Ful Medames
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Ful Medames
Ful medames (arabic meal).jpg
Ful served with sliced hard-boiled eggs
Alternative namesF?l
CourseBreakfast, main course
Place of origin Egypt
Region or stateDjibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Israel, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Syria, Iraq and Yemen
Main ingredientsFava beans, vegetable oil, cumin
VariationsLemon juice, onion, parsley, garlic

Ful medames (Arabic: ?‎, f?l mudammas IPA: [fu:l mudammas]; other spellings include ful mudammas and foule mudammes), or simply f?l, is a stew of cooked fava beans served with vegetable oil, cumin, and optionally with chopped parsley, garlic, onion, lemon juice, chili pepper and other vegetable, herb and spice ingredients. It is notably a staple food in Egypt, especially in the northern cities of Cairo and Gizah. Ful medames is also a common part of the cuisines of many Arab, Middle Eastern and African cultures, including in Djibouti, Lebanon, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Ethiopia, Sudan, Yemen, Somalia and Saudi Arabia.


in hieroglyphs

Some writers have suggested that ful medames dated all the way back to Ancient Egypt.

Some evidence of the use of ful is a cache of 2,600 dried fava beans unearthed at a late Neolithic site on the outskirts of Nazareth.[1]

This cooking method is mentioned in the Talmud Yerushalmi, indicating that the method was used in Horn of African and Middle Eastern countries since the fourth century. Although there are countless ways of embellishing f?l, the basic recipe remains the same. Once the f?l is cooked, it is salted and eaten plain or accompanied by olive oil, corn oil, butter, clarified butter, buffalo milk, béchamel sauce, cured beef (basturma), fried or boiled eggs, tomato sauce, garlic sauce, tahini, fresh lemon juice, chili peppers, or other ingredients.

In the Middle Ages, the making of f?l in Cairo was monopolized by the people living around the Princess Baths, a public bath in a tiny compound near today's public fountain of Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, a block north of the two elegant minarets of the Mosque of Sultan al-Muayyad above the 11th century Bab Zuweila gate. During the day, bath attendants stoked the fires heating the qidras, which are huge pots of bath water. Wood was scarce, so garbage was used as fuel and eventually a dump grew around the baths. When the baths closed, the red embers of the fires continued to burn. To take advantage of these precious fires, huge qidras were filled with fava beans, and these cauldrons were kept simmering all night, and eventually all day too, in order to provide breakfast for Cairo's population. Cookshops throughout Cairo would send their minions to the Princess Baths to buy their wholesale f?l.[2]

F?l is prepared from the small, round bean known in Egypt as f?l ?amm?m ("bath beans"). The beans are cooked until very soft. Other kinds of beans used by Egyptian cooks are f?l r?m? ("Roman", i.e. "European broad beans"), large kidney-shaped fava beans, and f?l balad? ("country beans", which are of middling size). F?l n?bit (or n?bid) are fava bean sprouts, f?l akh?ar ("green f?l") are fresh fava beans, and f?l madsh?sh ("crushed f?l") are crushed fava beans.

Other countries

Typical f?l medames breakfast as served by an Egyptian street vendor with bread and pickled vegetables, as well as fresh rocket (arugula) leaves on the side.
Aleppo-style ful with tahini and olive oil, topped with Aleppo pepper sauce

Ful medames was exported from Egypt to other parts of the Arab world, as well as other parts of Africa and Asia, but particularly to Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Morocco and Libya.[3]

Ful is a popular breakfast dish in Syria, especially Aleppo. The fava beans are left simmering in large copper jars throughout the night, to be served from the next morning on; the beans swim in tahini and olive oil, completed with a hint of red pepper paste (made from Aleppo pepper) over the top.

In Jordan, ful is made just like hummus in a form of a dip, usually made with tahini, garlic, tomato, lemon juice, ground cumin, olive oil and salt.

In Morocco ful is known as bissara and consists of fava beans and split green peas (known locally as jabbana) boiled together with garlic and served with cumin and seasoning. It is particularly popular in the north of the country and is eaten during the cold winter months.

Ful is a very common dish in Armenia; however, unlike in most Middle Eastern countries, it is there modified with more exclusive and rare spices.[][clarification needed]

In Ethiopia (and Eritrea), ful is one of the few dishes not eaten with a pancake-like bread called injera but is served with standard flour bread. Places serving ful and the accompanying flour bread often provide a communal kitchen for patrons seeking to bake such types of breads since flour bread is not typical in the Ethiopian or Eritrean diet. The beans are topped, or mixed with, a combination of oil and berbere. It is also part of the Somali cuisine, where it is served with Somali's traditional laxoox (canjeero/injera).[]

In Malta, ful bit-tewm (beans with garlic) is usually associated with fasting during Lent and Good Friday. The beans are soaked in water overnight, cooked in oil with garlic and fresh or dried mint, then dressed with olive oil or vinegar before serving.


Ful medames salad

Ful medames salad (Arabic: ? ?‎) is an Arab breakfast mezze favorite, but it is also eaten as a hearty salad. It typically consists of fava beans, chopped tomatoes, onion, parsley, lemon juice, olive oil, pepper and salt.[4][5][6][7]

See also


  1. ^ Gil Marks, Encyclopedia of Jewish Food
  2. ^ Professor Janet Abu-Lughod - Princeton University Press
  3. ^ James C. McCann, Stirring the Pot: A History of African Cuisine, (Ohio University Press: 2009), p.99.
  4. ^ Zena (2017-01-26). "Ful Medames, Syrian Style (Arabic Bean Salad) [Vegan, GF] - Zena 'n Zaatar". Zena 'n Zaatar. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "Fava Bean Salad - Foul Medames". My Lebanese Market. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "Ful Medames Salad". FoodService Director. Retrieved .
  7. ^ "Recipe Beautiful fava beans from East Med (Ful Medames / foul) - East Med Food". www.eastmedfood.com. Retrieved .

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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