Global South
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Global South
World map showing a traditional definition of the North-South divide
World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2017 data, published in 2018).
  Advanced economies
  Emerging and developing economies (not least developed)
  Emerging and developing economies (least developed)
Classifications by the IMF and the UN[1]

The Global South is an emerging term used by the World Bank to refer to countries located in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and considered to have low and middle income compared to the Global North.[2]

These nations are often described as newly industrialized or in the process of industrializing, are largely considered by freedom indices to have lower-quality democracies, and frequently have a history of colonialism by Northern, often European states. The BRIC countries, Brazil, Russia, India and China, along with Indonesia, have the largest populations economies among Southern states.[]

The Global South is one half of the global North-South divide, and does not necessarily refer to geographical south. Most people in the Global South live within the Northern Hemisphere. "[2]

The term was first used as an alternative to "third world".[3]

Origins

The first use of Global South in a contemporary political sense was in 1969 by Carl Oglesby, writing in Catholic journal Commonweal in a special issue on the Vietnam War. Oglesby argued that centuries of northern "dominance over the global south [...] [has] converged [...] to produce an intolerable social order."[4]

The term gained appeal throughout the second half of the 20th century, which rapidly accelerated in the early 21st century. It appeared in fewer than two dozen publications in 2004, but in hundreds of publications by 2013.[5] The emergence of the new term meant looking at the troubled realities of its predecessors, i.e.: Third World or Developing World. The term is less hierarchical.[2]

Debates over the term

With its development, many scholars preferred using the Global South over its predecessors, such as "developing countries" and "Third World". Leigh Anne Duck, co-editor of Global South, argued that the term is better suited at resisting "hegemonic forces that threaten the autonomy and development of these countries."[6]Alvaro Mendez, co-founder of the London School of Economics and Political Science's Global South Unit, have applauded the empowering aspects of the term. In an article, Discussion on Global South, Mendez discusses emerging economies in nations like China, India and Brazil. It is predicted that by 2030, 80% of the world's middle-class population will be living in developing countries.[7] The popularity of the term "marks a shift from a central focus on development and cultural difference" and recognizes the importance of geopolitical relations.[8]

Critics of this usage often argue that it is a vague blanket term".[9] Others have argued that the term, its usage, and its subsequent consequences mainly benefit those from the upper classes of countries within the Global South;[2] who stand "to profit from the political and economic reality [of] expanding south-south relations."[2]

Scope

The geographical boundaries of the Global South remain a source of debate. Critics and scholars like Andrea Hollington, Oliver Tappe, Tijo Salverda and Tobias Schwarz agree that the term is not a "static concept."[2] Others, like Rodolfo Magallanes, have argued against "grouping together a large variety of countries and regions into one category [because it] tends to obscure specific (historical) relationships between different countries and/or regions" and the power imbalances within these relationships.[2] He argues that this "may obscure wealth differences within countries - and, therefore, similarities between the wealthy in the Global South and Global North, as well as the dire situation the poor may face all around the world."[2]

The term is not strictly geographical, and is not "an image of the world divided by the equator, separating richer countries from their poorer counterparts."[2] Rather, geography should be more readily understood as economic and migratory, the world understood through the "wider context of globalization or global capitalism."[2]

Uses of the term

Global South "emerged in part to aid countries in the southern hemisphere to work in collaboration on political, economic, social, environmental, cultural, and technical issues."[10][11] This is called South-South cooperation (SSC), a "political and economical term that refers to the long-term goal of pursuing world economic changes that mutually benefit countries in the Global South and lead to greater solidarity among the disadvantaged in the world system."[10][11] The hope is that countries within the Global South will "assist each other in social, political, and economical development, radically altering the world system to reflect their interests and not just the interests of the Global North in the process."[10] It is guided by the principles of "respect for national sovereignty, national ownership, independence, equality, non-conditionality, non-interference in domestic affairs, and mutual benefit."[12][13] Countries using this model of South-South cooperation see it as a "mutually beneficial relationship that spreads knowledge, skills, expertise and resources to address their development challenges such as high population pressure, poverty, hunger, disease, environmental deterioration, conflict and natural disasters."[12][13] These countries also work together to deal with "cross border issues such as environmental protection, HIV/AIDS,"[12][13] and the movement of capital and labor.[12][13]

As Global South leaders became more assertive in world politics in the 1990s and 2000s, South-South cooperation has increased to "challenge the political and economic dominance of the North."[12][13][14] This cooperation has become a popular political and economic concept following geographical migrations of manufacturing and production activity from the North to the Global South[14] and the diplomatic action of several states, like China.[14] These contemporary economic trends have "enhanced the historical potential of economic growth and industrialization in the Global South," which has renewed targeted SSC efforts that "loosen the strictures imposed during the colonial era and transcend the boundaries of postwar political and economic geography."[10] Used in several books and American Literature special issue, the term Global South, recently became prominent for U.S. literature.[15]

Government, politics and administration

Generally, states in the Global South have only attained full self-determination and democracy after the second half of the 20th century. Many were governed by an imperial European power until decolonization. Political systems in the Global South are diverse, but most states had established some form of democratic governments by the early 21st century, with varying degrees of success and political liberty.[16] Many are considered un-free or flawed democracies by freedom indices such as the Democracy Index, Freedom in the World and Index of Freedom in the World and Following decolonization and independence, elites have often had oligarchic control of the government.[]

The establishment of a healthy democratic state has often been challenged by widespread corruption and nepotism and a low confidence and participation in democratic process. The inhabitants of the Global South were introduced to democratic systems later and more abruptly than their Northern counterparts and were sometimes targeted by governmental and non-governmental effortst to encourage participation. 'Effective citizenship' is defined by sociologist Patrick Heller as: 'closing [the] gap between formal legal rights in the civil and political arena, and the actual capability to meaningfully practice those rights [...][17]

Economy

Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018

Developing countries loosely refers to the Global South. Following independence and decolonization in the 20th century, these states had dire need of new infrastructure, industry and economic stimulation. Many relied on foreign investment. This funding focused on improving infrastructure and industry, but led to a system of systemic exploitation.[] They exported raw materials, such as rubber, for a bargain. Companies based in the Western world have often used the cheaper labor in the Global South for production.[18] The West benefited significantly from this system, but left the Global South undeveloped.

This arrangement is sometimes called neocolonialism, meaning a system in which less-developed countries are taken advantage of by developed countries. It does not necessarily mean that former colonies are still controlled by their former colonizer; it refers to colonial-like exploitation. Several institutions have been established with the goal of putting an end to this system.[19] One of these institutions is the New International Economic Order. They have a 'no-strings-attached' policy that promotes developing countries remaining or becoming self-sufficient. More specifically, they advocate sovereignty over natural resources and industrialization.

The global issues most often discussed by nations from the Global South include globalisation, global health governance, health, and prevention needs. This is contrasted by issues Western nations tend to address, such as innovations in science and technology.[20]Coalitions of developing nations, like the NIEO, frequently lobby for parity in the world stage. The rise of China might imply the rise of the BRIC countries.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/NGDPD@WEO/WEOWORLD/ADVEC
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Introduction: Concepts of the Global South". gssc.uni-koeln.de. Archived from the original on 2016-09-04. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Mitlin, Diana; Satterthwaite, David (2013). Urban Poverty in the Global South: Scale and Nature. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 9780415624664.
  4. ^ Oglesby, Carl (1969). "Vietnamism has failed ... The revolution can only be mauled, not defeated". Commonweal. 90.
  5. ^ Pagel, Heikie; Ranke, Karen; Hempel, Fabian; Köhler, Jonas (11 July 2014). "The Use of the Concept 'Global South' in Social Science & Humanities". Humboldt University of Berlin. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "Introduction: Concepts of the Global South | GSSC". web.archive.org. 2016-09-04. Retrieved .
  7. ^ "Discussion on the Global South | GSSC". web.archive.org. 2016-10-26. Retrieved .
  8. ^ dados, nour; connell, raewyn (2012-01-01). "the global south". Contexts. 11 (1): 12-13. doi:10.1177/1536504212436479. JSTOR 41960738.
  9. ^ Eriksen, Thomas Hylland (January 2015). "What´s wrong with the Global North and the Global South?". Global South Studies Center. Archived from the original on 2016-10-09. Retrieved .
  10. ^ a b c d Gray, Kevin; Gills, Barry K. (2016-04-02). "South-South cooperation and the rise of the Global South". Third World Quarterly. 37 (4): 557-574. doi:10.1080/01436597.2015.1128817. ISSN 0143-6597.
  11. ^ a b South-south cooperation. (2013). Appropriate Technology, 40(1), 45-48. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1326792037
  12. ^ a b c d e United Nations. "United Nations: Special Unit for South-South Cooperation" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-19.
  13. ^ a b c d e United Nations. "United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 2012-12-03.
  14. ^ a b c Acharya, Amitav (2016-07-03). "Studying the Bandung conference from a Global IR perspective". Australian Journal of International Affairs. 70 (4): 342-357. doi:10.1080/10357718.2016.1168359. ISSN 1035-7718.
  15. ^ Kim, Heidi Kathleen (Spring 2011). "The Foreigner in Yoknapatawpha: Rethinking Race in Faulkner's "Global South"". Philological Quarterly. 90: 199-228.
  16. ^ Palat, Ravi Arvind (2010). "World Turned Upside Down? Rise of the global South and the contemporary global financial turbulence". Third World Quarterly. 31: 365-366. doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.488465 – via JSTOR.
  17. ^ Heller, Patrick (2012). "Democracy, Participatory Politics and Development: Some Comparative Lessons from Brazil, India and South Africa". Polity. 44: 644-646. doi:10.1057/pol.2012.19 – via JSTOR.
  18. ^ a b Roy, Pallavi (2016). "Economic growth, the UN and the Global South: an unfulfilled promise". Third World Quarterly. 37: 1291-1293. doi:10.1080/01436597.2016.1154440 – via JSTOR.
  19. ^ "Neocolonialism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved .
  20. ^ Ager, Alastair; Yu, Gary; Hermosilla, Sabrina (2012). "Mapping the key issues shaping the landscape of global public health". Global Public Health. 7 (1): 16-28.

Further reading

  • Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations. Arabo-Muslim, Bharati Chinese, and Western by Guy Ankerl. INUPress, Geneva, 2000.

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