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Gandhara is located in South Asia
Location of Gandh?ra in South Asia, and in present-day northwest Pakistan.
Approximate geographical region of Gandhara centered on the Peshawar Basin, in present-day northwest Pakistan.
CapitalPu?kalavati (modern Charsadda) and Taxila, and later Peshawar (Puru?apura)
c. 750 BC
c. 518 BC
Historical eraAncient Era
Succeeded by
Today part ofAfghanistan
19th century map of northern Gandhara.
A modern satellite view of Gandhara (October 2020).

Gandh?ra was an ancient region in the Peshawar basin in the far north-west of the ancient Indian subcontinent, corresponding to present-day north-west Pakistan and east Afghanistan. The centre of the region was at the confluence of the Kabul and Swat rivers, bounded by the Sulaiman Mountains on the west and the Indus River on the east. The Safed Koh mountains separated it from the Kohat region to the south. This being the core area of Gandhara, the cultural influence of "Greater Gandhara" extended across the Indus river to the Taxila region and westwards into the Kabul and Bamiyan valleys in Afghanistan, and northwards up to the Karakoram range.[1][2][3] During the Achaemenid period and Hellenistic period, its capital city was Pushkalavati (Greek?), modern Charsadda.[note 1] Later the capital city was moved to Peshawar[note 2] by the Kushan emperor Kanishka the Great in about 127 AD.

Gandhara's existence is attested since the time of the Rigveda (c. 1500 - c. 1200 BC),[4][5] as well as the Zoroastrian Avesta, which mentions it as Va?k?r?ta, the sixth most beautiful place on earth created by Ahura Mazda. Gandhara was one of sixteen mahajanapadas (large conglomerations of urban and rural areas) of ancient India mentioned in Buddhist sources such as Anguttara Nikaya.[6][7] Gandhara was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC. Conquered by Alexander the Great in 327 BC, it subsequently became part of the Maurya Empire and then the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The region was a major centre for Greco-Buddhism under the Indo-Greeks and Gandharan Buddhism under later dynasties. It was also a central location for the spread of Buddhism to Central Asia and East Asia.[8] It was also a centre of Hinduism.[9]

Famed for its local tradition of Gandhara (Greco-Buddhist) Art, Gandhara attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Kushan Empire. Gandhara "flourished at the crossroads of Asia," connecting trade routes and absorbing cultural influences from diverse civilizations; Buddhism thrived until the 8th or 9th centuries, when Islam first began to gain sway in the region.[10] Pockets of Buddhism persisted in Pakistan's Swat Valley until the 11th century.[11]

The Persian term Shahi is used by historian Al-Biruni[12] to refer to the ruling dynasty[13] that took over from the Kabul Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the 10th and 11th centuries. After it was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1001 AD, the name Gandhara disappeared. During the Muslim period, the area was administered from Lahore or from Kabul. During Mughal times, it was an independent district which included the Kabul province.


Cremation urn, Gandhara grave culture, Swat Valley, c. 1200 BC.

Gandhara was known in Sanskrit as gandh?ra, in Avestan as Va?k?r?ta, in Old Persian as Gad?ra (Old Persian cuneiform: ?, Gad?ra, also transliterated as Gand?ra since the nasal "n" before consonants was omitted in the Old Persian script, and simplified as Gandara)[14] in Babylonian and Elamite as Paruparaesanna (Para-upari-sena),[15] in Chinese as T: /S: (Qiántuóluó), and in Greek as ? (Gandhara).[16]


One proposed origin of the name is from the Sanskrit word ? gandha, meaning "perfume" and "referring to the spices and aromatic herbs which they [the inhabitants] traded and with which they anointed themselves.".[17][18] The Gandhari people are a tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, the Atharvaveda, and later Vedic texts.[19] They are recorded in the Avestan language of Zoroastrianism under the name Va?k?r?ta. The name G?ndh?ra occurs later in the classical Sanskrit of the epics.[]

A Persian form of the name, Gandara, mentioned in the Behistun inscription of Emperor Darius I,[20][21] was translated as Paruparaesanna (Para-upari-sena, meaning "beyond the Hindu Kush") in Babylonian and Elamite in the same inscription.[15]

Kandahar is sometimes etymologically associated with Gandhara. However, Kandahar was not part of the main territory of Gandhara.[22] It is instead etymologically related to "Alexandria".[23]


Female spouted figure, terracotta, Charsadda, Gandhara, 3rd to 1st century BC Victoria and Albert Museum

The boundaries of Gandhara varied throughout history. Sometimes the Peshawar Valley and Taxila were collectively referred to as Gandhara; sometimes the Swat Valley (Sanskrit: Suv?stu) was also included. The heart of Gandhara, however, was always the Peshawar Valley. The kingdom was ruled from capitals at Kapisa (Bagram),[24]Pushkalavati (Charsadda), Taxila, Puru?apura (Peshawar) and in its final days from Udabhandapura (Hund) on the River Indus.

In addition to Gandhara proper, the province also encompassed the Kabul Valley, Swat and Chitral.[25]


Mother Goddess (fertility divinity), possibly derived from the Indus Valley Civilization, terracotta, Sar Dheri, Gandhara, 1st century BC, Victoria and Albert Museum

Stone age

Evidence of the Stone Age human inhabitants of Gandhara, including stone tools and burnt bones, was discovered at Sanghao near Mardan in area caves. The artefacts are approximately 15,000 years old. More recent excavations point to 30,000 years before the present[].

Vedic Gandhara

Gandhara was an ancient kingdom of the Peshawar Valley, extending between the Swat valley and Potohar plateau regions of Pakistan as well as the Jalalabad district of northeastern Afghanistan. In an archaeological context, the Vedic period in Gandhara corresponds to the Gandhara grave culture.

The name of the Gandh?ris is attested in the Rigveda (RV 1.126.7[4]). The Gandh?ris, along with the Balhikas (Bactrians), M?javants, Angas, and the Magadhas, are also mentioned in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.22.14), as distant people. Gandharas are included in the Uttarapatha division of Puranic and Buddhistic traditions. The Aitareya Brahmana refers to King Nagnajit of Gandhara who was a contemporary of Janaka, king of Videha.[26]


Kingdoms and cities of ancient India, with Gandhara located in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, during the time of the Buddha (c. 500 BC).

Gandhara was one of sixteen mahajanapadas of ancient India.[6][7] The primary cities of Gandhara were Puru?apura (Peshawar), Tak?a?il? (Taxila), and Pushkalavati (Charsadda). The latter remained the capital of Gandhara down to the 2nd century AD, when the capital was moved to Peshawar. An important Buddhist shrine helped to make the city a centre of pilgrimage until the 7th century. Pushkalavati, in the Peshawar Valley, is situated at the confluence of the Swat and Kabul rivers, where three different branches of the River Kabul meet. That specific place is still called Prang (from Pray?ga) and considered sacred; local people still bring their dead there for burial. Similar geographical characteristics are found at site of Prang in Kashmir and at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna, where the sacred city of Prayag is situated, west of Benares. There are some legends[] in which the two rivers are said to be joined here by the underground Sarasvati River, forming a trive, a confluence of three rivers. However, Rigvedic texts, and modern research, suggest that the path of the Sarasvati River was very different. It ended in the ocean at Kutch in modern Gujrat and not at Prayag. The Gandharan city of Taxila was an important Buddhist and Hindu centre of learning from the 5th century BC[27] to the 2nd century.

Gandhara is mentioned in the Hindu epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, as a western kingdom. In Treta Yuga, before Lord Rama, during the reigns of Muchukunda and Mandhatri, the kingdom of Gandhara was founded by the Druhyu prince Gandhara who was the son of King Angara of Druhyu Dynasty. During Ramayana time King Nagnajit(1) who was a contemporary of Lord Rama was defeated and killed by Rama's brother Bharata and Bharata's 1st son Taksha established Takshasila (Taxila) in Gandhara Kingdom on the banks of river Sindhu and Pushkara established Pushkaravati or Purushapura (Pushkar) in Gandharva tribe on the banks of river Saraswati after defeating and killing its king Sailusha who was the father-in-law of Vibhishana. In Dvapara Yuga, Gandhara prince Shakuni was the root of all the conspiracies of Duryodhana against the Pandavas, which finally resulted in the Kurukshetra War. Shakuni's sister was the wife of the Kuru king Dhritarashtra and was known as Gandhari. Gandhara was in modern Pakistan. Puskalavati, Takshasila (Taxila) and Purushapura (Peshawar) were cities in this Gandhara kingdom. Takshasila was founded by Raghava Rama's brother Bharata. Bharata's descendants ruled this kingdom afterwards. During epic period it was ruled by Shakuni's father Suvala, Shakuni and Shakuni's son. Arjuna defeated Shakuni's son during his post-war military campaign for Yudhishthira's Aswamedha Yagna.

Achaemenid Gandhara

Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire and ancient kingdoms and cities of India (c. 500 BC).
Athens coin (c. 500/490-485 BC) discovered in Pushkalavati. This coin is the earliest known example of its type to be found so far east.[28] Such coins were circulating in the area as currency, at least as far as the Indus, during the reign of the Achaemenids.[29][30][31][32]

The main Vedic tribes remaining in the Indus Valley by 550 BC were the Kamboja, Sindhu, Taksas of Gandhara, the Madras and Kathas of the River Chenab, Mallas of the River Ravi and Tugras of the River Sutlej. These several tribes and principalities fought against one another to such an extent that the Indus Valley no longer had one powerful Vedic tribal kingdom to defend against outsiders and to wield the warring tribes into one organized kingdom. The area was wealthy and fertile, yet infighting led misery and despair. King Pushkarasakti of Gandhara was engaged in power struggles against his local rivals and as such the Khyber Pass remained poorly defended. King Darius I of the Achaemenid Empire took advantage of the opportunity and planned for an invasion. The Indus Valley was fabled in Persia for its gold and fertile soil and conquering it had been a major objective of his predecessor Cyrus The Great.[33] In 542 BC, Cyrus had led his army and conquered the Makran coast in southern Balochistan. However, he is known to have campaigned beyond Makran (in the regions of Kalat, Khuzdar, Panjgur) and lost most of his army in the Gedrosian Desert (speculated today as the Kharan Desert).

Xerxes I tomb, Gandharian soldier, c. 470 BC.
Xerxes I tomb, Gandharian soldier, c. 470 BC (detail).

In 518 BC, Darius led his army through the Khyber Pass and southwards in stages, eventually reaching the Arabian Sea coast in Sindh by 516 BC. Under Persian rule, a system of centralized administration, with a bureaucratic system, was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first time. Provinces or "satrapy" were established with provincial capitals:

Gandhara satrapy, established 518 BC with its capital at Pushkalavati (Charsadda).[34] Gandhara Satrapy was established in the general region of the old Gandhara grave culture, in what is today Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. During Achaemenid rule, the Kharosthi alphabet, derived from the one used for Aramaic (the official language of Achaemenids), developed here and remained the national script of Gandhara until 200 AD.

Gandhara Kingdom/Takshila in Punjab was conquered by the Achaemenid empire in 518 BC.[35] During this time, King Pushkarasakti, a contemporary of Emperor Bimbisara (558-491 BC) of the Magadha empire of Haryanka dynasty, was the king of Gandhara. King Pushkarasakti was engaged in power struggles against his local rivals. The Achaemenids under Darius penetrated to the region in 516 BC and annexed other parts of modern-day Punjab, Pakistan west to the Indus river and Sindh.

The inscription on Darius' (521-486 BC) tomb at Naqsh-i-Rustam near Persepolis records Gad?ra (Gand?ra) along with Hindush (H?ndu?, Sindh) in the list of satrapies. By about 380 BC the Persian hold on the region had weakened. Many small kingdoms sprang up in Gandhara. In 327 BC, Alexander the Great conquered Gandhara as well as the Indian satrapies of the Persian Empire. The expeditions of Alexander were recorded by his court historians and by Arrian (around 175 AD) in his Anabasis Alexandri and by other chroniclers many centuries after the event.

Sir Mortimer Wheeler conducted some excavations there in 1962, and identified various Achaemenid remains.

Macedonian Gandhara

"Victory coin" of Alexander the Great, minted in Babylon c. 322 BC, following his campaigns in Bactria and the Indus Valley. Obverse: Alexander being crowned by Nike. Reverse: Alexander attacking king Porus on his elephant. Silver. British Museum.

In the winter of 327 BC, Alexander invited all the chieftains in the remaining five Achaemenid satraps to submit to his authority. Ambhi, then ruler of Taxila in the former Hindush satrapy complied, but the remaining tribes and clans in the former satraps of Gandhara, Arachosia, Sattagydia and Gedrosia rejected Alexander's offer.

The first tribe they encountered were the Aspasioi tribe of the Kunar Valley, who initiated a fierce battle against Alexander, in which he himself was wounded in the shoulder by a dart. However, the Aspasioi eventually lost and 40,000 people were enslaved. Alexander then continued in a southwestern direction where he encountered the Assakenoi tribe of the Swat & Buner valleys in April 326 BC. The Assakenoi fought bravely and offered stubborn resistance to Alexander and his army in the cities of Ora, Bazira (Barikot) and Massaga. So enraged was Alexander about the resistance put up by the Assakenoi that he killed the entire population of Massaga and reduced its buildings to rubble. A similar slaughter then followed at Ora,[36] another stronghold of the Assakenoi. The stories of these slaughters reached numerous Assakenians, who began fleeing to Aornos, a hill-fort located between Shangla and Kohistan. Alexander followed close behind their heels and besieged the strategic hill-fort, eventually capturing and destroying the fort and killing everyone inside. The remaining smaller tribes either surrendered or like the Astanenoi tribe of Pushkalavati (Charsadda) were quickly neutralized where 38,000 soldiers and 230,000 oxen were captured by Alexander.[37] Eventually Alexander's smaller force would meet with the larger force which had come through the Khyber Pass met at Attock. With the conquest of Gandhara complete, Alexander switched to strengthening his military supply line, which by now stretched dangerously vulnerable over the Hindu Kush back to Balkh in Bactria.

After conquering Gandhara and solidifying his supply line back to Bactria, Alexander combined his forces with the King Ambhi of Taxila and crossed the River Indus in July 326 BC to begin the Archosia (Punjab) campaign. Alexander founded several new settlements in Gandhara, Punjab and Sindh.[38] and nominated officers as Satraps of the new provinces:

In Gandhara, Oxyartes was nominated to the position of Satrap by Alexander in 326 BC.

Mauryan Empire

Coin of Early Gandhara Janapada: AR Shatamana and one-eighth Shatamana (round), Taxila-Gandhara region, c. 600-300 BC
A monetary silver coin of the satrapy of Gandhara about 500-400 BC. Obv: Gandhara symbol representing 6 weapons with one point between two weapons; At the bottom of the point, a hollow moon. Rev: Empty. Dimensions: 14 mm Weight: 1.4 g.

Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty, is said to have lived in Taxila when Alexander captured the city. According to tradition, he trained under Kautilya, who remained his chief adviser throughout his reign. Supposedly using Gandhara and Vahika as his base, Chandragupta led a rebellion against the Magadha Empire and ascended the throne at Pataliputra in 321 BC. However, there are no contemporary Indian records of Chandragupta Maurya and almost all that is known is based on the diaries of Megasthenes, the ambassador of Seleucus at Pataliputra, as recorded by Arrian in his Indika. Ambhi hastened to relieve Alexander of his apprehension and met him with valuable presents, placing himself and all of his forces at his disposal. Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title, and the gifts, but he also presented him with a wardrobe of: "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1000 talents in gold". Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund (Fox 1973), supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality.

On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5000 men and took part in the battle of the Hydaspes River. After that victory he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus, to whom he was charged to offer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy. Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by the personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the equipment of the fleet on the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government of the whole territory between that river and the Indus. A considerable accession of power was granted him after the death of Philip (son of Machatas); and he was allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander himself (323 BC), as well as in the subsequent partition of the provinces at Triparadisus, 321 BC. Later Ambhi was deposed and killed by Chandragupta Maurya, emperor of the Mauryan Empire. Gandhara was acquired from the Greeks by Chandragupta Maurya.

After a battle with Seleucus Nicator (Alexander's successor in Asia) in 305 BC, the Mauryan Emperor extended his domain up to and including present Southern Afghanistan. With the completion of the Empire's Grand Trunk Road, the region prospered as a centre of trade. Gandhara remained a part of the Mauryan Empire for about a century and a half.

Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta, was one of the greatest Indian rulers. Like his grandfather, Ashoka also started his career in Gandhara as a governor. Later he became a Buddhist and promoted Buddhist Dharma and amongst other things, a vegetarian diet and he forbid the killing of any animal, either domestic and wild, in his empire. He built many stupas in Gandhara. Mauryan control over the northwestern frontier, including the Yonas, Kambojas, and the Gandharas, is attested from the Rock Edicts left by Ashoka. According to one school of scholars, the Gandharas and Kambojas were cognate people.[39][40][41] It is also contended that the Kurus, Kambojas, Gandharas and Bahlikas were cognate people and all had Iranian affinities,[42] or that the Gandhara and Kamboja were nothing but two provinces of one empire and hence influencing each other's language.[43] However, the local language of Gandhara is represented by Panini's conservative bh ("language"), which is entirely different from the Iranian (Late Avestan) language of the Kamboja that is indicated by Patanjali's quote of Kambojan ?avati 'to go' (= Late Avestan ?ava(i)ti).[note 3]

Graeco-Bactrians, Sakas, and Indo-Parthians

Greco-Buddhist statue of standing Buddha, Gandhara (1st-2nd century), Tokyo National Museum

The decline of the Empire left the Indian subcontinent open to Greco-Bactrian invasions. Present-day southern Afghanistan was absorbed by Demetrius I of Bactria in 180 BC. Around about 185 BC, Demetrius moved into Indian subcontinent; he invaded and conquered Gandhara and the Punjab. Later, wars between different groups of Bactrian Greeks resulted in the independence of Gandhara from Bactria and the formation of the Indo-Greek kingdom. Menander I was its most famous king. He ruled from Taxila and later from Sagala (Sialkot). He rebuilt Taxila (Sirkap) and Pushkalavati. He became a Buddhist and is remembered in Buddhist records for his discussions with the great Buddhist philosopher, N?gasena, in the book Milinda Panha.

Marine deities, Gandhara.

Around the time of Menander's death in 140 BC, the Central Asian Kushans overran Bactria and ended Greek rule there. Around 80 BC, the Sakas, diverted by their Parthian cousins from Iran, moved into Gandhara and other parts of Pakistan and Western India. The most famous king of the Sakas, Maues, established himself in Gandhara.

By 90 BC the Parthians had taken control of eastern Iran and, around 50 BC, they put an end to the last remnants of Greek rule in today's Afghanistan. Eventually an Indo-Parthian dynasty succeeded in taking control of Gandhara. The Parthians continued to support Greek artistic traditions. The start of the Gandharan Greco-Buddhist art is dated to about 75-50 BC. Links between Rome and the Indo-Parthian kingdoms existed.[44] There is archaeological evidence that building techniques were transmitted between the two realms. Christian records claim that around 40 AD Thomas the Apostle visited the Indian subcontinent and encountered the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares.[45]

Kushan Gandhara

Casket of Kanishka the Great, with Buddhist motifs

The Parthian dynasty fell about 75 to another group from Central Asia. The Kushans, known as Yuezhi in the Chinese source Hou Han Shu (argued by some[who?] to be ethnically Asii) moved from Central Asia to Bactria, where they stayed for a century. Around 75 CE, one of their tribes, the Kushan (Kua), under the leadership of Kujula Kadphises gained control of Gandhara. The Kushan empire began as a Central Asian kingdom, and expanded into Afghanistan and northwestern India in the early centuries CE. [46]

The Kushan period is considered the Golden Period of Gandhara. Peshawar Valley and Taxila are littered with ruins of stupas and monasteries of this period. Gandharan art flourished and produced some of the best pieces of sculpture from the Indian subcontinent. Many monuments were created to commemorate the Jatakas.

Head of a bodhisattva, c. 4th century AD
The Seated Buddha, dating from 300 to 500 AD, was found near Jamal Garhi, and is now on display at the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco.

Gandhara's culture peaked during the reign of the great Kushan king Kanishka the Great (127 CE - 150 CE). The cities of Taxila (Tak?a?il?) at Sirsukh and Purushapura (modern day Peshawar) reached new heights. Purushapura along with Mathura became the capital of the great empire stretching from Central Asia to Northern India with Gandhara being in the midst of it. Emperor Kanishka was a great patron of the Buddhist faith; Buddhism spread from India to Central Asia and the Far East across Bactria and Sogdia, where his empire met the Han Empire of China. Buddhist art spread from Gandhara to other parts of Asia. Under Kanishka, Gandhara became a holy land of Buddhism and attracted Chinese pilgrims eager to view the monuments associated with many Jatakas.

In Gandhara, Mahayana Buddhism flourished and Buddha was represented in human form. Under the Kushans new Buddhists stupas were built and old ones were enlarged. Huge statues of the Buddha were erected in monasteries and carved into the hillsides. Kanishka also built a great 400-foot tower at Peshawar. This tower was reported by Chinese monks Faxian, Song Yun, and Xuanzang who visited the country. This structure was destroyed and rebuilt many times until it was finally destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century.

Hephthalite Empire

Gandhara fortified city depicted in a Buddhist relief

The Has (as they were known in India) were initially based in the Oxus basin in Central Asia and established their control over Gandhara in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent by about 465 CE.[47] From there, they fanned out into various parts of northern, western, and central India. The Has are mentioned in several ancient texts such as the R?m?ya?a, Mah?bh?rata, Puras, and Kalidasa's Raghuvaa.[48]

Numerous incidents of violence were reported during this period. The Dharmarajika Stupa at Tak?a?il? has given evidence of severed heads, dismembered bodies, and skulls bearing the marks of blows. The charred wood and half burnt wheat in one of the monastic courts suggests fire, and a burned birch-bark manuscript bears testimony to a violent episode. The skeletal remains belong to only six individuals, but still even if the scale of killing and destruction may be less than what one would expect in a massacre, the archaeological evidence does clearly point to some kind of violent event took place.[49]Mihirakula is said to have become a "terrible persecutor" of Buddhism which may have contributed to decline of Buddhism in the Gandhara region.[50]Xuanzang tells us that initially Mihirakula was interested in learning about Buddhism, and asked the monks to send him a teacher; the monks insulted him by recommending a servant of his own household for the purpose. This incident is said to have turned Mihirakula virulently anti-Buddhist.[51]

Although historian Upinder Singh has raised some questions over the anti-Buddhist reputation of Mihirakula while considering these episodes of violence:-

Was this reputation based on actual religious persecution? Or was Mihirakula cast into the role of a cruel anti-Buddhist king because one of his arch political opponents, king Baladitya of Magadha (sometimes identified with a later Gupta emperor Narasimhagupta), at whose hands he apparently suffered a crushing defeat, was an ardent patron of the Buddhist sangha? The interesting thing is that ninth- and tenth-century Jaina texts describe Mihirakula as a wicked, oppressive tyrant who was anti-Jaina. Are the textual references evidence of active political persecution and violence? Or are they merely expressions of resentment at a lack of royal patronage and support? Are they recastings of political conflicts into religious molds?[52]

It is possible that Mihirakula, who from one of his inscriptions and the symbols on his coins seems to have been inclined toward Shaivism (although his coins also have representations of other deities such as the goddess Lakshmi), was inimical toward both Buddhists and Jainas.[53]

She concludes that:-

Even if the extent of the persecution of kings such as Mihirakula and Shashanka (king of unified Bengal polity; circa. 590 CE - 625 CE) was exaggerated, it is significant that such perceptions of violent royal persecution and oppression on religious lines existed. But Mihirakula and Shashanka are exceptions to the general trends of royal religious policy of that period.[54]

The travel records of many Chinese Buddhist pilgrims record that Gandhara was going through a transformation during these centuries. Buddhism was declining, and Hinduism was rising.[]Faxian traveled around 400, when Prakrit was the language of the people, and Buddhism was flourishing. 100 years later, when Song Yun visited in 520, a different situation was described: the area had been destroyed by the White Huns and was ruled by Lae-Lih, who did not practice the laws of the Buddha. Xuanzang visited India around 644 and found Buddhism on the wane in Gandhara and Hinduism in the ascendant. Gandhara was ruled by a king from Kabul, who respected Buddha's law, but Taxila was in ruins, and Buddhist monasteries were deserted.[]

Kabul Shahi

Sharing of the Buddha's relics, above a Gandhara fortified city.

After the fall of the Sassanid Empire to the Arabs in 651 CE, the region south of the Hindukush along with Gandhara came under pressure from Muslims. After failure of multiple campaigns by Arabs they failed to extend their rule to Gandhara.

Gandhara was ruled from Kabul by the Kabul Shahi for next 200 years. Sometime in the 9th century the Kabul Shahi were replaced by the Hindu Shahi. Based on various records it is estimated that this occurred in 850 CE. According to Al-Biruni (973-1048), Kallar, a Brahmin minister, founded the Hindu Shahi dynasty around 843 CE. The dynasty ruled from Kabul, later moved their capital to Udabhandapura. They built great temples all over their kingdoms. Some of these buildings are still in good condition in the Salt Range of the Punjab.


Jayapala was the last great king of the Hindu Shahi dynasty. His empire extended from west of Kabul to the river Sutlej. However, this expansion of Gandhara kingdom coincided with the rise of the powerful Ghaznavid Empire under Sabuktigin. Defeated twice by Sabuktigin and then by Mahmud of Ghazni in the Kabul valley, Jayapala gave his life on a funeral pyre. Anandapala, a son of Jayapala, moved his capital near Nandana in the Salt Range. In 1021 the last king of this dynasty, Trilochanapala, was assassinated by his own troops which spelled the end of Gandhara. Subsequently, some Shahi princes moved to Kashmir and became active in local politics.

The city of Kandahar in Afghanistan is said to have been named after Gandhara. According to H.W. Bellow, an emigrant from Gandhara in the 5th century brought this name to modern Kandahar. Faxian reported that the Buddha's alms-bowl existed in Peshawar Valley when he visited around 400 (chapter XII). In 1872 Bellow saw this huge begging bowl (seven feet in diameter) preserved in the shrine of Sultan Wais outside Kandahar. When Olaf Caroe wrote his book in 1958 (Caroe, pp. 170-171), this relic was reported to be at Kabul Museum. The present status of this bowl is unknown.

Writing in c. 1030, Al Biruni reported on the devastation caused during the conquest of Gandhara and much of north-west India by Mahmud of Ghazni following his defeat of Jayapala in the Battle of Peshawar at Peshawar in 1001:

Now in the following times no Muslim conqueror passed beyond the frontier of Kâbul and the river Sindh until the days of the Turks, when they seized the power in Ghazna under the Sâmânî dynasty, and the supreme power fell to the lot of Nâ?ir-addaula Sabuktagin. This prince chose the holy war as his calling, and therefore called himself al-Ghâzî ("the warrior/invader"). In the interest of his successors he constructed, in order to weaken the Indian frontier, those roads on which afterwards his son Yamin-addaula Ma?mûd marched into India during a period of thirty years and more. God be merciful to both father and son ! Ma?mûd utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed there wonderful exploits, by which the Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people. Their scattered remains cherish, of course, the most inveterate aversion towards all Muslims. This is the reason, too, why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, Benares, and other places. And there the antagonism between them and all foreigners receives more and more nourishment both from political and religious sources.[55]

During the closing years of the tenth and the early years of the succeeding century of our era, Mahmud the first Sultan and Musalman of the Turk dynasty of kings who ruled at Ghazni, made a succession of inroads twelve or fourteen in number, into Gandhar - the present Peshawar valley - in the course of his proselytizing invasions of Hindustan.[56]

Fire and sword, havoc and destruction, marked his course everywhere. Gandhar which was styled the Garden of the North was left at his death a weird and desolate waste. Its rich fields and fruitful gardens, together with the canal which watered them (the course of which is still partially traceable in the western part of the plain), had all disappeared. Its numerous stone built cities, monasteries, and topes with their valuable and revered monuments and sculptures, were sacked, fired, razed to the ground, and utterly destroyed as habitations.[56]


Many stupas, such as the Shingerdar stupa in Ghalegay, are scattered throughout the region near Peshawar.

By the time Gandhara had been absorbed into the empire of Mahmud of Ghazni, Buddhist buildings were already in ruins and Gandhara art had been forgotten. After Al-Biruni, the Kashmiri writer Kalha?a wrote his book Rajatarangini in 1151. He recorded some events that took place in Gandhara, and provided details about its last royal dynasty and capital Udabhandapura.

In the 19th century, British soldiers and administrators started taking an interest in the ancient history of the Indian Subcontinent. In the 1830s coins of the post-Ashoka period were discovered, and in the same period Chinese travelogues were translated. Charles Masson, James Prinsep, and Alexander Cunningham deciphered the Kharosthi script in 1838. Chinese records provided locations and site plans for Buddhist shrines. Along with the discovery of coins, these records provided clues necessary to piece together the history of Gandhara. In 1848 Cunningham found Gandhara sculptures north of Peshawar. He also identified the site of Taxila in the 1860s. From then on a large number of Buddhist statues were discovered in the Peshawar valley.

Archaeologist John Marshall excavated at Taxila between 1912 and 1934. He discovered separate Greek, Parthian, and Kushan cities and a large number of stupas and monasteries. These discoveries helped to piece together much more of the chronology of the history of Gandhara and its art.

After 1947 Ahmed Hassan Dani and the Archaeology Department at the University of Peshawar made a number of discoveries in the Peshawar and Swat Valley. Excavation of many of the sites of Gandhara Civilization are being done by researchers from Peshawar and several universities around the world.

Taliban destruction of Buddhist relics

Swat Valley in Pakistan has many Buddhist carvings, and stupas, and Jehanabad contains a Seated Buddha statue.[57] Kushan era Buddhist stupas and statues in Swat valley were demolished after two attempts by the Taliban and the Jehanabad Buddha's face was dynamited.[58][59][60] Only the Buddhas of Bamiyan were larger than the carved giant Buddha statues in Swat near Manglore which the Taliban attacked.[61] The government did nothing to safeguard the statue after the initial attempts to destroy the Buddha, which did not cause permanent harm. But when a second attack took place on the statue, the feet, shoulders, and face were demolished.[62] Islamists such as the Taliban, and looters, destroyed many of Pakistan's Buddhist artefacts from the Buddhist Gandhara civilization especially in the Swat Valley.[63] The Taliban deliberately targeted Gandhara Buddhist relics for destruction.[64] The Christian Archbishop of Lahore, Lawrence John Saldanha, wrote a letter to Pakistan's government denouncing the Taliban's activities in Swat Valley including their destruction of Buddha statues and their attacks on Christians, Sikhs, and Hindus.[65] Gandhara Buddhist artefacts were illegally looted by smugglers.[66] A group of Italians helped repair the Buddha.[67] An ancient Buddha statue unearthed by ditch-diggers in Pakistan was smashed up with hammers after a local cleric warned it was un-Islamic.[68] Labourers found the statue while digging an irrigation channel in farmland outside the city of Mardan in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

Local reports said the contractor had consulted a local cleric who warned that the life-size statue would cause the man to lose his faith .A rare life-sized statue of Buddha that was smashed into pieces in Pakistan belonged to the Gandhara civilisation and was nearly 1,700 years old Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's old name is Ghandhara and the region is a highly revered place for the followers of Buddhism. In 2017, two rare and ancient Buddha statues were unearthed at an archeological site in Bhamala in Hariput district. The largest ever statue found at the site depicts the death of Buddha and the second statue was a Buddha with a double halo.


The Gandharan Buddhist texts are both the earliest Buddhist as well as Asian manuscripts discovered so far. Most are written on birch bark and were found in labelled clay pots. Panini has mentioned both the Vedic form of Sanskrit as well as what seems to be Gandhari, a later form of Sanskrit, in his Ashtadhyayi.

Gandhara's language was a Prakrit or "Middle Indo-Aryan" dialect, usually called G?ndh?r?. The language used the Kharosthi script, which died out about the 4th century. However, Punjabi, Hindko, and Kohistani, are derived from the Indo-Aryan Prakrits that were spoken in Gandhara and surrounding areas. However, a language shift occurred as the ancient Gandharan culture gave way to Iranian invaders, such as the Pashtun tribes from Central Asia that began settling the region.[69]


Maitreya Bodhisattva, Gautama Buddha, and Avalokite?vara Bodhisattva. 2nd-3rd century AD, Gandh?ra
Bronze statue of Avalokite?vara Bodhisattva. Fearlessness mudr?. 3rd century AD, Gandh?ra

Mah?y?na Buddhism

Mah?y?na Pure Land sutras were brought from the Gandh?ra region to China as early as 147 AD, when the Kushan monk Lokak?ema began translating some of the first Buddhist sutras into Chinese.[70] The earliest of these translations show evidence of having been translated from the G?ndh?r? language.[71] Lokak?ema translated important Mah?y?na s?tras such as the Aas?hasrik? Prajñ?p?ramit? S?tra, as well as rare, early Mah?y?na s?tras on topics such as sam?dhi, and meditation on the Buddha Ak?obhya. Lokaksema's translations continue to provide insight into the early period of Mah?y?na Buddhism. This corpus of texts often includes and emphasizes ascetic practices and forest dwelling, and absorption in states of meditative concentration:[72]

Paul Harrison has worked on some of the texts that are arguably the earliest versions we have of the Mah?y?na s?tras, those translated into Chinese in the last half of the second century AD by the Indo-Scythian translator Lokak?ema. Harrison points to the enthusiasm in the Lokak?ema s?tra corpus for the extra ascetic practices, for dwelling in the forest, and above all for states of meditative absorption (sam?dhi). Meditation and meditative states seem to have occupied a central place in early Mah?y?na, certainly because of their spiritual efficacy but also because they may have given access to fresh revelations and inspiration.

Some scholars believe that the Mah?y?na Longer Sukh?vat?vy?ha S?tra was compiled in the age of the Kushan Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, by an order of Mahsaka bhik?us which flourished in the Gandh?ra region.[73][74] However, it is likely that the longer Sukh?vat?vy?ha owes greatly to the Mah?sghika-Lokottarav?da sect as well for its compilation, and in this sutra there are many elements in common with the Lokottarav?din Mah?vastu.[73] There are also images of Amit?bha Buddha with the bodhisattvas Avalokite?vara and Mah?sth?mapr?pta which were made in Gandh?ra during the Kushan era.[75]

The Mañju?r?m?lakalpa records that Kani?ka of the Kushan Empire presided over the establishment of the Mah?y?na Prajñ?p?ramit? teachings in the northwest.[76]T?ran?tha wrote that in this region, 500 bodhisattvas attended the council at J?landhra monastery during the time of Kani?ka, suggesting some institutional strength for Mah?y?na in the north-west during this period.[76]Edward Conze goes further to say that Prajñ?p?ramit? had great success in the north-west during the Kushan period, and may have been the "fortress and hearth" of early Mah?y?na, but not its origin, which he associates with the Mah?sghika branch of Buddhism.[77]

Buddhist translators

Gandharan Buddhist missionaries were active, with other monks from Central Asia, from the 2nd century AD in the Han-dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) at China's capital of Luoyang, and particularly distinguished themselves by their translation work. They promoted scriptures from Early Buddhist schools as well as those from the Mah?y?na. These translators included:

  • Lokak?ema, a Kushan and the first to translate Mah?y?na scriptures into Chinese (167-186)
  • Zhi Yao (fl. 185), a Kushan monk, second generation of translators after Lokak?ema
  • Zhi Qian (220-252), a Kushan monk whose grandfather had settled in China during 168-190
  • Zhi Yue (fl. 230), a Kushan monk who worked at Nanjing
  • Dharmarak?a (265-313), a Kushan whose family had lived for generations at Dunhuang
  • Jñ?nagupta (561-592), a monk and translator from Gandh?ra
  • ?iknanda (652-710), a monk and translator from Oiy?na, Gandh?ra
  • Prajñ? (fl. 810), a monk and translator from Kabul, who educated the Japanese K?kai in Sanskrit texts

Textual finds

The Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang visited a Lokottarav?da monastery in the 7th century, at Bamiyan, Afghanistan. The site of this monastery has since been rediscovered by archaeologists.[78]Birchbark and palm leaf manuscripts of texts in this monastery's collection, including Mah?y?na s?tras, have been discovered at the site, and these are now located in the Schøyen Collection. Some manuscripts are in the G?ndh?r? language and Kharoh? script, while others are in Sanskrit and written in forms of the Gupta script. Manuscripts and fragments that have survived from this monastery's collection include the following source texts:[78]

A Sanskrit manuscript of the Bhai?ajyaguruvairyaprabh?r?ja S?tra was among the textual finds at Gilgit, Pakistan, attesting to the popularity of the Medicine Buddha in Gandh?ra.[79] The manuscripts in this find are dated before the 7th century, and are written in the upright Gupta script.[79]


Greco-Buddhist Portraits from the site of Hadda, Gandhara, 3rd century, Guimet Museum

Gandh?ra is noted for the distinctive Gandh?ra style of Buddhist art, which shows influence of Parthian, Scythian, Roman, Graeco-Bactrian and local Indian influences from the Gangetic Valley.[80] This development began during the Parthian Period (50 BC - 75 AD). The Gandh?ran style flourished and achieved its peak during the Kushan period, from the 1st to the 5th centuries. It declined and was destroyed after the invasion of the White Huns in the 5th century. Siddhartha shown as a bejeweled prince (before the Sidhartha renounces palace life) is a common motif.[81]

Stucco, as well as stone, were widely used by sculptors in Gandhara for the decoration of monastic and cult buildings.[81] Stucco provided the artist with a medium of great plasticity, enabling a high degree of expressiveness to be given to the sculpture. Sculpting in stucco was popular wherever Buddhism spread from Gandhara - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Central Asia, and China.

Buddhist imagery combined with some artistic elements from the cultures of the Hellenistic world. An example is the youthful Buddha, his hair in wavy curls, similar to statutes of Apollo.[81]

Sacred artworks and architectural decorations used limestone for stucco composed by a mixture of local crushed rocks (i.e. schist and granite which resulted compatible with the outcrops located in the mountains northwest of Islamabad.[82]


See also

Part of a series on the
History of Pakistan
Statue of an Indus priest or king found in Mohenjodaro, 1927


  1. ^ Pu?kalavati meaning "Lotus City" in Sanskrit
  2. ^ Sanskrit Puru?apura, literally meaning "city of men", from puru?a, "(primordial) man" and pura, "city".
  3. ^ NOTE: See long discussion under mahajanapada from the Ancient Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya's list of mahajanapadas.


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Further reading

External links

Timeline and
cultural period
Northwestern India
(Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)
Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India
Upper Gangetic Plain
(Ganga-Yamuna doab)
Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain
Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period
(Srauta culture)[a]
Painted Grey Ware culture
Late Vedic Period
(Shramanic culture)[b]
Northern Black Polished Ware
 6th century BCE Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha Adivasi (tribes) Assaka
Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation"
Rise of Shramana movements
Jainism - Buddhism - ?j?vika - Yoga
 5th century BCE (Persian conquests) Shaishunaga dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Assaka
 4th century BCE (Greek conquests) Nanda empire
Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history
 3rd century BCE Maurya Empire Satavahana dynasty
Sangam period
(300 BCE - 200 CE)
Early Cholas
Early Pandyan Kingdom
Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 CE)[e][f]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
Mahayana Buddhism
 2nd century BCE Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire
Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
Sangam period
(300 BCE - 200 CE)
Early Cholas
Early Pandyan Kingdom
 1st century BCE
 1st century CE


Kuninda Kingdom
 2nd century Kushan Empire
 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa kingdom Adivasi (tribes)
Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. CE 320-650)[g]
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire
Varman dynasty
Andhra Ikshvakus
Kalabhra dynasty
Kadamba Dynasty
Western Ganga Dynasty
 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Vishnukundina
Kalabhra dynasty
 6th century Nezak Huns
Kabul Shahi
Maitraka Adivasi (tribes) Vishnukundina
Badami Chalukyas
Kalabhra dynasty
Culture Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. CE 650-1100)[h]
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
 7th century Indo-Sassanids Vakataka dynasty
Empire of Harsha
Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Badami Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
Pandyan Kingdom (Revival)
 8th century Kabul Shahi Pala Empire Eastern Chalukyas
Pandyan Kingdom
 9th century Gurjara-Pratihara Rashtrakuta dynasty
Eastern Chalukyas
Pandyan Kingdom
Medieval Cholas
Chera Perumals of Makkotai
10th century Ghaznavids Pala dynasty
Kamboja-Pala dynasty
Kalyani Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
Medieval Cholas
Chera Perumals of Makkotai
References and sources for table


  1. ^ Samuel
  2. ^ Samuel
  3. ^ Michaels (2004) p.39
  4. ^ Hiltebeitel (2002)
  5. ^ Michaels (2004) p.39
  6. ^ Hiltebeitel (2002)
  7. ^ Michaels (2004) p.40
  8. ^ Michaels (2004) p.41


Coordinates: 33°45?22?N 72°49?45?E / 33.7560°N 72.8291°E / 33.7560; 72.8291

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