explorations, 1605-1756, of the North and Northwest Coast of Australia: Extracts from Journals, Log-books and Other Documents Relating to These Voyages, original Dutch texts. (Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1973)
  60. ^ Schilder, Günter, "New Cartographical Contributions to the Coastal Exploration of Australia in the Course of the Seventeenth Century," (Imago Mundi 26 [1972])
  61. ^ Schilder, Günter: Australia Unveiled: The Share of the Dutch Navigators in the Discovery of Australia. Translated from the German by Olaf Richter. (Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1976)
  62. ^ Schilder, Günter, "The Dutch Conception of New Holland in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries," (Technical Papers of the 12th Conference of the International Cartographic Association 2 [1984])
  63. ^ Schilder, Günter, Voyage to the Great South Land: William De Vlamingh 1696-1697, trans. C. De Heer (Sydney: Royal Australian Historical Society, 1985)
  64. ^ "The AOTM Landings List 1606 - 1814". history and heritage division of the Australasian Hydrographic Society. Australia on the Map. 6 February 2008. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 2013.
  65. ^ J.P. Sigmond and L.H. Zuiderbaan (1979) Dutch Discoveries of Australia. Rigby Ltd, Australia. pp. 19-30 ISBN 0-7270-0800-5
  66. ^ McIntyre, K.G. (1977) The Secret Discovery of Australia, Portuguese ventures 200 years before Cook, Souvenir Press, Menindie ISBN 0-285-62303-6
  67. ^ Robert J. King, "The Jagiellonian Globe, a Key to the Puzzle of Jave la Grande", The Globe: Journal of the Australian Map Circle, No. 62, 2009, pp. 1-50.
  68. ^ Robert J. King, "Regio Patalis: Australia on the map in 1531?", The Portolan, Issue 82, Winter 2011, pp. 8-17.
  69. ^ Menzies, Gavin (2002). 1421: The year China discovered the world. London: Bantam Press. ISBN 0-06-053763-9.
  70. ^ Credit for the discovery of Australia was given to Frenchman Binot Paulmier de Gonneville (1504) in Brosses, Charles de (1756). Histoire des navigations aux Terres Australe. Paris.
  71. ^ In the early 20th century, Lawrence Hargrave argued from archaeological evidence that Spain had established a colony in Botany Bay in the 16th century.
  72. ^ Dikshitar, V. R. Ramachandra (1947). Origin and Spread of the Tamils. Adyar Library. p. 30.
  73. ^ McHugh, Evan (2006). 1606: An Epic Adventure. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. pp. 44-57. ISBN 978-0-86840-866-8.
  74. ^ Garden 1977, p.8.
  75. ^ Fenton, James (1884). A History of Tasmania: From Its Discovery in 1642 to the Present Time
  76. ^ Pletcher, Kenneth (2010). The Britannica Guide to Explorers and Explorations That Changed the Modern World, p. 122-125
  77. ^ Kirk, Robert W. (2012). Paradise Past: The Transformation of the South Pacific, 1520-1920, p. 31
  78. ^ Newman, Terry (2005). "Appendix 2: Select chronology of renaming". Becoming Tasmania - Companion Web Site. Parliament of Tasmania. Retrieved 2011.
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  81. ^ Schilder, Günter (1984) The Netherland Nautical Cartography from 1550 to 1650, RUC, Coimbra: BGUC, 1985, vol. XXXII, 97-119 (Lisboa: CEHCA)
  82. ^ Schilder, Günter; van Egmond, M.: Maritime Cartography in the Low Countries during the Renaissance, (Part 2: Low Countries), pp. 1384-1432, David Woodward ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)
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  84. ^ Schilder, Günter (2017). Early Dutch Maritime Cartography: The North Holland School of Cartography (c. 1580 - c. 1620). BRILL. ISBN 9789004338029.
  85. ^ Schmidt, Benjamin (1997), 'Mapping an Empire: Cartographic and Colonial Rivalry in Seventeenth-Century Dutch and English North America,'. The William and Mary Quarterly 54(3): 549-578
  86. ^ Sutton, Elizabeth A. (2009), 'Mapping Meaning: Ethnography and Allegory in Netherlandish Cartography, 1570-1655,'. Itinerario 33(3): 12-42
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  • Schilder, Günter: In the Steps of Tasman and De Vlamingh. An Important Cartographic Document for the Discovery of Australia. (Amsterdam: Nico Israel, 1988)
  • Schilder, Günter; van Uchelen, Ton Croiset; van der Horst, Koert (eds.): Theatrum Orbis Librorum: Liber Amicorum Presented to Nico Israel on the Occasion of his Seventieth Birthday. (Utrecht: HES, 1989)
  • Schilder, Günter (ed.): Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica [Vol. I]. (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 1986)
  • Schilder, Günter (ed.): Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica [Vol. II]. (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 1987)
  • Schilder, Günter (ed.): Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica [Vol. III]. (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 1990)
  • Schilder, Günter (ed.): Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica [Vol. IV]. (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 1990)
  • Schilder, Günter (ed.): Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica [Vol. V]. (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 1996)
  • Schilder, Günter (ed.): Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica [Vol. VI]. (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 2000)
  • Schilder, Günter (ed.): Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica [Vol. VII]. (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 2003)
  • Schilder, Günter (ed.): Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica [Vol. VIII]. (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 2007)
  • Schilder, Günter (ed.): Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica [Vol. IX]. (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 2012)
  • Schilder, Günter; et al. (eds.): Grote Atlas van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, Vol. 1: Atlas Isaac de Graaf / Atlas Amsterdam [Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company, Vol. 1: Atlas Isaac de Graaf / Atlas Amsterdam]. (Voorburg: Uitgeverij Asia Maior / Atlas Maior, 2006) [in Dutch]
  • Schilder, Günter; Kok, Hans: Sailing for the East: History and Catalogue of Manuscript Charts on Vellum of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), 1602-1799. (Leiden: Brill, 2010)
  • Schilder, Günter: Early Dutch Maritime Cartography: The North Holland School of Cartography (c. 1580 - c. 1620). (Leiden: Brill, 2017)
  • Schilder, Günter; Kok, Hans: Sailing Across the World's Oceans: History & Catalogue of Dutch Charts Printed on Vellum, 1580-1725. (Leiden: Brill, 2019)
  • Schmidt, Benjamin: Inventing Exoticism: Geography, Globalism, and Europe's Early Modern World. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015)
  • Storms, Martijn; Cams, Mario; Demhardt, Imre Josef; Oemeling, Ferjan (eds.): Mapping Asia: Cartographic Encounters Between East and West (Regional Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography, 2017). (New York: Springer, 2019)
  • Suárez, Thomas: Early Mapping of the Pacific: The Epic Story of Seafarers, Adventurers, and Cartographers Who Mapped the Earth's Greatest Ocean. (Singapore: Periplus Editions, 2004)
  • Sutton, Elizabeth A.: Early Modern Dutch Prints of Africa. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012)
  • Sutton, Elizabeth A.: Capitalism and Cartography in the Dutch Golden Age. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2015) ISBN 978-0-226-25478-4
  • Taylor, Andrew: The World of Gerard Mercator: The Mapmaker Who Revolutionized Geography. (New York: Walker & Company, 2004)
  • Valentijn, Francois: Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indiën. (Dordrecht: Joannes van Braam; Amsterdam: Gerard onder de Linden, 1724-1726) [in Dutch]
  • Van den Boogaart, Ernst: Civil and Corrupt Asia: Image and Text in the Itinerario and the Icones of Jan Huygen van Linschoten. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003)
  • Van den Broecke, Marcel (ed.): Ortelius Atlas Maps: An Illustrated Guide [Second Revised Edition]. ('t Goy-Houten: HES & De Graaf, 1996)
  • Van den Broecke, Marcel; van der Krogt, Peter; Meurer, Peter (eds.): Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas: Essays Commemorating the Quadricentennial of His Death, 1598-1998. ('t Goy-Houten: HES, 1998)
  • Van der Heijden, H.A.M.: Leo Belgicus: An Illustrated and Annotated Carto-Bibliography. (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 1990)
  • Van der Horst, Koert (ed.): The Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem of the Austrian National Library [Vol. 8]: The History of the Atlas and the Making of the Facsimile. ('t Goy-Houten: HES & De Graaf, 2002)
  • Van der Krogt, Peter: The Globes of Hondius: A Most Important Pair of Globes Showing the Results of the Earliest Dutch Exploration Voyages to the East Indies. (Utrecht: Antiquariaat Forum, 1991)
  • Van der Krogt, Peter: Globi Neerlandici: The Production of Globes in the Low Countries. Translated from the Dutch by Elizabeth Daverman. (Utrecht: HES, 1993)
  • Van der Krogt, Peter; van den Brink, P.P.W.J.; Hameleers, M.M.Th.L. (eds.): Bibliografie van de Geschiedenis van de Kartografie van de Nederlanden [Bibliography of the History of Cartography of the Netherlands]. (Utrecht: HES, 1993) [in Dutch]
  • Van der Krogt, Peter; de Groot, Erlend; et al. (eds.): The Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem of the Austrian National Library [Vol. 1]: Spain, Portugal and France. Descriptive Catalogue of Volumes 1-8 of the Atlas. ('t Goy-Houten: HES, 1996)
  • Van der Krogt, Peter; de Groot, Erlend; et al. (eds.): The Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem of the Austrian National Library [Vol. 2]: Italy, Malta, Switzerland and the Low Countries. Descriptive Catalogue of Volumes 9-17 of the Atlas. ('t Goy-Houten: HES, 1999)
  • Van der Krogt, Peter; de Groot, Erlend; et al. (eds.): The Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem of the Austrian National Library [Vol. 3]: British Isles, Northern and Eastern Europe. Descriptive Catalogue of Volumes 18-24 of the Atlas. ('t Goy-Houten: HES & De Graaf, 2002)
  • Van der Krogt, Peter; de Groot, Erlend; et al. (eds.): The Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem of the Austrian National Library [Vol. 4]: Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Greece, Constantinople, Smyrna and Bible Maps. Descriptive Catalogue of Volumes 25-34 of the Atlas. ('t Goy-Houten: HES & De Graaf, 2004)
  • Van der Krogt, Peter; de Groot, Erlend; et al. (eds.): The Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem of the Austrian National Library [Vol. 5]: Africa, Asia and America, Including the "Secret" Atlas of the Dutch East-India Company (VOC). Descriptive Catalogue of Volumes 35-46 of the Atlas. ('t Goy-Houten: HES & De Graaf, 2005)
  • Van der Krogt, Peter; de Groot, Erlend; et al. (eds.): The Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem of the Austrian National Library [Vol. 6]: The Supplemental Volumes (Ergänzungsbände). Descriptive Catalogue of the Four Supplemental Volumes to the Atlas. ('t Goy-Houten: HES & De Graaf, 2008)
  • Van Egmond, M.: Covens & Mortier: A Map Publishing House in Amsterdam, 1685-1866. ('t Goy-Houten: HES & De Graaf, 2009)
  • Van Gelder, Roelof; van der Waals, Jan: Een wereldreiziger op papier. De Atlas van Laurens Van der Hem (1621-1678). (Amsterdam: Stichting Koninklijk Paleis / Snoeck-Ducaju & Zoon Gent, 1992) [in Dutch]
  • Van Mill, P.; Scharloo, M. (eds.): De VOC in de kaart gekeken: Cartografie en navigatie van de Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, 1602-1799 [Maps and Charts of the VOC: Cartography and Navigation of the Dutch East India Company, 1602-1799]. (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1988) [in Dutch]
  • Whitaker, Ewen A.: Mapping and Naming the Moon: A History of Lunar Cartography and Nomenclature. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999)
  • Wieder, F. C.: The Dutch Discovery and Mapping of Spitsbergen (1596-1829). (Amsterdam: Netherland Ministry of Foreign Affairs / Royal Dutch Geographical Society, 1919)
  • Woodfin, Thomas McCall: The Cartography of Capitalism: Cartographic Evidence for the Emergence of the Capitalist World-System in Early Modern Europe. (Ph.D. thesis, Texas A&M University, December 2007)
  • Woodward, David (ed.): Art and Cartography: Six Historical Essays. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987)
  • Woodward, David (ed.): Cartography in the European Renaissance [The History of Cartography, Vol. 3]. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)
  • Zandvliet, Kees: Mapping for Money: Maps, Plans and Topographic Paintings and their Role in Dutch Overseas Expansion During the 16th and 17th Centuries. (Batavian Lion International, 1998)

Journal articles, scholarly papers, essays, and book chapters:

  • Alpers, Svetlana (1987), 'The Mapping Impulse in Dutch Art,'; in Art and Cartography: Six Historical Essays, edited by David Woodward (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), p. 51-96
  • Castelnovi, Michele (2014), 'The Dutch Cartography's Gouden Eeuw, Between Art and Industry,'. Bollettino dell'Associazione Italiana di Cartografia 7(4) (2014): 657-667. doi:10.13128/bsgi.v7i4.380
  • De Meer, Sjoerd; Ormeling, Ferjan (2010), 'Het verhaal achter de Grote Atlas van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie: een interview met Rob van Diessen,' [The story behind the Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch East India Company: an interview with Rob van Diessen]. Caert-Thresoor 29(3): 77-87. [in Dutch]
  • Dekker, Elly (1987), 'Early Explorations of the Southern Celestial Sky,'. Annals of Science 44(5): 439-70
  • Dekker, Elly (1987), 'On the Dispersal of Knowledge of the Southern Celestial Sky,'. Der Globusfreund 35-37: 211-30
  • Dorofeeva-Lichtmann, V. V. (2018), 'The First Map of China Printed in Europe [Ortelius 1584] Reconsidered: Confusions of Its Authorship and the Influence of the Chinese Cartography,'; In: L. Saraiva, & C. Jami (eds.), History of Mathematical Sciences: Portugal and East Asia V; Visual and Textual Representations in Exchanges Between Europe and East Asia 16th-18th Centuries. (Singapore: World Scientific, 2018), pp. 138-168. doi:10.1142/9789813233256_0007
  • Gaspar, Joaquim Alves; Leitão, Henrique (2013), 'Squaring the Circle: How Mercator Constructed His Projection in 1569,'. Imago Mundi 66(1): 1-24. doi:10.1080/03085694.2014.845940
  • Gaspar, Joaquim Alves (2016), 'Revisiting the Mercator World Map of 1569: an Assessment of Navigational Accuracy,'. The Journal of Navigation 69(6): 1183-1196. doi:10.1017/S0373463316000291
  • Glatigny, Pascal Dubourg; Maré, Estelle Alma (2006), 'A Map and its Copy of Governor Simon van der Stel's Expedition to Namaqualand (1685): an Enquiry into Their Visual Values,'. South African Journal of Art History 21(1): 104-113
  • Glenn, Ian (2007), 'François Levaillant and the mapping of Southern Africa,'. Alternation 14(2): 25-39
  • Heawood, Edward (1919), 'Hondius and His Newly-Found Map of 1608,'. The Geographical Journal 54(3): 178-184. doi:10.2307/1780058 JSTOR 1780058
  • Hooker, Brian (1993), 'New Light on Jodocus Hondius' Great World Mercator Map of 1598,'. The Geographical Journal 159(1): 45-50. doi:10.2307/3451488 JSTOR 3451488
  • Huigen, Siegfried (2009), 'Chapter 3: Expeditions from Fort Lijdsaamheijd: the VOC and the Geography of Southern Africa in the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century,'; in Siegfried Huigen, Knowledge and Colonialism: Eighteenth-Century Travellers in South Africa. (Leiden: Brill, 2009), pp. 59-74
  • Huigen, Siegfried (2009), 'Chapter 5: Xhosa and Khoikhoi "Households": Representations of Inhabitants of Southern Africa in the Gordon Atlas,'; in Siegfried Huigen, Knowledge and Colonialism: Eighteenth-Century Travellers in South Africa. (Leiden: Brill, 2009), pp. 93-117
  • Kang, Peter (2018), 'The Dutch Commemorative Toponyms in the Seventeenth Century East Asia, Based on the Cartographic Works Left by the Dutch East India Company (VOC),'; in Mirela Alti?, Imre Josef Demhardt & Soetkin Vervust (eds.), Dissemination of Cartographic Knowledge: 6th International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography, 2016. (Springer, 2018), pp. 257-267
  • Kang, Peter (2019), 'Naming and Re-naming on Formosa: The Toponymic Legacies of the VOC Cartographies on the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Western Maps,'; in Martijn Storms, Mario Cams, Imre Josef Demhardt, Ferjan Oemeling (eds.), Mapping Asia: Cartographic Encounters Between East and West [Regional Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography, 2017]. (Springer, 2019), pp. 95-109
  • Ketelaar, Eric (2008), 'Exploration of the Archived World: From De Vlamingh's Plate to Digital Realities,'. Archives and Manuscripts 36(2): 13-33
  • Keuning, J. (1947), 'The history of an Atlas: Mercator-Hondius,'. Imago Mundi 4(1): 37-62. doi:10.1080/03085694708591880
  • King, Robert J. (2016), 'From Beach to Western Australia: Dirk Hartog and the Transition from Speculative to Actual Geography,'. The Great Circle 38(1): 45-71
  • Knobel, E. B. (1917), 'On Frederick de Houtman's Catalogue of Southern Stars, and the Origin of the Southern Constellations,'. (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 77, pp. 414-32)
  • Koeman, Cornelis (1972), 'The Lead by the Dutch in World Charting in the Seventeenth and First Half of the Eighteenth Century,'; in: Rutherford, W.H. (ed.), Second International Congress on the History of Oceanography: Challenger Expedition Centenary, Edinburgh, 12 to 20 September 1972, Proceedings 2, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section B, Biological Sciences, 73: 45-49
  • Koeman, Cornelis; van Egmond, M.: Surveying and Official Mapping in the Low Countries, 1500-ca. 1670 (Part 2: Low Countries), pp. 1246-1295, David Woodward ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)
  • Kozica, Kazimierz (2017), 'Different states of the sea chart of the Gulf of Riga by Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer (1534-1606) from his first sea atlas Spiegel der Zeevaert (1583/1585) in the Niewodnicza?ski Collection Imago Poloniae at the Royal Castle in Warsaw,'. e-Perimetron 12(2): 75-83
  • Liebenberg, Elri (2012), 'Unveiling the Geography of the Cape of Good Hope: Selected VOC Maps of the Interior of South Africa,'; In: Elri Liebenberg, Imre Demhardt (eds.), History of Cartography: Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. (Heidelberg: Springer, 2012), pp. 209-32
  • Livieratos, Evangelos; Koussoulakou, Alexandra (2006), 'Vermeer's Maps: a New Digital Look in an Old Master's Mirror,'. e-Perimetron 1(2): 138-154
  • Livieratos, Evangelos; Boutoura, Chryssoula; Pazarli, Maria; Ploutoglou, Nopi; Tsorlini, Angeliki (2011), 'The very first printed map in Greek, a derived map from Dutch cartography: Chrysanthos Notaras' world map (1700) vs Jan Luyts' world map (1692),'. e-Perimetron 6(3): 200-218
  • Mäkilähde, Aleksi (2016), 'Language choice, language alternationand code-switching in the Mercator-Hondius Atlas,'. Approaching Religion 6(1): 24-34
  • Mangani, Giorgio (1998), 'Abraham Ortelius and the hermetic meaning of the cordiform projection,'. Imago Mundi 50(1): 59-83. doi:10.1080/03085699808592879
  • Mochizuki, Mia M. (2010), 'The Movable Center: The Netherlandish Map in Japan,'; in Michael North (ed.), Artistic and Cultural Exchanges between Europe and Asia, 1400-1900: Rethinking Markets, Workshops and Collections. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2010)
  • Nuti, Lucia (2003), 'The World Map as an Emblem: Abraham Ortelius and the Stoic Contemplation,'. Imago Mundi 55(2003): 38-55. JSTOR 3594755
  • Paesie, Ruud (2010), 'Op perkament getekend: productie en omvang van het hydrografisch bedrijf van de VOC,' [Drawn on parchment: production and extent of the hydrographic business of the VOC]. Caert-Thresoor 29(1): pp. 1-8. [in Dutch]
  • Ricci, Alessandro (2016), 'Maps, Power and National Identity. The Leo Belgicus as a Symbol of the Independence of the United Provinces,' ['Carte, potere e identità nazionale. Il Leo Belgicus come simbolo dell'indipendenza delle Province Unite,']. Bollettino dell'Associazione Italiana di Cartografia 154: 102-120. doi:10.13137/2282-472X/12113
  • Saldanha, Arun (2011), 'The Itineraries of Geography: Jan Huygen van Linschoten's Itinerario and Dutch Expeditions to the Indian Ocean, 1594-1602,'. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101(1): 149-177
  • Sawyer Hogg, Helen (1951), 'Out of Old Books (Pieter Dircksz Keijser, Delineator of the Southern Constellations),'. Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 45: 215
  • Schilder, Günter (1976), 'Organisation and Evolution of the Dutch East India Company's Hydrographic Office in the Seventeenth Century,'. Imago Mundi 28: 61-78
  • Schilder, Günter (1988), 'New Holland: The Dutch Discoveries,'; in Glyndwr Williams and Alan Frost (eds.), Terra Australis to Australia. (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1988), pp. 83-115
  • Schilder, Günter (1988), 'The So-Called "Atlas Amsterdam" by Isaak de Graaf of About 1700. A Remarkable Cartographic Document of the Dutch East India Company,'; in Vice-Almirante A. Teixeira da Mota: In Memoriam, vol. I, Lisboa: Academia de Marinha / IICT, 1988, pp. 133-154
  • Schilder, Günter (1984), 'The Dutch Conception of New Holland in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries,'. The Globe: Journal of the Australian Map Circle 22: 38-46
  • Schilder, Günter (1984), 'The Netherland Nautical Cartography from 1550 to 1650,'. RUC, Coimbra: BGUC, 1985, vol. XXXII: 97-119 (Lisboa: CEHCA)
  • Schilder, Günter (1989), 'From Secret to Common Knowledge - The Dutch Discoveries,'; in John Hardy and Alan Frost (eds.), Studies from Terra Australis to Australia. (Canberra, 1989)
  • Schilder, Günter (1993), 'A Continent Takes Shape: The Dutch mapping of Australia,'; in Changing Coastlines: Putting Australia on the World Map, 1493-1993, edited by Michael Richards & Maura O'Connor. (Canberra: National Library of Australia, 1993), pp. 10-16
  • Schilder, Günter; van Egmond, M.: Maritime Cartography in the Low Countries during the Renaissance, (Part 2: Low Countries), pp. 1384-1432, David Woodward ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)
  • Schmidt, Benjamin (1997), 'Mapping an Empire: Cartographic and Colonial Rivalry in Seventeenth-Century Dutch and English North America,'. The William and Mary Quarterly 54(3): 549-578
  • Schmidt, Benjamin (2012), 'On the Impulse of Mapping, or How a Flat Earth Theory of Dutch Maps Distorts the Thickness and Pictorial Proclivities of Early Modern Dutch Cartography (and Misses Its Picturing Impulse),'. Art History 35(5): 1036-1049. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8365.2012.00936.x
  • Sutton, Elizabeth A. (2009), 'Mapping Meaning: Ethnography and Allegory in Netherlandish Cartography, 1570-1655,'. Itinerario 33(3): 12-42
  • Sutton, Elizabeth A. (2013), 'Possessing Brazil in Print, 1630-54,'. Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art 5:1. doi:10.5092/jhna.2013.5.1.3
  • Terwiel, Barend Jan (2017), 'François Valentijn's Map of "The Great Siamese River Me-Nam",'. Journal of the Siam Society 105(2017)
  • Tunturi, Janne (2016), 'Cartographer's experience of time in the Mercator-Hondius Atlas (1606, 1613),'. Approaching Religion 6(1): 46-56. doi:10.30664/ar.67582
  • Unger, Richard W. (2011), 'Dutch Nautical Sciences in the Golden Age: The Portuguese Influence,'. E-Journal of Portuguese History 9(2): 68-83
  • Van den Broecke, Marcel (2008), 'The Significance of Language: The Texts on the Verso of the Maps in Abraham Ortelius, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum,'. Imago Mundi 60(2): 202-210. JSTOR 40234265
  • Van der Krogt, Peter; Ormeling, Ferjan (2014), 'Michiel Florent van Langren and Lunar Naming,'. Els noms en la vida quotidiana. Actes del XXIV Congrés Internacional d'ICOS sobre Ciències Onomàstiques. Annex: 1851-1868. doi:10.2436/15.8040.01.190
  • Van der Krogt, Peter (2015), 'Chapter 6: Gerhard Mercator and his Cosmography: How the 'Atlas' became an Atlas,'; in: Gerhard Holzer, et al. (eds.), A World of Innovation: Cartography in the Time of Gerhard Mercator. (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015), pp. 112-130
  • Van Groesen, Michiel (2019), 'Dierick Ruiters's Manuscript Maps and the Birth of the Dutch Atlantic,'. Imago Mundi 71(1): 34-50
  • Verbunt, Frank; van Gent, Robert H. (2011), 'Early Star Catalogues of the Southern Sky: De Houtman, Kepler (Second and Third Classes), and Halley.'. Astronomy & Astrophysics 530. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116795
  • Walton, Elisabeth B. (1962), 'Netherlandish Maps: a Decorative Role in the History of Art,'. The Professional Geographer 14(2): 32-33. doi:10.1111/j.0033-0124.1962.142_32.x
  • Welu, James A. (1975), 'Vermeer: His Cartographic Sources,'. The Art Bulletin 57(4): 529-547
  • Welu, James A. (1978), 'The Map in Vermeer's "Art of Painting",'. Imago Mundi 30(1): 9-30
  • Welu, James A. (1987), 'The Sources and Development of Cartographic Ornamentation in the Netherlands,'; in Art and Cartography: Six Historical Essays, edited by David Woodward (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), p. 147-173
  • Whitaker, Ewen A. (1999), 'Chapter 3: Van Langren (Langrenus) and the Birth of Selenography,'; in Ewen A. Whitaker, Mapping and Naming the Moon: A History of Lunar Cartography and Nomenclature. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 37-47
  • Zandvliet, Kees (1988), 'Golden Opportunities in Geopolitics: Cartography and the Dutch East India Company during the Lifetime of Abel Tasman,'; in Terra Australis: The Furthest Shore, ed. William Eisler and Bernard Smith (Sydney: International Cultural Corporation of Australia, 1988), pp. 67-82
  • Zandvliet, Kees; Harley, J. B. (1992), 'Art, Science, and Power in Sixteenth-Century Dutch Cartography,'. Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization 29(2): 10-19
  • Zandvliet, Kees (1996), 'Vermeer and the Significance of Cartography in His Time,'; in The Scholarly World of Vermeer. (Zwolle: Waanders Publishers, 1996), pp. 65-66
  • Zandvliet, Kees (1998), 'The Contribution of Cartography to the Creation of a Dutch Colony and a Chinese State in Taiwan,'. Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization 35(3-4): 123-135. doi:10.3138/C804-42RT-4047-W567
  • Zandvliet, Kees (2007), 'Mapping the Dutch World Overseas in the Seventeenth Century,'; in: The History of Cartography, Vol. 3, Part 2, ed. David Woodward, pp. 1433-1462

Multimedia (e.g. lectures, conferences)

  • Welu, James A. (10 November 2016): Vermeer's Mania for Maps. Presented by the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library in partnership with the Boston Map Society (WGBH Lectures, GBH Forum Network, Boston, MA). [Duration 1:01:41]

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Golden_Age_of_Netherlandish_cartography
 



 



 
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