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Publicity still of singer and actress Judy Garland. Garland is often considered the quintessential gay icon
A gay icon is a public figure who is highly regarded and beloved by the LGBT community. A gay icon can either be a part of the LGBT community or heterosexual, but heterosexual gay icons are often highly supportive of their fans within the community and the rights of LGBT people. Organizations such as GLAAD routinely recognize public figures for their contributions and support for the LGBT community. Gay icons exist across cultures, most prominently in North and South America, Europe, and Asia.
The earliest gay icon may have been Saint Sebastian, a Christian saint and martyr, whose combination of strong and shirtless physique, symbolic arrow-pierced flesh and rapturous look of pain have intrigued artists, both gay and straight, for centuries and began the first explicitly gay cult in the nineteenth century. Journalist Richard A. Kaye wrote, "Contemporary gay men have seen in Sebastian at once a stunning advertisement for homosexual desire (indeed, a homoerotic ideal), and a prototypical portrait of a tortured closet case."
Due to Saint Sebastian's status as a gay icon, Tennessee Williams chose to use the saint's name for the martyred character Sebastian in his play, Suddenly, Last Summer. The name was also used by Oscar Wilde--as Sebastian Melmoth--when in exile after his release from prison. Wilde, an Irish writer and poet, was about as "out of the closet" as was possible for the late 19th century, and is himself considered to be a gay icon.
Marie Antoinette was an early lesbian icon. Rumors about her relationships with women circulated in pornographic detail by anti-royalist pamphlets before the French Revolution. In Victorian England, biographers who idealized the Ancien Régime made a point of denying the rumours, but at the same time romanticised Marie Antoinette's "sisterly" friendship with the Princesse de Lamballe as--in the words of an 1858 biography--one of the "rare and great loves that Providence unites in death." By the end of the 19th century, she was a cult icon of "sapphism." Her execution, seen as tragic martyrdom, may have added to her appeal.
Allusions to her appearance were made in early 20th century lesbian literature--most notably Radclyffe Hall's The Well of Loneliness--where the gay playwright Jonathan Brockett describes Marie Antoinette and de Lamballe as "poor souls... sick to death of the subterfuge and pretenses." She had crossover appeal as a gay icon, as well, at least for French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist Jean Genet, who was fascinated by her story. He included a reenactment of her execution in his 1947 play The Maids.
James Dean became an icon for lesbians in the 1950s
Modern gay icons in entertainment include film stars and musicians, most of whom have strong, distinctive personalities, and many of whom died young or under tragic circumstances. For example, Greek-American opera singer Maria Callas--who reached her peak in the 1950s--became a gay icon because the uniquely compelling qualities of her stage performances were allied to a tempestuous private life, a sequence of unhappy love affairs, and a lonely premature death in Paris after her voice had deserted her.
Lesbian icons, sometimes called "dykons" (a portmanteau of the words "dyke" and "icon") are most often powerful women who are, or are rumored to be, lesbian or bisexual. However, a few male entertainers have also had iconic status for lesbian people. James Dean was an early lesbian icon who, along with Marlon Brando, influenced the butch look and self-image in the 1950s and after. One critic has argued for Johnny Cash as a minor lesbian icon, attributing his appeal to "lesbian identification with troubled and suffering masculinity."
Gay icons may be homosexual or heterosexual, out or in the closet, male or female. The women most commonly portrayed by drag queens are usually gay icons. The definition of what it means to be a "gay icon" has come under criticism in recent years for a lack of substance. Paul Flynn of The Guardian wrote, "The concept of gay icon is a cheap ticket...[and] the idea of gay iconography itself is currently replaceable with the idea of popularity and the ability to carry a strong, identifiable, signature look." Author Michael Thomas Ford depicts a similar attitude in his work of fiction Last Summer.
The term "gay icon" is found in many cultures. Dalida, a French singer of Italian origin who was born in Egypt, had a career-long gay following that extended out of Paris and well into the Middle East. In the years since her death in 1987, her iconic status has not diminished.
Latin American figures have also gained reputations as gay icons. Pop band Alaska y Dinarama is one example. Their single "¿A quién le importa?" ("Who Cares?"), which was later covered in 2002 by Thalía, was a hit for the 1980s Spanish band, becoming a gay anthem for the Hispanophone LGBT community. Singer Gloria Trevi is considered a gay icon, especially after her release of "Todos me miran" ("Everyone's Looking at Me") featuring a rejected gay man turned drag queen, but had been popular with the gay and lesbian community in Mexico since the beginning of her career for being a controversial and powerful singer. Mexican singer and actress Paulina Rubio has been a gay icon for Latin America after supporting gay marriage and publicly stating that she wants to have sex with fellow gay icon Madonna.
The 1930s saw a number of writers, political activists, and celebrities garner reputations as gay icons. Poet and satirical writer Dorothy Parker had a large gay following. The phrase "friend of Dorothy" was code for gay and is attributed to both Parker and the popular Judy Garland role in The Wizard Of Oz (1939).
Actress Bette Davis' performance in Dark Victory (1939), was dubbed by queer theorist Eve Sedgwick as "the epistemology of the closet." Davis' portrayal of the melodramatic Judith Traherne made her talent for playing someone with a secret revered and her "camp-worthy" dialog reflexive of the "flamboyant gay queen of the dramatic arts." Ed Sikov, author of Dark Victory: The Life of Bette Davis, wrote that 20th century gay men developed their own subculture following Davis' example.
In Marcella Althaus-Reid's Liberation Theology and Sexuality, Marlene Dietrich, who is considered to be the first German-born actress to receive critical acclaim in Hollywood, is a model of liberation and subversion, as well as beauty, perfection and sensuality. In Rio de Janeiro, Althaus-Reid discovered a statue of Dietrich dressed as Our Lady of Aparecida in a gay bar in Copacabana beach. The image of Dietrich as the black Virgin Mary represents her overcoming duality. According to Althaus-Reid, it is a figure that sanctifies Dietrich while simultaneously liberating Mary.
The expression "Is he a friend of Dorothy?" was slang for "Is he gay?" The character Dorothy meets an odd group of friends during her journey through Oz--the Tin Man, the Cowardly Lion and the Scarecrow--and so referring to an individual as a "friend of Dorothy" meant that they were "unusual or odd" and, therefore, "queer". Though Garland has been noted for her embodiment of camp in her acting roles, Bronski argues that she was the "antithesis of camp" and "made a legend of her pain and oppression." As Bronski observes, the bleak setting of 1950s Hollywood had replaced the "sauciness of the [1930s] and the independence of the [1940s]." Garland, as well as Lana Turner, epitomized the idea that "suffering was the price of glamor...[and] the women stars of the [1950s] reflected the condition of many gay men: they suffered, beautifully".
Garland's daughter, Liza Minnelli, would later follow in her mother's footsteps as a gay icon, as would fellow musical artist Barbra Streisand.Joan Crawford has been described as the "ultimate gay icon--the martyr who suffered for her art and, therefore, enabled herself to bond with this all-important faction of her fanbase." In Joan Crawford: The Essential Biography, author Lawrence J. Quirk explains that Crawford appealed to gay men because they sympathized with her struggle for success, in both the entertainment industry and in her personal life. Though Crawford had been a notable film star during the 1930s and 1940s, according to David Bret, author of Joan Crawford: Hollywood Martyr, it was not until her 1953 film Torch Song that she was seen as a "complete gay icon, primarily because it was shot in color." Bret explains that seeing the actress' red hair, dark eyes and "Victory Red" lips linked her to "gaydom's other sirens: Dietrich, Garland, Bankhead, Piaf, and new recruits Marilyn Monroe and Maria Callas."
Actress Lucille Ball was also a prominent icon from this period. In Lee Tannen's book I Loved Lucy: My Friendship with Lucille Ball, the author describes his experience when he witnessed Lucille Ball being labeled a gay icon for the first time by a mutual friend. Ball was told of the adoration she received from gay men, as a bar in West Hollywood was known for routinely playing episodes of her television series I Love Lucy every weekend.
During the late 1970s, many female comedians appeared, joining the ranks of what had stereotypically been a male profession, including Joan Rivers, who began appearing on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Rivers gained a strong gay following after performing in Greenwich Village, an LGBT friendly area of New York, from the early days of her career. Rivers' frank and sharp use of wit and insults (largely turned toward herself) made her an instant gay icon.
Donna Summer was a prominent gay icon of the underground gay disco scene.
The first gay icon of the 1970s underground gay disco scene was the "Queen of Disco" Donna Summer, whose dance songs became anthems for the clubbing gay community, and her music the back beat to the battles of the gay rights movement of the 1970s. Her number one single "Love to Love You Baby"--regarded as an "absolute disco epic"--not only became a gay anthem because of its "unabridged sexuality", but it also brought European-oriented disco to the United States and influenced the course the recording industry would take in the following years. However, Summer became immersed in controversy when, after becoming a Born again Christian, and during a 1983-84 tour, at the dawn of the HIV/AIDS crisis, she was allegedly reported as making homophobic remarks; including that "AIDS was God's punishment to homosexuals." However, she later denied having ever made these comments. Paul Flynn of The Guardian referred to Summer as "the accidental gay icon" as she did not make songs with the intention of appealing to LGBT people, but her songs nevertheless became popular in the community. Fellow disco singer Gloria Gaynor was embraced by the gay community because of her single "I Will Survive", which served as an anthem for both feminists and the gay rights movement. The Village People, a pioneering disco group, are also regarded as gay icons for bringing gay disco culture into the mainstream with their popular disco and dance hits; and their costumes, with each member of the group representing a part of gay erotica (a policeman, a sailor, a construction worker, a cowboy, a leather clad man).
Singer Sylvester became a gay icon after releasing his Hi-NRG single "You Make Me Feel (Mighty Real)" in 1978. Sylvester often made appearances in drag, and often described as a disco diva because of his falsetto voice and flamboyant appearance. He also influenced the gay nightclub scene in the late seventies and eighties. Sylvester died of AIDS-related complications in 1988.
Singer Cass Elliot became known as a gay icon, both during her solo career and as a member of The Mamas & the Papas. Her musical impact became known through her camp fashion and lyrics praising individuality (such as "Make Your Own Kind of Music" and "Different") and free love. Her music was later featured in the acclaimed gay film Beautiful Thing (1996), adapted from the play of the same name.
Singer and actress Bette Midler became recognized as a gay icon in the 1970s. After performing on Broadway, Midler began performing at the Continental Baths, a gay bathhouse in the city, where she became close to her piano accompanist Barry Manilow, who produced her first major album The Divine Miss M (1973). "Despite the way things turned out [with the AIDS crisis], I'm still proud of those days [singing at gay bathhouses]. I feel like I was at the forefront of the gay liberation movement, and I hope I did my part to help it move forward. So, I kind of wear the label of 'Bathhouse Betty' with pride," Midler reminisced in 1998.
Freddie Mercury, the lead vocalist of Queen, was widely considered a gay icon, with his LGBT fanbase growing by the 1980s. Although Freddie Mercury never revealed his sexuality publicly (even when events made it seem inevitable), he often "playfully alluded to his queerness with his flamboyant, high-camp stage antics", according to Gay Star News. In 1992, John Marshall of Gay Times expressed the following opinion: "[Mercury] was a 'scene-queen,' not afraid to publicly express his gayness, but unwilling to analyse or justify his 'lifestyle' ... It was as if Freddie Mercury was saying to the world, 'I am what I am. So what?' And that in itself for some was a statement." Many assumed him to be either gay or bisexual and not sexually active. He would often distance himself from his later partner, Jim Hutton, during public events. On the evening of November 24, 1991, Mercury died at the age of 45 at his home in Kensington of AIDS-related illnesses (bronchial pneumonia).
Cher became notable in the gay community not only for her music, but also her drag, her leather outfits of the 80s made her popular with the leather crowd. In later years, her only child, Chaz Bono, came out as gay at the age of 17 (and many years later as a transgender man), much to his mother's initial feelings of "guilt, fear and pain". When Cher was able to accept her son's sexual orientation, she realized that Chaz, as well as other LGBT people, "didn't have the same rights as everyone else, [and she] thought that was unfair". Cher emerged not only as an icon among LGBT people, but also as a role model for straight parents who have gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender children. She became the keynote speaker for the 1997 national Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) convention. Cher's longevity in the music industry has often been credited to her gay following.William J. Mann, author of Gay Pride: A Celebration of All Things Gay and Lesbian, comments "[w]e'll be dancing to a 90-year-old Cher when we're 60. Just watch".
Continuing into the 1980s, pop music singer Madonna--dubbed the "Queen of Pop" and "Queen of Dance" by the media, and later the "World's Most Successful Female Recording Artist" by Guinness World Records--became the preeminent gay icon of the late 20th century.The Advocates Steve Gdula commented "[b]ack in the 1980s and even the early 1990s, the release of a new Madonna video or single was akin to a national holiday, at least among her gay fans." Gdula also stated that during this period, concurrent with the rise of the AIDS epidemic, "when other artists tried to distance themselves from the very audience that helped their stars to rise, Madonna only turned the light back on her gay fans and made it burn all the brighter."
Georges Claude Guilbert, author of Madonna As Postmodern Myth: How One Star's Self-Construction Rewrites Sex, Gender, Hollywood and the American Dream, writes that Madonna's reverence as a gay icon is equated with that of Judy Garland, noting similarities between the two popular culture icons. Guilbert writes that gay icons "usually belong to one or the other of two types of female stars: either the very vulnerable or suicidal star, or the strong idol whom nobody or nothing resists, like Madonna." According to Madonna: An Intimate Biography, the pop star has always been aware that her most loyal fans were gay men, has appeared in gay-oriented magazines as an activist for gay rights, and was even named in the book The Gay 100 as one of the most influential gay people in history.
Other superstar recording artists, including Cyndi Lauper, followed. Lauper and Madonna were seen as trailblazers of women's sexual liberation. Lauper's debut album She's So Unusual (1983) generated a large following of fans responding to the "gay-friendly camp and lesbian-friendly womyn power epitomized in [her] femme anthem 'Girls Just Want to Have Fun'." Lauper explained that growing up during the 1960s influenced her dedication to fair and equal treatment of all people, noting that the music of the 1960s "helped to open the world's point of view to change." According to Lauper "It wasn't until my sister came out in the early [1970s] that I became more aware of the bigoted slurs and the violence against a community of people...who were gay." Lauper has since become an active gay rights activist, often encouraging LGBT people and their allies to vote for equal rights. Political activism for LGBT rights was the theme of Lauper's annual True Colors Tour.
Oprah Winfrey is credited by many in the US as allowing gay people to become mainstream, due to her popularization of the tabloid talk show genre.
In the mid- to late-1980s, Oprah Winfrey emerged as an icon for the gay community with an intimate confessional communication style that altered the cultural landscape. According to the book Freaks Talk Back by Yale sociologist Joshua Gamson, the tabloid talk show genre popularized by Oprah Winfrey and Phil Donahue, did more to make gay people mainstream and socially acceptable than any other development of the 20th century by providing decades of high-impact media visibility for sexual nonconformists.
Fellow gay icon Ellen DeGeneres cast Winfrey to play the therapist she comes out of the closet to on the controversial episode of her Ellen sitcom. Though Winfrey abandoned her tabloid talk show format in the mid-1990s as the genre became flooded by more extreme clones like Ricki Lake, Jenny Jones and Jerry Springer, she continued to broadcast shows that were perceived as gay-friendly. Her show Oprah's Big Give was the first reality TV show with an openly gay host Nate Berkus. Her own show has been nominated several times for GLAAD Media Awards, and another in 2010 for an interview with Ellen DeGeneres and her wife Portia de Rossi, winning one in 2007 Oprah Winfrey also co-produced the Oscar-winning film Precious (2009), which was honored by GLAAD for portraying a lesbian couple as heroines.
Winfrey's iconic status among gay males has entered the popular culture. One of the stars of the reality TV show The Benefactor was a gay African American man named Kevin who was so obsessed with Winfrey that he would ask "What would Oprah do?" before making any strategic decision. Adam Lambert is another high-profile gay man who has described himself as a fan of Winfrey.
The Golden Girls, a sitcom centered on four middle-aged and elderly women in the Miami retirement community, also gained a cult following in the gay community that remains to the present day. The show, which aired in the late 1980s and early 1990s, shone a positive and supportive light on gay rights, with episodes sympathetically discussing coming out, the AIDS crisis, and even same-sex marriage being aired. These episodes, along with the sharp-tongued, catty humour that dominated the show, firmly established the main cast, Bea Arthur, Betty White, Estelle Getty, and Rue McClanahan, as gay icons in their own right. After the show ended, the actors continued to highlight LGBT causes with Arthur, for example, bequeathing $300,000 to a New York charity to establish a shelter for homeless LGBTQ youths.
Janet Jackson, who twice was established as one of the highest-paid recording artists in the history of contemporary music during the 1990s, became a gay icon after she released her sixth studio album The Velvet Rope (1997). The album was honored by the National Black Lesbian and Gay Leadership Forum and received the award for Outstanding Music Album at the 9th Annual GLAAD Media Awards in 1998 for its songs that dealt with sexual orientation and homophobia. On April 26, 2008, she received the Vanguard Award--a media award from the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation--to honor her work in the entertainment industry in promoting equality for LGBT people. GLAAD President Neil G. Giuliano commented, "Ms. Jackson has a tremendous following inside the LGBT community and out, and having her stand with us against the defamation that LGBT people still face in our country is extremely significant."
Deborah Cox quickly becomes a gay icon due to her investment for the fight against the AIDS but also and especially thanks to club remixes included in her singles, which are frequently played in the discothèques.
Writer, composer and singer, Ysa Ferrer is regarded as the French "Kylie". Her dance/electro style, called "Pop Kosmic" is very popular in France and Russia especially in the gay community where she is considered as a true icon.
Mariah Carey who dominated the 90's with chart-topping hits is regarded as a gay icon. Her 1993 single "Hero" is regarded as an anthem for the gay community as it touches upon themes of embracing individuality and overcoming self-doubt. Carey's diva persona has also given her much admiration from gay fans as she embraces and epitomizes glamour, confidence, and extravagance. Carey was honored by GLAAD in 2016 with the "GLAAD Ally Award" for which she expressed gratitude to her LGBT+ fans. In her speech Carey thanked the community, "For the unconditional love because it's very difficult for me to have that. I haven't experienced much of it...I wish all of you love, peace, [and] harmony..."
Kylie Minogue reinvented herself musically in the first decade of the 21st century and found herself faced with a renewed and increasing gay fanbase. She said, "My gay audience has been with me from the beginning ... they kind of adopted me." Minogue first became aware of her gay audience in 1988, when several drag queens performed to her music at a Sydney pub, and she later saw a similar show in Melbourne. Minogue felt "very touched" to have such an "appreciative crowd," and this encouraged her to perform at gay venues throughout the world, as well as headlining Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras. Her sister, Dannii Minogue, also has a large gay following and has been regarded a gay icon.
As a result of her role playing Karen Walker on Will & Grace, Megan Mullally emerged as a gay icon. One commentator wrote that the show "won the actress an impressive gay following, both with men and women, who want to be her and with her."
Christina Aguilera is regarded a gay icon, a status that came following the release of the song "Beautiful", which became a gay anthem and was recognized as "the most empowering song for lesbian, gay and bisexual people of the decade." The accompanying video featured people who can feel ostracised from society, including a same-sex couple and a transgender woman. Aguilera also was honored with the very first spot on The Abbey's Gay Walk of Fame for her contributions to gay culture, re-enforcing the title of gay icon she earned a decade ago with her anthem "Beautiful".
Adam Lambert is one of the most famous male gay icons. He is the top gay musician to come out of American Idol and courted controversy early in his career by kissing his bass player live onstage at the American Music Awards 2009.[16}. The Times identified Lambert as the first openly gay mainstream pop artist to launch a career on a major label in the U.S. Adam Lambert is the first openly gay pop star to top the Billboard album charts (the album Trespassing2012).. On this occasion, Lambert said: "It's nice to be one of the few gay icons in America but it can be a bit challenging and difficult." . Adam Lambert also was honored with GLAAD Media Awards Outstanding Music Artist and Davidson/Valentini Award 2013; the "Music Icon" award at the 2015 British LGBT Awards and "Music Award/ International Album" at the Attitude Pride Awards in London 2015.
Ariana Grande has been named by Billboard the Gay Icon of this generation. The same publication also praised Lady Gaga for earning her gay icon status and called her "one of the LGBTQ community's fiercest advocates".
The political Pedro Zerolo was one of the most important LGBT activists in the history of Spain and one of the biggest promoters of extending the right to marriage and adoption to homosexual couples in the country.
I still hear people say that I should not be talking about the rights of lesbian and gay people and I should stick to the issue of racial justice... But I hasten to remind them that Martin Luther King Jr. said "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere."... I appeal to everyone who believes in Martin Luther King Jr.'s dream to make room at the table of brother- and sisterhood for lesbian and gay people.
Some comic book characters are considered gay icons. Homosexual interpretations of Batman and the original Robin, Dick Grayson, have been of interest in cultural and academic study, due primarily to psychologist Fredric Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent (1954). In the mid-1950s, Wertham led a national campaign against comic books, convincing Americans that they were responsible for corrupting children and encouraging them to engage in acts of sex and violence. In relation to Batman and Robin, Wertham asserted "the Batman type of story helps to fixate homoerotic tendencies by suggesting the form of an adolescent-with-adult or Ganymede-Zeus type of love-relationship".
In Containing America: Cultural Production and Consumption in Fifties America, authors Nathan Abrams and Julie Hughes point out that homosexual interpretations of Batman and Robin existed prior to Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent. Wertham claimed his book was, in fact, prompted by the earlier research of a California psychiatrist. The relationship between Batman and arch villain the Joker has also been interpreted by many as homoerotic. Frank Miller, author of The Dark Knight Returns, has described the relationship between Batman and the Joker as a "homophobic nightmare," and views the character as sublimating his sexual urges into crime fighting, concluding, "He'd be much healthier if he were gay."
In 2016, several Tumblr users joked that the titular character of The Babadook, a 2014 psychological horror film directed by Jennifer Kent, was gay. Despite no overt references to homosexuality in the film, the character has since been adopted as a symbol for the LGBT community, and has featured in several pride parades.
Kent has responded positively to the adoption of her character as a gay icon, and an LGBT pride edition of the film's Blu-ray was released in the United States.
Many celebrities have responded positively to being regarded as gay icons, several noting the loyalty of their gay fans. Eartha Kitt and Cher credited gay fans with keeping them going at times when their careers had faltered.Kylie Minogue has acknowledged the perception of herself as a gay icon and has performed at such events as the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras. Asked to explain the reason for her large gay fanbase, Minogue replied, "It's always difficult for me to give the definitive answer because I don't have it. My gay audience has been with me from the beginning ... they kind of adopted me." She noted that she differed from many gay icons who were seen as tragic figures, with the comment, "I've had a lot of tragic hairdos and outfits. I think that makes up for it!"
Tammy Faye Messner (ex-wife of fellow controversial televangelistJim Bakker and mother of pastor Jay Bakker), who benevolently has been referred to as "the ultimate drag queen," said in her last interview with Larry King that, "When I went--when we lost everything, it was the gay people that came to my rescue, and I will always love them for that."
Lady Gaga has acknowledged and credited her gay following for launching then supporting her career stating, among other examples, "When I started in the mainstream it was the gays that lifted me up" or "because of the gay community I'm where I am today." As a way to thanks her gay audience for having her in gay clubs for her first album before she was invited to perform at straight ones, she often debuted her new albums eras at gay clubs afterwards. Along her career, she also dedicated a MuchMusic Video Award win as well as her Alejandro music video to gay people, frequently praised her gay entourage for the positive impact they had on her life and often gave a place to different queer crowds in her songs, performances, music videos as well as in the visuals of her make up line. Lady Gaga is known for her fights as an LGBT activist and attended numerous LGBT events such as Prides and Stonewall day.
Others have been more ambivalent. Mae West, a gay icon from the early days of her career, supported gay rights but bristled when her performance style was referred to as camp.
Madonna has acknowledged and embraced her gay following throughout her career, even making several references to the gay community in her songs or performances, and performed at several gay clubs. She has declared in interviews that some of her best friends are gay and that she adores gay people and refers to herself as "the biggest gay icon of all times." She also has been quoted in television interviews in the early 1990s as declaring the "big problem in America at the time was homophobia."
^Kaye, Richard A. (1996). "Losing His Religion: Saint Sebastian as Contemporary Gay Martyr". Outlooks: Lesbian and Gay Sexualities and Visual Cultures. Peter Horne and Reina Lewis, Eds. New York: Routledge. 86: 105. doi:10.4324/9780203432433_chapter_five.
^Euan Ferguson, Daniela's still dying for it; February 16, 2003; Retrieved February 8, 2007: All over the South-East men fell in lust with the idea of a fast lippy sexy Scot, and I'm told she also became something of a dykon, a female gay icon.
^Sharrett, Christopher (1991). "Batman and the Twilight of the Idols: An Interview with Frank Miller". The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. London: Routledge. pp. 37-38. ISBN0-85170-276-7.