God in Islam
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God in Islam

In Islam, God (Arabic: ?‎, romanizedAll?h, contraction of al-?il?h, lit. "the God") is the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence. Islam emphasizes that God is strictly singular (tawd); unique (wid); inherently One (a?ad);[1] and also all-merciful and omnipotent.[2] According to Islam, God is neither a material nor a spiritual being.[3] According to Islamic teachings, beyond the Throne (al-?Arsh)[4] and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things."[5]

In Islam there is only one God and there are 99 names of that one God (al-?asm al-?usn? lit. meaning: "The best names"), each of which evokes a distinct attribute of God.[6][7] All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive God.[8] Among the 99 names of God, the most familiar and frequent are "the All Merciful" (Ar-Ra?m?n) and "the Especially Merciful" (Ar-Ram).[6][7] Creation and ordering of the universe is seen as an act of prime mercy for which all creatures praise God's attributes and bear witness to God's unity.

Etymology

Allah is the Arabic word referring to God in Abrahamic religions.[9][10][11] In the English language, the word generally refers to God in Islam. The word is thought to be derived by contraction from al-il?h, which means "the god", and is related to El and Elah, the Hebrew and Aramaic words for God.[12][13] It is distinguished from il?h (Arabic: ‎), the Arabic word meaning deity, which could refer to any of the gods worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia or to any other deity.[14]

Other names

God is described and referred to in the Quran and hadith by 99 names that reflect his attributes.[15] The Quran refers to the attributes of God as "most beautiful names".[16][17] According to Gerhard Böwering,

They are traditionally enumerated as 99 in number to which is added as the highest Name (al-ism al-?aam), the Supreme Name of All?h. The locus classicus for listing the Divine Names in the literature of Qurnic commentary is 17:110[18] "Call upon Allah, or call upon The Merciful; whichsoever you call upon, to Allah belong the most beautiful Names," and also 59:22-24,[19] which includes a cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets."

-- Gerhard Böwering, God and God's Attributes[20]

Some Muslims may use different names as much as Allah, for instance "God" in English. Whether or not Allah can be considered as the personal name of God became disputed in contemporary scholarship.[21]

Phrases and expressions

There are numerous conventional phrases and expressions invoking God.

Name Phrase Citation
(Quran or Sunnah)
Takbir
all?hu ?akbaru 9:72, 29:45, 40:10
God is greater [than all things]
Tasbih
subna ll?hi 23:91, 28:68, 37:159, 52:43, 59:23
Glory to God
Tahmid
al-?amdu li-ll?hi 1:2, 6:1, 29:63, 31:25, 34:1, 35:1, 35:34, 39:29, 39:74, 39:75, 40:65
Praise be to God
Tahlil
l? ?il?ha ?ill? ll?hu 37:38, 47:19
?
[There is] no god but God
Shahadatayn
mu?ammadun ras?lu ll?hi 48:29
?
Muhammad is the messenger of God
Tasmiyah
?
bi-smi ll?hi r-ra?m?ni r-rami 1:1
?[22]
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Inshallah
?
?in sha ll?hu 2:70, 12:99, 18:69, 28:27, 48:27
?
If God wills
Mashallah
m? sha ll?hu 6:128, 7:188, 10:49, 18:39, 87:7
What God wills
Alayhi as-Salam
?
sal?mu -ll?hi ?alayh?
? [23]
Blessing of God be upon him
Salawat
?all? ll?hu ?alayhi wa-lih? wa-sallama
? ? [24]
God bless him and give him salvation
Rahimahullah
ra?imahu ll?hu / ra?imaka ll?hu
/
God have mercy upon him / God have mercy upon you
Istighfar
?asta?firu ll?hi 12:98, 19:47
I seek forgiveness from God
Hawqalah
?l? ?awla wa-l? quwwata ?ill? bi-ll?hi Riyad as-Salihin 16:36
? ?
There is no might nor power except in God
Istirja
?inn? li-ll?hi wa-?inn? ?ilayhi r?jina 2:156, 2:46, 2:156
?
Indeed, (we belong) to God and indeed to Him we shall return
Jazakallah
?
jaz?ka ll?hu ?ayran Riyad as-Salihin 17:32, Tirmidhi 27:141, Bukhari 7:3
? ?
May God reward you well
Ta'awwudh
?au bi-ll?hi mina ?-?ayni r-raj?mi Riyad as-Salihin 1:46
? ? ? ?
I seek refuge with God from the pelted Satan
Fi sabilillah
f? sab?li ll?hi 2:154, 2:190, 2:195, 2:218, 2:244, 2:246, etc.
?
in the cause (way) of God
Yarhamuka-llah
yar?amuka ll?hu Bukhari 78:248, Riyad as-Salihin 6:35
?
May God have mercy on you
Honorifics often said or written alongside Allah
Subhanahu wa-Ta'ala
subnah? wa-tal?[25] 6:100, 10:18, 16:1, 17:43, 30:40, 39:67
Praised and exalted[26][27]
Tabaraka wa-Ta'ala
tab?raka wa-tal?
Blessed and exalted
Jalla Jalalah
jalla jal?lahu
[28]
May His glory be glorified
Azza wa Jall
?azza wa-jalla
?
Prestigious and Majestic

Attributes

Oneness

Islam's most fundamental concept is a strict monotheism called tawhid, affirming that God is one and Tanzih (wid). The basic creed of Islam, the Shahada[29] (recited under oath to enter the religion), involves ? (l? ?il?ha ?illa ll?h), or "I testify there is no deity other than God."

Muslims reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism.[30]Jesus is instead believed to be a prophet.

Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession.[31] The deification or worship of anyone or anything other than God (shirk) is the greatest sin in Islam. The entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of Tawhid.[32]

According to Vincent J. Cornell,[33] the Quran also provides a monist image of God by describing the reality as a unified whole, with God being a single concept that would describe or ascribe all existing things: "He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things."[34]

Creator

God is the creator of the universe and all the creatures in it.[35]

Praise be to Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, Who appointeth the angels messengers having wings two, three and four. He multiplieth in creation what He will. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.

We have built the heaven with might, and We it is Who make the vast extent (thereof).

Verily We created man from a product of wet earth; Then placed him as a drop (of seed) in a safe lodging; Then fashioned We the drop a clot, then fashioned We the clot a little lump, then fashioned We the little lump bones, then clothed the bones with flesh, and then produced it as another creation. So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators!

Mercy

The most commonly used names in the primary sources are Al-Rahman, meaning "Most Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "Most Merciful".[36] The former compasses the whole creation, therefore applying to God's mercy in that it gives every necessary condition to make life possible. The latter applies to God's mercy in that it gives favor for good deeds. Thus Al-Rahman includes both the believers and the unbelievers, but Al-Rahim only the believers.[37][38] God is said to love forgiving, with a hadith stating God would replace a sinless people with one who sinned but still asked repentance.[39]

His mercy takes many forms as he says in the Quran "and My Mercy embraces all things." [7:156] This is shown in Sahih Muslim narrated from Abu Hurairah, who said the Prophet said:

Allah has one hundred parts of mercy, of which He sent down one between the jinn, mankind, the animals and the insects, by means of which they are compassionate and merciful to one another, and by means of which wild animals are kind to their offspring. And Allah has kept back ninety-nine parts of mercy with which to be merciful to His slaves of the Day of Resurrection.[40][41]

God's mercy, according to Islamic theology, is what gets a person into paradise. According to a hadith in Sahih Al Bukhari "No one's deeds will ever admit him to Paradise." They said, "Not even you, O Messenger of Allah?" He said, "No, not even me unless Allah showers me with His Mercy. So try to be near to perfection. And no one should wish for death; he is either doing good so he will do more of that, or he is doing wrong so he may repent."[41][42]

Omniscience

God is fully aware of everything that can be known.[43] This includes private thoughts and feelings. The Quran asserts that one can not hide anything from God:[original research?]

And, [O Muhammad], you are not [engaged] in any matter or recite any of the Qur'an and you [people] do not do any deed except that We are witness over you when you are involved in it. And not absent from your Lord is any [part] of an atom's weight within the earth or within the heaven or [anything] smaller than that or greater but that it is in a clear register.

-- Quran, Surah Yunus (10), Ayah 61[44]

And indeed We have created man, and We know what his ownself whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.

-- Quran, Surah Qaf (50), Ayah 16

Relationship with creation

Muslims believe that God is the only true reality and sole source of all creation. Everything including its creatures are just a derivative reality created out of love and mercy by God's command,[45] "..."Be," and it is."[2][46] and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.[47][48][49] It is believed that God created everything for a divine purpose; the universe governed by fixed laws that ensure the harmonious working of all things. Everything within the universe, including inanimated objects, praises God, and is in this sense understood as a muslim.[50] An exception are humans, who are endowed with free-will and must live voluntarily in accordance with these laws to live to find peace and reproduce God's benevolence in their own society to live in accordance with the nature of all things, known as surrender to God in the Islamic sense.[50][51]

As in the other Abrahamic religions, God is believed to communicate with his creation via revelations given to prophets to remind people of God. The Quran in particular is believed by Muslims to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to Muhammad. Hadith are the records of Muhammad's sayings and example, and Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, which Muslims regard as the words of God repeated by Muhammad. According to Ali ibn Mohammed al-Jurjani, the Hadith Qudsi differ from the Quran in that the former are "expressed in Muhammad's words", whereas the latter are the "direct words of God".[52] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states in the Quran, "It was We Who created man, and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein."[53] People may enter a particular relationship with God any time and in different circumstances through the divine names or attributes. Thus God is also a personal God who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[2][54]Muhammad al-Bukhari, in his ?a Bukh?r?, narrates a ?ad?th quds? that God says, "I am as My servant thinks (expects) I am."[55][56] When Sufis claim union with God, it is not that they become one in essence, rather the will of the Sufi is fully congruent to God.[57]

The Quran rejects dualism of Persian Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism, which regarded good and evil, light and darkness as two distinct and independent powers. The Quran affirms both powers to be equally God's creation. Satan is not an independent power, but subordinated to God.[58]

Concepts in Islamic theology

Isma'ilism - Shia

According to Isma'ilism, God is absolutely transcendent and unknowable;[59] beyond matter, energy, space, time, change, imaginings, intellect, positive as well as negative qualities. All attributes of God named in rituals, scriptures or prayers refers not to qualities God possesses, but to qualities emanated from God, thus these are the attributes God gave as the source of all qualities, but God does not consist on one of these qualities.[60] One philosophical definition of the world Allah is " The Being Who concentrates in Himself all the attributes of perfection " [61] or " the Person Who is the Essential Being, and Who encompasses all the attributes of perfection".[61] Since God is beyond all wordings, Isma'ilism also denies the concept of God as the first cause.[62]

In Ismailism, assigning attributes to God as well as negating any attributes from God (via negativa) both qualify as anthropomorphism and are rejected, as God cannot be understood by either assigning attributes to Him or taking attributes away from Him. Therefore, Abu Yaqub Al-Sijistani, a renowned Ismaili thinker, suggested the method of double negation; for example: "God is not existent" followed by "God is not non-existent". This glorifies God from any understanding or human comprehension.[63]

Mu?tazila

The Mu?tazilites reject the anthropomorphic attributes of God because an eternal being "must be unique" and attributes would make God comparable. The descriptions of God in the Quran are considered to be allegories.[64] Nevertheless, the Mu?tazilites thought God contains oneness (tawhid) and justice. Other characteristics like knowledge are not attributed to God; rather they describe his essence. Otherwise eternal attributes of God would give rise to a multiplicity entities existing eternal besides God.[65]

Maturidi and Ash'ari

Ash'ari and Maturidi are in agreement that God's attributes are eternal but neither hold to be metaphorically (unlike Mu'tazilla) nor literally.[66] References to anthropomorphic attributes can probably not be understood correctly by humans.[67] Although God's existence is considered to be possibly known by reason, human mind can not fully understand God's attributes. For example, when humans in paradise see God, they do not see God in the way humans are able to see on Earth.[67]Ash?ari asserts, since God is the creator of everything that exists and creation does not affect nor alter God, the Throne of God is not a dwelling place for God.[68] Accordingly, expressions such as God is above his Throne means God exists unattached of any place.

Sufism

Since God in Islam is transcendental and sovereign but also immanent and omnipresent, the Sufi view holds that in reality, only God exists. Thus everything in creation is reflecting an attribute of God's names. Yet these forms are not God themselves.[69] The Sufi Saint Ibn Arabi stated: There is nothing but God. This statement was mistakenly equalized to Pantheism by critics; however, Ibn Arabi always made a clear distinction between the creation and the creator.[70] Since God is the Absolute Reality,[71] the created worlds and their inhabitants are merely illusions. They just exist because of God's command Kun, but everything that would be, was already known by God.[72]

Salafism and Wahhabism

Salafism and Wahhabism refuse interpretations on Quran to avoid altering of its message, thus taking the descriptions of God literally and oppose widespread theological concepts including the Ash'ari view.[73] Therefore, descriptions such as "God's hands" or "sitting on (above) a throne, should be taken at their linguistic meaning, without asking how, as it is regarded as the only possibility to understand God's attributes.[74]

Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam believes that its founder, Wallace Fard Muhammad, was Allah in person; this is disputed by other sects due to the belief of god incarnated as a Human.

Wahdat al-wujud

The image of God during the time of Seljuk Empire and Ottoman Empire was mostly influenced by the concept later known as Wahdat al-wujud. The concept is usually traced back to the Andalusian shaikh and mystic ibn Arabi. But the idea probably originated 200 years earlier as a result of Turkic cosmology in Turkistan. In this place the first taqira, the Yesevi-tariqa derived from, which had great impact on Haji Bektash Veli. He had significant influence on the understanding of Islam among Turks in Anatolia. The expression itself was used only after the disciples of Ibn Arabi.

Central for the Muslim Turks was the search for God in the world, but could only be found with a "pure heart". Usually, this state could only be attained after death. This striving for God and finding God by a transformation through death is also found in Rumi's Masnavi. Accordingly, dying would transform a lifeform into a higher being, until it returns into an eon. The prophets and angels have been integrated into the universalistic understanding of God. Ibn Arabi interpreted this from the metaphysics of the Quran. According to Heydar Amuli, who was strongly influenced by Ibn Arabis metaphysics, angels (malaika) are representations of God's beautiful names, while the devils (shayatin) are representing the majestic names of God. Another important aspect of belief is the ancestor cult, also in the form of saint veneration. Equality of gender from the Pre-Islamic period of Turks usually remained accepted and women were allowed to participate on religious gatherings without hijab.[75]

The concept of Wahdat al-Wujud permeated the entire Ottoman culture, religion and politics. Botht he advisors as well as principals of universities have usually been disciples of Ibn Arabi's philosophy.[76]

Comparative theology

Islamic theology identifies God as described in the Quran as the same God of Israel who covenanted with Abraham.[77] It rejects the belief once held by pre-Islamic Arabians that God has daughters. Islam and Judaism alike reject the Trinity of Christianity. But the Islamic concept of God is less personal than in the Judeo-Christian tradition,[48] and is known only from natural signs and can only be spoken about in parables.[78] Muslim Turks further assimilated Tengri, the personification of the eternal heaven, with the Islamic concept of God.[79]

See also

References

  1. ^ John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.88
  2. ^ a b c "Allah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ Benjamin W. McCraw, Robert Arp Philosophical Approaches to Demonology Taylor & Francis 2017 ISBN 9781315466767 page 138
  4. ^ Britannica Encyclopedia, Islam, p. 3
  5. ^ Quran 6:103 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  6. ^ a b Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library. ISBN 0-87808-299-9.
  7. ^ a b Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, Allah
  8. ^ Annemarie Schimmel,The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic, SUNY Press, p.206
  9. ^ "God". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Archived from the original on 2014-03-27. Retrieved 2010.
  10. ^ "Islam and Christianity", Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as All?h.
  11. ^ Gardet, L. "Allah". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Online. Retrieved 2007.
  12. ^ Zeki Saritoprak (2006). "Allah". In Oliver Leaman (ed.). The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 9780415326391.
  13. ^ Vincent J. Cornell (2005). "God: God in Islam". In Lindsay Jones (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion. 5 (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference USA. p. 724.
  14. ^ "God". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved .
  15. ^ Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library. ISBN 0-87808-299-9.
  16. ^ Quran 7:180, Quran 17:110, Quran 20:8, Quran 59:24
  17. ^ "Names of God - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved . Encouraged by the Quran (7:180; 17:110; 20:8), Muslims selected ninety-nine attributes of God, describing His perfection, from the Quran and traditions. Referred to as "the most beautiful names of God," they describe a range of characteristics that balances the power of God (the Creator, the Sovereign, and the All-Knowing) with His love and mercy (the All-Loving, the Most Gracious, and the All-Forgiving). The names are frequently memorized and used in supplications. Preceded by the words Abd or Amat (male or female servant), they are often used in proper names (e.g., Abd al-Rahman, "servant of the Merciful").
  18. ^ Quran 17:110
  19. ^ Quran 59:22-24
  20. ^ Böwering, Gerhard. "God and God Attributes". Encyclopaedia of the Qurn.
  21. ^ Andreas Görke and Johanna Pink Tafsir and Islamic Intellectual History Exploring the Boundaries of a Genre Oxford University Press in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies London ISBN 978-0-19-870206-1 p. 478
  22. ^ The phrase is encoded at Unicode code point U+FDFD ?
  23. ^ The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point FDFA ?
  24. ^ The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point FDFA ?
  25. ^ Often abbreviated "SWT" or "swt".
  26. ^ Grob, Eva Mira (2010). Documentary Arabic private and business letters on papyrus: form and function, content and context. New York, N.Y.: De Gruyter. p. 26. ISBN 978-3110247046.
  27. ^ Reynolds, Gabriel Said, ed. (2011). New perspectives on the Qur'an: The Qur'an in its historical context 2. London: Routledge. p. 259. ISBN 978-1136700781.
  28. ^ The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFB ?
  29. ^ Hossein Nasr The Heart of Islam, Enduring Values for Humanity (April., 2003), pp 3, 39, 85, 27-272
  30. ^ The concise Oxford dictionary of world religions. Bowker, John, 1935-, Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2000. ISBN 9780191727221. OCLC 49508601.CS1 maint: others (link)
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  34. ^ Quran 57:3 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  35. ^ "Islam: An Overview - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved . Allah is believed to be the transcendent, all-powerful, and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe.
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  50. ^ a b Roger S. GottliebThe Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology Oxford University Press, 9 Nov 2006 ISBN 9780199727698 p. 210
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  52. ^ [1] Archived 2015-10-15 at the Wayback Machine, 3rd paragraph, October 2015
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  54. ^ Quran 2:186
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  75. ^ Ebru Zeren Türklerde Budizm ve ?slâm Tasavvuffunda Tanr? ve Evren Anlay Halic University January 2018
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  77. ^ According to Francis Edward Peters, "The Quran insists, Muslims believe, and historians affirm that Muhammad and his followers worship the same God as the Jews [see Quran 29:46]. The Quran's Allah is the same Creator God who covenanted with Abraham".
  78. ^ Rebecca Stein, Philip L. Stein The Anthropology of Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft Routledge 2017 ISBN 9781315532158 chapter: Islam
  79. ^ Yves Bonnefoy Asian Mythologies University of Chicago Press 1993 ISBN 9780226064567 p. 331

Bibliography

  • Al-Bayhaqi (1999), Allah's Names and Attributes, ISCA, ISBN 1-930409-03-6
  • Hulusi, Ahmed (1999), "Allah" as introduced by Mohammed, Kitsan, 10th ed., ISBN 975-7557-41-2
  • Muhaiyaddeen, M. R. Bawa (1976), Asm?'ul-Husn?: the 99 beautiful names of Allah, The Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship, ISBN 0-914390-13-9
  • Netton, Ian Richard (1994), Allah Transcendent: Studies in the Structure and Semiotics of Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Cosmology, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-0287-3

External links


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