Ge With Upturn
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Ge With Upturn
Cyrillic letter
Ghe with upturn
Cyrillic letter Ghe with upturn.png
Phonetic usage:[g]
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
Non-Slavic letters
Archaic letters

Ghe with upturn (? ?; italics: ? ? ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is part of the Ukrainian alphabet, the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet and both the Carpathian Rusyn alphabets, and also some variants of the Urum and Belarusian (i.e. Tara?kievica) alphabets. In these alphabets it is usually called "Ge", while the letter it follows -- ?? ?? (which in its turn is also called "Ge" in Russian and many other languages) -- is called "He". In Unicode, this letter is called "Ghe with upturn".[1]

The letterform of this letter is based on the letterform of the letter ?? ??, but its handwritten and italic lowercase forms do not follow the italic modification of (i.e. ?).

It represents the voiced velar plosive /?/, like the pronunciation of ?g? in "go".

Ghe with upturn is romanized using the Latin letter G (but with an additional grave accent in ISO 9).


The common Slavic voiced velar plosive [?] is represented in most Cyrillic orthographies by ???, called ghe in most languages. In Ukrainian, however, around the early 13th century, the sound lenited to the voiced velar fricative [?] (except in the cluster *zg),[2] and around the 16th century, debuccalized to the voiced glottal fricative [?][3] (like the pronunciation of ?h? in behind). The phoneme continued to be represented by , called he in Ukrainian.

Within a century after this sound change began, [?] was re-introduced from Western European loanwords. Since then, it has been represented by several different notations in writing.

In early Belarusian and Ukrainian orthographies, Latin ?g? or the Cyrillic digraph ? (kh) were sometimes used for the sound of Latin ?g? in assimilated words. The first text to consequently employ the letter was the 16th-century Peresopnytsia Gospel. The use of the letter was not confined to the Old- and Middle-Ukrainian-speaking territory, and there was a fully-fledged use in the 16th-century printer Pyotr Mstislavets's edition of The Four Gospels. Later, distinguishing of the sound and using the digraph gradually disappeared from Belarusian orthography.

As far as linguistic studies are concerned, the letter was first introduced into the Slavic alphabet in 1619 by Meletius Smotrytsky in his "Slavic Grammar" (? ? ).[4] Later, for an identical purpose, it was saved in the new orthography of Ukrainian.

The letter was officially eliminated from the Ukrainian alphabet in the Soviet orthographic reforms of 1933, its function being subsumed into that of the letter , pronounced in Ukrainian as [?]. However, continued to be used by Ukrainians in Galicia (part of Poland until 1939) and in the Ukrainian diaspora worldwide. It was reintroduced to Soviet Ukraine in a 1990 orthographic reform under glasnost.[5]

In Belarusian, the plosive realization of the Proto-Slavic voiced velar plosive has been preserved root-internally in the consonant clusters ?, ?, , and (in words such as [maz'?i], ['v?dz?ats?] or ['dats?] but not on a morphological boundary, as in ? [z?a'dats?], in which /z/ is a prefix). It is present in common loanwords such as ['?anak], ['?uz?ik], or ? ['?andal?]. In the 20th century, some Belarusian linguists, notably Jan Stankievi?, promoted both the reintroduction of the practice of pronouncing Latin ?g?, at least in newly assimilated words, and the adoption of the letter to represent it. However, consensus on this has never been reached, and the letter has never been part of the standard Belarusian alphabet and saw only sporadic periods of use. For example, a code of alternative Belarusian orthography rules, based on the proposal of Vincuk Via?orka and published in 2005, has the optional letter included in the alphabet, but it can be replaced by .[6]


The cursive form in Ukrainian

Regular (non-cursive) uppercase and lowercase forms of this letter look similar to the corresponding regular (non-cursive) uppercase and lowercase forms of the "" letter, but with additional upturn. Handwritten (cursive) uppercase and lowercase forms of this letter are displayed by the image to the left.

Related letters and other similar characters

Computing codes

Character information
Preview Ґ ґ
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1168 U+0490 1169 U+0491
UTF-8 210 144 D2 90 210 145 D2 91
Numeric character reference Ґ Ґ ґ ґ
KOI8-U 189 BD 173 AD
Windows-1251 165 A5 180 B4
Macintosh Cyrillic 162 A2 182 B6


  1. ^ "Cyrillic: Range: 0400-04FF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 6.0. Unicode Inc. 2010. p. 42. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Shevelov (1977:145)
  3. ^ Shevelov (1977:148)
  4. ^ ? . ?' (1619). ? ? ? ?. ?. ?. ?. «? » ('? ?) 1979
  5. ^ Ukrainian Orthography (2012). -- § 15. The letter .
  6. ^ Bu?lako? et al. (2005: 13)

Further reading

External links

  • The dictionary definition of ? at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of ? at Wiktionary

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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