Gikuyu Language
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Gikuyu Language

Kikuyu
G?g?k?y?
Pronunciation[k?jó]
Native toKenya
RegionCentral Province
EthnicityAg?k?y?
Native speakers
6.6 million (2009 census)[1]
Language codes
ki
kik
kik
Glottologkiku1240[2]
E.51[3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
PersonM?g?k?y?/M?nd?
PeopleAg?k?y?
LanguageG?g?k?y?
CountryB?r?r? Wa G?k?y?

Kikuyu or Gikuyu (Gikuyu: G?k?y? [k?jó]) is a language of the Bantu family spoken primarily by the Kikuyu people (Ag?k?y?) of Kenya. Kikuyu is spoken in the area between Nyeri and Nairobi. The Kikuyu people usually identify their lands by the surrounding mountain ranges in Central Kenya which they call K?r?nyaga.

Dialects

Kikuyu has four main mutually intelligible dialects. The Central Province districts are divided along the traditional boundaries of these dialects, which are K?r?nyaga, M?rang'a, Nyeri and Kiambu. The Kikuyu from K?r?nyaga are composed of two main sub-dialects - the Ndia and Gichugu who speak the dialects K?ndia and G?g?c?g?. The Gicugus and the Ndias do not have the "ch" or "sh" sound, and will use the "s" sound instead, hence the pronunciation of "G?c?g?" as opposed to "G?ch?g?". To hear Ndia being spoken, one needs to be in Kerugoya, the largest town in Kîrînyaga. Other home towns for the Ndia, where purer forms of the dialect are spoken, are located in the tea-growing areas of Kagumo, and the cool Kangaita hills. Lower down the slopes is Kutus, which is a bustling dusty town with so many influences from the other dialects that it is difficult to distinguish between them. The dialect is also prevalent in the rice growing area of Mwea.

The unmistakable tonal patterns of the Gich?g? dialect (which sounds like Meru or Embu, a sister language to Kikuyu) can be heard in the coffee-growing areas of Kianyaga, G?th?re, Kath?ng?ri, Marigiti. The Gichugu switch easily to other Kikuyu dialects in conversation with the rest of the Kikuyu.

Phonology

Symbols shown in parentheses are those used in the orthography.

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid-high e (?) o (?)
Mid-low ? (e) ? (o)
Low a

Consonants

Bilabial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless t (t) k (k)
voiced prenasalised ?b (mb) ?d (nd) (ng)
Affricate ?d? (nj)
Nasal m (m) n (n) ? (ny) ? (ng')
Fricative voiceless ? (c) h (h)
voiced ? (b) ð (th) ? (g)
Liquid ? (r)
Approximant j (y) w (w)

The prenasalized consonants are often pronounced without prenasalization, and thus /?b ?d ?d? / are often realized as [b d d? ?].

Tones

Kikuyu has two level tones (high and low), a low-high rising tone, and downstep.[4]

Grammar

The canonical word order of G?k?y? is SVO (subject-verb-object). It uses prepositions rather than postpostions, and adjectives follow nouns.[5]

Alphabet

Kikuyu is written in a Latin alphabet. It does not use the letters l p q s v x z, and adds the letters ? and ?. The Kikuyu alphabet is:

a b c d e g h i ? j k m n o r t u ? w y[6]

Some sounds are represented by digraphs such as ng for the velar nasal /?/.

Sample phrases

English G?k?y?
How are you ?horo waku or k?hana at?a?
Give me water He ma?
How are you doing? ?r? mwega? or Wi mwega
I am hungry Nd? m?h?tu
Help me Ndeithia
I am good Nd? mwega
Are you a friend? W? m?rata?
Bye, be blessed Tigwo na wega/Tigwo na thaay?
I love you N?ngwendete.
Come here ?ka haha
I will phone you N?ng?k?h?r?ra thim?
Am blessed Nd?m?rathime
God is good Ngai ni mwega
Give me money He mbeca
Stop nonsense Tiga wana
Corona will soon end Corona nguth?ra nar?a
You are learned Wi m?thom?

Literature

There is a notable literature written in the Kikuyu language. For instance, Ng?g? wa Thiong'o's M?rogi wa Kagogo (Wizard of the Crow) is the longest known book written in Kikuyu. Other authors writing in Kikuyu are Gatua wa Mb?gwa and Waith?ra wa Mbuthia. Mbuthia has published various works in different genres--essays, poetry, children stories and translations--in Kikuyu. The late Wahome Mutahi also sometimes wrote in Kikuyu.

In popular culture

In the 1983 movie Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, the character Nien Nunb speaks in the Kikuyu language.[7]

References

  1. ^ Kikuyu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kikuyu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. ^ Kevin C. Ford, 1975. "The tones of nouns in Kikuyu," Studies in African Linguistics 6, 49-64; G.N. Clements & Kevin C. Ford, 1979, "Kikuyu Tone Shift and its Synchronic Consequences", Linguistic Inquiry 10.2, 179-210.
  5. ^ Wals.info
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Feldmann, Compiled From Wire Service Dispatches With Analysis From Monitor Correspondents Around The World,Edited By Linda (28 July 1983). "In Kenya, audiences roar at language in 'Jedi' film". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 2017.

Bibliography

  • Armstrong, Lilias E. 1967. The Phonetic and Tonal Structure of Kikuyu. London: Published for the International African Institute by Dawsons of Pall Mall.
  • Barlow, A. Ruffell and T. G. Benson. 1975. English-Kikuyu Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Barlow, A. Ruffell. 1951. Studies in Kikuyu Grammar and Idiom. Edinburgh: William Blackwood & Sons,
  • Benson, T. G. 1964. Kikuyu-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Gecaga B. M. and Kirkaldy-Willis W.H. 1953. English-Kikuyu, Kikuyu-English Vocabulary. Nairobi: The Eagle Press.
  • Leakey L. S. B. 1989. First Lessons in Kikuyu. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.
  • Mugane John 1997. A Paradigmatic Grammar of Gikuyu. Stanford, California: CSLI publications.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Gikuyu_language
 



 



 
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