Gematria
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Gematria

Gematria (; Hebrew‎ or Gimatria ?‎, plural ?‎ or ‎, gematriot)[1] is an alphanumeric code of assigning a numerical value to a name, word or phrase based on its letters. A single word can yield multiple values depending on the cipher used.

Gematria originated as an Assyro-Babylonian-Greek system of alphanumeric code or cipher that was later adopted into Jewish culture. Similar systems have been used in other languages and cultures: earlier, the Greek isopsephy, and later, derived from or inspired by Hebrew gematria, Arabic abjad numerals, and English gematria.

A well-known example of Hebrew gematria is the word chai ("alive"), which is composed of two letters that (using the assignments in the Mispar gadol table shown below) add up to 18. This has made 18 a "lucky number" among the Jewish people. Gifts of money in multiples of 18 are very popular.[2]

Etymology

Although the term is Hebrew, it may be derived from the Greek ge?metri?, "geometry", which was used as a translation of g?ma?riy?,[3] though some scholars believe it to derive from Greek ? grammateia "knowledge of writing". It is likely that both Greek words had an influence on the formation of the Hebrew word.[4][1] Some also hold it to derive from the order of the Greek alphabet, gamma being the third letter of the Greek alphabet.[5]

The word has been extant in English since at least the 17th century from translations of works by Giovanni Pico della Mirandola. Although ostensibly derived from Greek isopsephy, it is largely used in Jewish texts, notably in those associated with the Kabbalah. The term does not appear in the Hebrew Bible itself.[1]

Traditional fields of use

Some identify two forms of gematria: the "revealed" form, which is prevalent in many hermeneutic methods found throughout rabbinic literature, and the "mystical" form, a largely Kabbalistic practice.[6] A few instances of gematria in Arabic, Spanish and Greek, spelled with the Hebrew letters, are mentioned in the works of Abraham Abulafia;[7] some Hasidic Rebbis also used it, although rarely, for Yiddish.[8]

History

Some scholars think it possible that gematria is encoded in the Hebrew Bible. For example, Israel Knohl noted that "it is not out of the question that this technique was already known in the biblical period and was used specifically in religious contexts",[9] and has hypothesized "the fact that the representation of the numerical values of letters is not demonstrated in mundane use in ancient Israel before the Hellenistic period may point to the possibility that this method was first a sacred secret knowledge that was kept in closed circles".[10] Victor Hurowitz points out "numerological principles in the organization of the book [of Proverbs]" and demonstrates that gematria has Mesopotamian precedents.[11] Stephen J. Lieberman writes "we must admit that it is possible such techniques were employed in biblical texts. The means were available, and if the desire was present, it was certainly possible for hidden messages to be put into the Bible".[12]

A Mishnaic textual source makes clear that the word gematria is dated to at least the Tannaic period:

Rabbi Eleazar Chisma[13] said: the laws of mixed bird offerings and the key to the calculations of menstruation days--these, these are the body of the halakhah. The calculation of the equinoxes and gematriot are the condiments of wisdom.[14]

Herbert Danby, in his Mishna translation, explains gematriot as follows:

Astronomy and geometry are meant. Of these Eleazar Chisma is reported to have been a diligent student. 'Gematria' later came to mean the device of finding esoteric meanings in words by means of the numerical values of their constituent letters.[15]

However, Danby also notes a case of the latter kind of gematria already in Mishnah Uktzin 3:12.

In the Talmud, the term gematria is also used to refer to a different concept: the atbash cipher.[16]

A Biblical commentary incorporating gematria is Baal ha-Turim by Jacob ben Asher.[17]

Anglican scholar E. W. Bullinger wrote Number in Scripture (1894) ISBN 0-8254-2204-3 analyzing both Hebrew and Greek gematria in the Old and New Testaments, although his conclusions have since been challenged on the grounds of confirmation bias and mathematical inconsistencies.

Methods

Standard encoding

In the standard (Mispar hechrechi) version of gematria, each letter is given a numerical value between 1 and 400, as shown in the following table. In the Mispar gadol variation, the five final letters are given their own values, ranging from 500 to 900.

Decimal Hebrew Glyph
1 Aleph ?
2 Bet ?
3 Gimel ?
4 Daleth ?
5 Heh ?
6 Vav ?
7 Zayin ?
8 Het ?
9 Tet ?
Decimal Hebrew Glyph
10 Yud ?
20 Kaf ?
30 Lamed ?
40 Mem ?
50 Nun ?
60 Samech ?
70 Ayin ?
80 Peh ?
90 Tzady ?
Decimal Hebrew Glyph
100 Koof ?
200 Reish ?
300 Shin ?
400 Taf ?
500 Kaf(final) ?
600 Mem(final) ?
700 Nun(final) ?
800 Peh(final) ?
900 Tzady(final) ?

A mathematical formula for finding a letter's corresponding number in Mispar Gadol is: where x is the position of the letter in the language letters index (Regular order of letters), and the floor and modulo functions are used.

Vowels

The value of the Hebrew vowels is not usually counted, but some lesser-known methods include the vowels as well. The most common vowel values are as follows (a less common alternative value, based on digit sum, is given in parentheses):

Decimal Vowel Glyph
6
Patach

?
10 (1)
Hiriq

 ?

Holam


?

Shuruk

 
Decimal Vowel Glyph
16 (7)
Kamatz

?
20 (2)
Zeire

?

Sh'va

?
26 (8)
Reduced patach

?
Decimal Vowel Glyph
30 (3)
Segol

?

Kubutz

?
36 (9)
Reduced kamatz

?
50 (5)
Reduced segol

?

Sometimes the names of the vowels are spelled out and their gematria is calculated using standard methods.[18]

Other methods in Hebrew

There are many different methods used to calculate the numerical value for the individual Hebrew/Aramaic words, phrases or whole sentences. More advanced methods are usually used for the most significant Biblical verses, prayers, names of God and angels etc. These methods include:[19]

  • Mispar Hechrachi (absolute value) is the standard method. It assigns the values 1-9, 10-90, 100-400 to the 22 Hebrew letters in order. Sometimes it is also called Mispar ha-Panim (face number), as opposed to the more complicated Mispar ha-Akhor (back number).
  • Mispar Gadol (large value) counts the final forms (sofit) of the Hebrew letters as a continuation of the numerical sequence for the alphabet, with the final letters assigned values from 500 to 900. The name Mispar Gadol is sometimes used for a different method, Otiyot beMilui.
  • The same name, Mispar Gadol, is also used for another method, which spells the name of each letter and adds the standard values of the resulting string. For example, the letter alef is spelled alef-lamed-peh, giving it a value of 1+30+80=111.
  • Mispar Katan (small value) calculates the value of each letter, but truncates all of the zeros. It is also sometimes called Mispar Me'ugal.
  • Mispar Siduri (ordinal value) with each of the 22 letters given a value from 1 to 22.
  • Mispar Bone'eh (building value, also Revu'a, square[20]) is calculated by walking over each letter from the beginning to the end, adding the value of all previous letters and the value of the current letter to the running total. Therefore, the value of the word achad (one) is .
  • Mispar Kidmi (preceding value) uses each letter as the sum of all the standard gematria letter values preceding it. Therefore, the value of Aleph is 1, the value of Bet is 1+2=3, the value of Gimmel is 1+2+3=6, etc. It's also known as Mispar Meshulash (triangular or tripled number).
  • Mispar P'rati calculates the value of each letter as the square of its standard gematria value. Therefore, the value of Aleph is 1 × 1 = 1, the value of Bet is 2 × 2 = 4, the value of gimmel is 3 × 3 = 9, etc. It's also known as Mispar ha-Merubah ha-Prati.
  • Mispar ha-Merubah ha-Klali is the square of the standard absolute value of each word.
  • Mispar Meshulash calculates the value of each letter as the cube of their standard value. The same term is more often used for Mispar Kidmi.
  • Mispar ha-Akhor - The value of each letter is its standard value multiplied by the position of the letter in a word or a phrase in either ascending or descending order. This method is particularly interesting, because the result is sensitive to the order of letters. It is also sometimes called Mispar Meshulash (triangular number).
  • Mispar Mispari spells out the standard values of each letter by their Hebrew names ("Achad" (one) is etc.), and then adds up the standard values of the resulting string.
  • Otiyot beMilui ("filled letters", also known as Mispar gadol or Mispar Shemi), uses the value of each letter as equal to the value of its name.[21] For example, the value of the letter Aleph is , Bet is , etc. Sometimes the same operation is applied two or more times recursively. In a variation known as Otiyot pnimiyot (inner letters), the initial letter in the spelled-out name is omitted, thus the value of Alef becomes 30+80=110.
  • Mispar Ne'elam (hidden number) spells out the name of each letter without the letter itself (e.g., "Leph" for "Aleph") and adds up the value of the resulting string.
  • Mispar Katan Mispari (integral reduced value) is used where the total numerical value of a word is reduced to a single digit. If the sum of the value exceeds 9, the integer values of the total are repeatedly added to produce a single-digit number. The same value will be arrived at regardless of whether it is the absolute values, the ordinal values, or the reduced values that are being counted by methods above.
  • Mispar Misafi adds the number of the letters in the word or phrase to their gematria.
  • Kolel is the number of words, which is often added to the gematria. In case of one word, the standard value is incremented by one.

Related alphabet transformations

Within the wider topic of gematria are included the various alphabet transformations where one letter is substituted by another based on a logical scheme:

  • Atbash exchanges each letter in a word or a phrase by opposite letters. Opposite letters are determined by substituting the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet (Aleph) with the last letter (Tav), the second letter (Bet) with the next to last (Shin), etc. The result can be interpreted as a secret message or calculated by the standard gematria methods. A few instances of Atbash are found already in the Hebrew Bible. For example, see Jeremiah 25:26, and 51:41, with Targum and Rashi, in which the name ("Sheshek") is thought to represent (Babylon).[1]
  • Albam - the alphabet is divided in half, eleven letters in each section. The first letter of the first series is exchanged for the first letter of the second series, the second letter of the first series for the second letter of the second series, and so forth.
  • Achbi divides the alphabet into two equal groups of 11 letters. Within each group, the first letter is replaced by the last, the second by the 10th, etc.
  • Ayak Bakar replaces each letter by another one that has a 10-times-greater value. The final letters usually signify the numbers from 500 to 900. Thousands is reduced to ones (1,000 becomes 1, 2,000 becomes 2, etc.)
  • Ofanim replaces each letter by the last letter of its name (e.g. "Fe" for "Aleph").
  • Akhas Beta divides the alphabet into three groups of 7, 7 and 8 letters. Each letter is replaced cyclically by the corresponding letter of the next group. The letter Tav remains the same.
  • Avgad replaces each letter by the next one. Tav becomes Aleph. The opposite operation is also used.

Most of the above-mentioned methods and ciphers are listed by Rabbi Moshe Cordevero.[22]

Some authors provide lists of as many as 231 various replacement ciphers, related to the 231 mystical Gates of the Sefer Yetzirah.[23]

Dozens of other far more advanced methods are used in Kabbalistic literature, without any particular names. In Ms. Oxford 1,822, one article lists 75 different forms of gematria.[24] Some known methods are recursive in nature and are reminiscent of the graph theory or use heavily combinatorics. Rabbi Elazar Rokeach often used multiplication, instead of addition, for the above-mentioned methods. For example, spelling out the letters of a word and then multiplying the squares of each letter value in the resulting string produces very large numbers, in orders of trillions. The spelling process can be applied recursively, until a certain pattern (e.g., all the letters of the word "Talmud") is found; the gematria of the resulting string is then calculated. The same author also used sums of all possible unique letter combinations, which add up to the value of a given letter. For example, the letter Hei, which has the standard value of 5, can be produced by combining , , , , , or , which adds up to . Sometimes combinations of repeating letters are not allowed (e.g., is valid, but is not). The original letter itself can also be viewed as a valid combination.[23]

Variant spellings of some letters can be used to produce sets of different numbers, which can be added up or analyzed separately. Many various complex formal systems and recursive algorithms, based on graph-like structural analysis of the letter names and their relations to each other, modular arithmetic, pattern search and other highly advanced techniques, are found in the "Sefer ha-Malchuth" by Rabbi David ha-Levi of Draa Valley, a Spanish-Moroccan Kabbalist of the 15th-16th century.[18] Rabbi David ha-Levi's methods take into consideration the numerical values and other properties of the vowels as well.

Kabbalistic astrology uses some specific methods to determine the astrological influences on a particular person. According to one method, the gematria of the person's name is added to the gematria of his or her mother's name; the result is then divided by 7 and 12. The remainders signify a particular planet and Zodiac sign.[25]

Absolute value

The most common form of Hebrew gematria is used in the Talmud and Midrash, and elaborately by many post-Talmudic commentators. It involves reading words and sentences as numbers, assigning numerical instead of phonetic value to each letter of the Hebrew alphabet. When read as numbers, they can be compared and contrasted with other words or phrases - cf. the Hebrew proverb ?    (nichnas yayin yatza sod, lit. "wine entered, secret went out", i.e. "in vino veritas"). The gematric value of ("wine") is 70 (?=10; ?=10; ?=50) and this is also the gematric value of ("secret", ?=60; ?=6; ?=4)‎.[26]

Use in other languages

Assyrian

The first attested use of gematria occurs in an inscription of the Assyrian ruler Sargon II (727-705 BCE) stating that the king built the wall of Khorsabad 16,283 cubits long to correspond with the numerical value of his name.[27][dubious ]

Greek isopsephy

Gematria or isopsephy was borrowed from the Greek, probably soon after their adoption of the Semitic writing system.[28][dubious ]

The extant examples of use in Greek come primarily from the Christian literature and, unlike rabbinic sources, is always explicitly stated as being used.[28]

It has been asserted[where?] that Plato (c. 427-347 BC) offers a discussion of gematria "in its simplest forms" in the Cratylus, where he is said to have claimed that "the 'essential force' of a thing's name is to be found in its numerical value, and that words and phrases of the same numerical value may be substituted in context without loss in meaning". A direct review of the Cratylus, however, shows that Plato made no such claim and that gematria is not discussed in it either explicitly or implicitly.[] What can be more accurately stated is that Plato's discussion in the Cratylus involves a view of words and names as referring (more or less accurately) to the "essential nature" of a person or object, and that this view may have influenced - and is central to - Greek gematria.[29][30]

Latin-script languages

The Latin-script languages exhibit borrowing of gematria methods dating from the early Middle Ages after the use lapsed following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th century.

666, the Number of the Beast

Many researchers connect the "Number of the Beast", referred to in the Book of Revelation of the New Testament, with Hebrew gematria as used by the early Jewish Christians. According to such interpretations, the number in question, six hundred sixty-six (666; see ) originally referred to the Roman emperor at the time, Nero Caesar. The Greek version of Nero's name (Neron Kaisar) transliterates into Hebrew as ? ‎ (NRON QSR), and yields a numerical value of 666 ().[31] Likewise, the early textual variant of 616 can be calculated by using the Latin version of Nero's name (Nero Cæsar) which transliterates into Hebrew as ‎ (NRO QSR) -- ().[32]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSolomon Schechter & Caspar Levias (1901-1906). "GEMA?RIA". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ "Chabad.org Chani Benjaminson".
  3. ^ "Gematria" at Dictionary.com
  4. ^ "gematria". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.) Oxford English Dictionary
  5. ^ Benjamin Blech, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Jewish Culture, p. 395 (2004)
  6. ^ e.g. Aish HaTorah, http://www.aish.com/spirituality/prayer/Prayer_6_-_Hear_O_Israel_Part_1.asp, which says "It is part of a Kabbalistic tradition ... Gematria is a Kabbalistic way of showing how two ideas are related on a conceptual level; it is using numerology as a basis to confirm (not create) the connection."
  7. ^ Otzar Eden ha-Ganuz,
  8. ^ E.g. the rebbes of the Zhidichov dynasty noticed that the Yiddish word vaser (water) has the same value as Geshem (rain in Hebrew), and used this fact for theurgic meditations
  9. ^ Knohl, Israel. "The Original Version of the Priestly Creation Account and the Religious Significance of the Number Eight in the Bible". Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ Knohl, Israel (2012). "Sacred Architecture: The Numerical Dimensions of Biblical Poems". Vetus Testamentum. 62 (2): 189-197. doi:10.1163/156853312x629199. ISSN 0042-4935.
  11. ^ Hurowitz, Victor (2012). "Proverbs: Introduction and Commentary". Miqra LeYisrael. 1-2.
  12. ^ LIEBERMAN, Stephen (1987). "A Mesopotamian Background for the So-Called Aggadic 'Measures' of Biblical Hermeneutics?". Hebrew Union College Annual. 58: 157-225. JSTOR 23508256.
  13. ^ astronomer and mathematician and knew geometry, Horayoth 10 a-b
  14. ^ Pirkei Avot 3:23
  15. ^ The Mishnah, trans. by Herbert Danby, Oxford University Press, 1933, Avot 3:19, footnote
  16. ^ Sanhedrin 22a
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ a b Sefer ha-Malchut, "Sifrei Chaim", Jerusalem, 2008
  19. ^ Moshe Cordovero, Pardes Rimmonim
  20. ^ Toras Menachem - Tiferes Levi Yitzchok, Vol. I - Bereshis, p. 2, fn. 7
  21. ^ the spelling of the name of the number comes from the Talmud
  22. ^ Moshe Cordevero, Sefer Pardes ha-Rimonim, ?
  23. ^ a b Elazar Rokeach, Sefer ha-Shem
  24. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, 2007, vol. 7, 426
  25. ^ Commentary to Sefer Yetzirah, attributed to Saadia Gaon, 6:4; Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, Sefer Yetzirah, "WeiserBooks", Boston, 1997, pp. 220-221
  26. ^ Babylonian Talmud, tractate Sanhedrin 38a, see of Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2006), "'Etymythological Othering' and the Power of 'Lexical Engineering' in Judaism, Islam and Christianity. A Socio-Philo(sopho)logical Perspective", Explorations in the Sociology of Language and Religion, edited by Tope Omoniyi and Joshua A. Fishman, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 237-258.
  27. ^ p.197, Ratzan
  28. ^ a b p.164, Davies & Allison
  29. ^ Marc Hirshman, Theology and exegesis in midrashic literature, in Jon Whitman, Interpretation and allegory: antiquity to the modern period. Brill, 2003. pp. 113-114.
  30. ^ John Michell, The Dimensions of Paradise: Sacred Geometry, Ancient Science, and the Heavenly Order on Earth, 2008. pp.59-65 ff.
  31. ^ Sanders, Henry A. (1918). "The Number of the Beast in Revelation". Journal of Biblical Literature. The Society of Biblical Literature. 37 (1/2): 97. doi:10.2307/3259148.
  32. ^ Cory, Catherine A. (2006). The Book of Revelation. Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-2885-0. p.61

References

  • Klein, Ernest, Dr., A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language: Dealing with the origin of words and their sense development thus illustrating the history and civilization of culture, Elsevier, Oxford, 7th ed., 2000
  • Davies, William David & Allison, Dale C., A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to Saint Matthew, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004
  • Acres, Kevin, Data integrity patterns of the Torah: A tale of prime, perfect and transcendental numbers, Research Systems, Melbourne, 2004 [2]
  • Clawson, Calvin C., Mathematical Mysteries: The Beauty and Magic of Numbers, Perseus Books, 1999
  • Davis, John J. Biblical Numerology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1968.
  • Hughes, J. P., Suggestive Gematria, Holmes, 2008
  • Genesis Rabbah 95:3. Land of Israel, 5th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon. Volume II, London: The Soncino Press, 1983. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
  • Deuteronomy Rabbah 1:25. Land of Israel, 5th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Leviticus. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon. Volume VII, London: The Soncino Press, 1983. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
  • Lawrence, Shirley Blackwell, The Secret Science of Numerology - The Hidden Meaning of Numbers and Letters, New Page Books, 2001
  • Menninger, Karl. Number Words and Number Symbols: A Cultural History of Numbers. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969.
  • Ratzan, Lee, Understanding Information Systems: What They Do and why We Need Them, ALA Editions, 2004
  • Rawn, Jonathan D. Discovering Gematria: Foundational Exegesis and Primary Dictionary. 1,968 pp. Gematria Publishing, 2008.
  • Sefer hamilim. Qonqordantzia hakhadash (lekol haTanakh). Lebovits-Kest Memorial, B'nei-Torah Compact Library, Printed in Israel
  • Zeitler, William. Musical Gematria. Musica Arcana, 2013, ISBN 978-1-940630-02-1



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Gematria
 



 



 
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