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Freakbeat is a subgenre of rock and roll music developed mainly by harder-driving British groups, often those with a mod following during the Swinging London period of the mid to late 1960s.[1][2]

The term was coined by English music journalist Phil Smee.[3] Allmusic writes that "freakbeat" is loosely defined, but generally describes the more obscure but hard-edged artists of the British Invasion era such as the Creation, the Pretty Things or Denny Laine's early solo work.[4] Music journalist Simon Reynolds listed "freakbeat" among examples of "genre-as-retroactive-fiction", or terms designed by record dealers and collectors to increase the original music's monetary value.[5]

Much of the material collected on Rhino Records's 2001 box-set compilation Nuggets II: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire and Beyond, 1964-1969 can be classified as freakbeat.[6]


  1. ^ Richie Unterberger (2007-04-03). "Joe Meek's Freakbeat: 30 Freakbeat, Mod and R&B Nuggets - Joe Meek | Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Richie Unterberger (2011-11-29). "Looking Back: 80 Mod, Freakbeat & Swinging London Nuggets - Various Artists | Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Norris, Richard (11 March 2012). "20 best: UK psych records ever made". Factmag.
  4. ^
  5. ^ Reynolds, Simon (2011). Retromania: Pop Culture's Addiction to Its Own Past. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-4299-6858-4.
  6. ^ D. Thompson (2002). The Music Lover's Guide to Record Collecting. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. p. 47. ISBN 978-0879307134.

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