Foreign Relations of Spain
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Foreign Relations of Spain
Escudo de España (mazonado).svg

politics and government of
Spain

Ferdinand II and Isabella united Spain, drove out the Moslems, and used Christopher Columbus and numerous conquistadors to build a large colonial empire in Latin America. Spain became an international power in the 16th century, especially under the rule of kings Charles V (1516-1565) and Philip II (1556-1598). They fought against the Protestant Reformation and had large holdings across Western Europe. The American colonies shipped large amount of gold and silver, but the new wealth was spent in interminable wars against France and the Netherlands, as well as the Ottoman Empire, England and others. By 1700 decline and poverty had set in and Spain played a smaller and smaller role. It became a battlefield between the British Empire and France in the Napoleonic Era. Nearly all its colonies fought for and won independence in the early 19th century. The remainder fell to the United States in 1898. The Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939 became a proxy war between the axis powers Germany and Italy and the Soviet Union (which lost). World leaders isolated General Franco, the ruler 1939-1975. Spain was neutral in both world wars. Democracy and a degree of normalcy followed 1975. Spain joined NATO and entered the European Community.

Spain has established itself as a major participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's European Union membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond Western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanisms.

History

In 218 BC the Romans invaded the Iberian peninsula, which later became the Roman province of Hispania. The Romans introduced the Latin language, the ancestor of both modern-day Spanish and Italian. The Iberian peninsula remained under Roman rule for over 600 years, until the collapse of the Western-Roman Empire.

In the Early modern period, until the 18th century, southern and insular Italy came under Spanish control, having been previously a domain of the Crown of Aragon.

Dominions of the Habsburgs in 1556

Charles V

Charles V (1500-1558) inherited vast lands across Western Europe and the Americas, and expanded them by frequent wars.[1] Among other domains he was King of Spain from 1516, and Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519. As head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and the Burgundian Low Countries, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. His great enemy on land was France, on the Mediterranean Sea it was the Ottoman Empire, which at times was allied with France. England and the Papacy were sometimes part of the coalition against him. Much of his attention focused on wars in Italy. At the Diet of Augsburg (1547) he secured recognition that the Netherlands belonged to the Hapsburg domain. However Charles was intensely Catholic and the northern Netherlands was Protestant. He and his Spanish heirs fought for a century against Dutch independence; despite the enormous cost they failed.[2]

Philip II, 1556-1598

Philip III, 1598-1621

The Somerset House Conference between English and Spanish diplomats that brought an end to the Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604).

Philip III has a poor reputation in terms of both domestic and foreign policy. He inherited two major conflicts from his father. The first of these, the long-running Dutch revolt, represented a serious challenge to Spanish power from the Protestant United Provinces in a crucial part of the Spanish Empire. The second, the Anglo-Spanish War was a newer, and less critical conflict with Protestant England, marked by a Spanish failure to successfully bring its huge military resources to bear on the smaller English military.[3]

Philip's own foreign policy can be divided into three phases. For the first nine years of his reign, he pursued a highly aggressive set of policies, aiming to deliver a 'great victory'.[4] His instructions to his most important advisor Duke Lerma to wage a war of "blood and iron" on his rebellious subjects in the Netherlands reflects this.[5] After 1609, when it became evident that Spain was financially exhausted and Philip sought a truce with the Dutch, there followed a period of retrenchment; in the background, tensions continued to grow, however, and by 1618 the policies of Philip's 'proconsols' were increasingly at odds with de Lerma's policy from Madrid.[6]

Europe in 1701 at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession

War of the Spanish Succession and after 1701-1759

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14) saw Spain in a nearly helpless position as multiple European powers battled for control over which of three rivals would be king. At first most of the warfare took place outside of Spain. However in 1704 Spain was invaded by the Germans (officially by the Holy Roman Empire including Habsburg Austria and Prussia, as well as other minor German states), Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, the Duchy of Savoy and Portugal. The invaders wanted to make the Habsburg candidate king instead of the incumbent Philip V who the grandson of France's powerful king Louis XIV and candidate of the House of Bourbon. Spain had no real army, but it defense was a high priority for Louis XIV who sent in his French armies and after a devastating civil war eventually drove out the invaders from Spain.[7][8]

After years of warfare and changing coalitions, the final result was that Philip V remained king. In practice his wife Elisabeth Farnese ruled Spain from 1714 until 1746, and was more interested in Italy than Spain. Spain was not even invited to the peace treaties (Peace of Utrecht); they forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish crowns. Britain was the main winner; it blocked France from becoming too powerful. Britain acquired Minorca and Gibraltar from Spain, as well as the right to sell slaves to Spanish colonies. Britain also gained Newfoundland and Nova Scotia from France. Spain kept its American colonies but lost its European holdings in Italy and the Spanish Netherlands (modern Belgium), mostly to Austria. Spain briefly regained some Italian holdings until the British sank its fleet in 1718. Elisabeth Farnese succeeded in recapturing Naples and Sicily. She put her son on the throne there. He abdicated in 1759 to return to Madrid as King Charles III of Spain.[9][10]

American Revolutionary War: 1775-1783

Eager to gain revenge on the British for its defeat during the Seven Years' War, France offered support to rebel American colonists seeking independence from Britain during the American War of Independence and in 1778 entered the war on their side. They then urged Spain to do the same, hoping the combined force would be strong enough to overcome the British Royal Navy and be able to invade England. In 1779 Spain joined the war, hoping to take advantage of a substantially weakened Britain. Distrustful of republics, Spain did not officially recognize the new United States of America.[11]

A well-organised force under Bernardo de Galvez operating out of Spanish Louisiana launched repeated attacks on British colonies in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. They were easy winners against weak British garrisons, and were planning an expedition against Jamaica when peace was declared in 1783.

Spain's highest priority was to recapture Gibraltar from Britain using the Great Siege of Gibraltar.[12] Despite a prolonged besiegement, the British garrison there was able to hold out until relieved and it remained in British hands following the Treaty of Paris. Unlike their French allies (for whom the war proved largely to be a disaster, financially and militarily) the Spanish made a number of territorial gains, recovering Florida and Menorca.[13][14]

Regional relations

Latin America

The Ibero-American vision

Spain has maintained its special identification with its fellow Spanish-speaking countries. Its policy emphasizes the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the historically liberal concept of "Hispano-Americanismo" (or Hispanic as it is often referred to in English), which has sought to link the Iberian peninsula to the Spanish-speaking countries in Central and South America through language, commerce, history and culture. Spain has been an effective example of transition from dictatorship to democracy, as shown in the many trips that Spain's King and prime ministers have made to the region.[15]

Trends in diplomatic relations

Spain maintains economic and technical cooperation programs and cultural exchanges with Latin America, both bilaterally and within the EU. During José María Aznar's government, Spanish relations with some Latin-American countries like Mexico, Venezuela and Cuba worsened, but were exceptionally good with others like Colombia, Dominican Republic and several Central America republics. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's victory in the 2004 general elections changed this setting. Despite long-standing close linguistic, economic and cultural relations with most of Latin America, some aspects of Spanish foreign policy during this time, such as its support for the Iraq War, were not supported or widely favored.

Today, relations with Venezuela are quite good, which has caused some controversy with the United States, who have been in recent disagreements with Venezuela under Hugo Chávez and its growing relations with "Anti-American Nations", such as Cuba, China, Russia and several Islamic Middle Eastern countries. However, due to a notable public incident in 2007, Venezuelan-Spanish ties were briefly suspended, though were later re-established.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Spain has gradually begun to broaden its contacts with Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a particular interest in its former colony of Equatorial Guinea, where it maintains a large aid program. More recently, it has sought closer relation with Senegal, Mauritania, Mali and others to find solutions for the issue of illegal immigration to the Canary Islands. []

Middle East

In the Middle East, Spain is known as a broker between powers. In its relations with the Arab world, Spain frequently supports Arab positions on Middle East issues. The Arab countries are a priority interest for Spain because of oil and gas imports and because several Arab nations have substantial investments in Spain.?[16]

Europe

Spain has been successful in managing its relations with its three immediate European neighbours, France, Andorra, and Portugal. The accession of Spain and Portugal to the EU in 1986 has helped ease some of their periodic trade frictions by putting these into an EU context. Franco-Spanish bilateral cooperation has been enhanced by joint action against recurring violence by separatist Basque group ETA since the 1960s. Ties with the United Kingdom are generally good, although the question of Gibraltar remains a sensitive issue, especially since the UK vote on Brexit.

Asia

Today, Spain is trying to expand its still narrow relations with East Asian nations,[17] with China, Japan and South Korea as its main points of interest in the region. Thailand and Indonesia are Spain's main allies in the ASEAN region, having a considerable number of agreements and a very good relationship. In the recent years Spain has also been boosting its contacts, relations and investment in other Asian countries, most notably Vietnam and Malaysia. Relations with the Philippines are, despite a very long colonial past, considerably becoming stronger than before, dealing mostly with cultural aspects and humanitarian assistance programs.[18] Both countries now enjoy a close relationship for the past 70 years as Spain see Philippines as a major and important ally in Asia.

Disputes

Territorial disputes

Whilst the disputed on Gibraltar with Great Britain is the best known territorial dispute of Spain, the country also has disputes with Portugal and Morocco.

With Great Britain

Ever since it was captured in 1704 by Anglo-Dutch forces during the War of the Spanish Succession, Gibraltar has been the subject of a dispute between Britain and Spain. Situated at the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula, overseeing the Strait of Gibraltar which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Mediterranean Sea, the territory has great strategic importance. Today, Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory and houses an important base for the British Armed Forces.[19]

With Morocco

The strategic position of the Strait of Gibraltar has left a legacy of a number of sovereignty disputes.[20] These include the "five places of sovereignty" (plazas de soberanía) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco contests, as well as the islands of Peñon de Alhucemas, Peñon de Vélez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas. Spain maintains sovereignty over Ceuta, Melilla, Peñon de Velez de la Gomera, Alhucemas and the Chafarinas Islands (captured following the Christian reconquest of Spain) based upon historical grounds, security reasons and on the basis of the UN principle of territorial integrity. Spain also maintains that the majority of residents are Spanish. Morocco claims these territories on the basis of the UN principles of decolonisation, territorial integrity and that Spanish arguments for the recovery of Gibraltar substantiate Morocco's claim.[21]

With Portugal

Olivenza (Spanish) or Olivença (Portuguese) is a town and seat of a municipality, on a disputed section of the border between Portugal and Spain, which is claimed de jure by both countries and administered de facto as part of the Spanish autonomous community of Extremadura. The population is 80% ethnic Portuguese and 30% of Portuguese language. Olivenza/Olivença was under continuous Portuguese sovereignty since 1297 until it was occupied by the Spanish in 1801 and formally ceded by Portugal later that year by the Treaty of Badajoz. Spain claims the de jure (legal) sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz still stands and has never been revoked. Thus, the border between the two countries in the region of Olivenza/Olivença should be as demarcated by that treaty. Portugal claims the de jure sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz was revoked by its own terms (the breach of any of its articles would lead to its cancellation) when Spain invaded Portugal in the Peninsular War of 1807.[22]

Portugal further bases its case on Article 105 of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815, which Spain signed in 1817, that states that the winning countries are to "endeavour with the mightiest conciliatory effort to return Olivenza/Olivença to Portuguese authority". Thus, the border between the two countries in the region of Olivenza/Olivença should be as demarcated by the Treaty of Alcanizes of 1297. Spain interprets Article 105 as not being mandatory on demanding Spain to return Olivenza/Olivença to Portugal, thus not revoking the Treaty of Badajoz. Portugal has never made a formal claim to the territory after the Treaty of Vienna, but has equally never directly acknowledged the Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença. Portugal continues to claim Olivenza/Olivença, asserting that under the Vienna Treaty of 1815, Spain recognized the Portuguese claims as "legitimate". The historic disputes with Portugal over the Savage Islands in the Atlantic Ocean were resolved in recent times.

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Algeria See Algeria-Spain relations
 Angola 19 October 1977 See Angola-Spain relations
  • Angola has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Luanda.
 Burkina Faso See Burkina Faso-Spain relations
 Cameroon See Cameroon-Spain relations
  • Cameroon has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Yaoundé.
 Chad See Chad-Spain relations
  • Chad is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
 Côte d'Ivoire See Ivory Coast-Spain relations
  • Côte d'Ivoire has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Abidjan.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo See Democratic Republic of the Congo-Spain relations
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kinshasa.
 Egypt See Egypt-Spain relations
  • Egypt has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Cairo.
 Equatorial Guinea 12 October 1968 See Equatorial Guinea-Spain relations
 Ethiopia See Ethiopia-Spain relations
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Gambia See Gambia-Spain relations
  • Gambia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy office in Banjul.
 Gabon See Gabon-Spain relations
  • Gabon has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Libreville.
 Ghana See Ghana-Spain relations
  • Ghana has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Accra.
 Guinea See Guinea-Spain relations
  • Guinea has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Conakry.
 Guinea-Bissau See Guinea-Bissau-Spain relations
  • Guinea-Bissau has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Bissau.
 Kenya See Kenya-Spain relations
  • Kenya has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Liberia See Liberia-Spain relations
 Libya See Libya-Spain relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tripoli.
 Madagascar See Madagascar-Spain relations
  • Madagascar is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Madagascar from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
 Mali See Mali-Spain relations
  • Mali has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Bamako.
 Mauritania See Mauritania-Spain relations
 Morocco See Morocco-Spain relations

Spain has several interests in Morocco. This is dictated by geographic proximity and long historical contacts, as well as by the two Spanish enclave cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the northern coast of Africa. While Spain's departure from its former colony of Western Sahara ended direct Spanish participation in Morocco, it maintains an interest in the peaceful resolution of the conflict brought about there by decolonization. These issues were highlighted by a crisis in 2002, when Spanish forces evicted a small contingent of Moroccans from a tiny islet off Morocco's coast following that nation's attempt to assert sovereignty over the Spanish island.

 Mozambique See Mozambique-Spain relations
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Maputo.
 Namibia See Namibia-Spain relations
  • Namibia is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain has an embassy in Windhoek.
 Niger See Niger-Spain relations
  • Niger is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain has an embassy in Niamey.
 Nigeria See Nigeria-Spain relations
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic See Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic-Spain relations
  • Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has a delegation office in Madrid[26] and a delegation office in Barcelona.[27]
 Senegal See Senegal-Spain relations
  • Senegal has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Dakar.
 South Africa See South Africa-Spain relations
  • South Africa has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate-general in Cape Town.
 South Sudan See South Sudan-Spain relations
 Sudan See Spain-Sudan relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Madrid.
 Tanzania See Spain-Tanzania relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Tunisia See Spain-Tunisia relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Madrid.
 Uganda See Spain-Uganda relations
 Zambia
  • Spain has no embassy in Zambia, but has an honorary consulate in Lusaka, and is accredited to the country from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Zambia is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Harare, Zimbabwe.
 Zimbabwe See Spain-Zimbabwe relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda See Antigua and Barbuda-Spain relations
  • Antigua and Barbuda has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda from its embassy in Kingston, Jamaica.
 Argentina 1863 See Argentina-Spain relations
 Bahamas See Bahamas-Spain relations
 Barbados See Barbados-Spain relations
 Belize 13 January 1989 See Belize-Spain relations
  • Belize is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain is accredited to Belize from its embassy in Guatemala City, Guatemala.
 Bolivia 1847 See Bolivia-Spain relations

A diplomatic crisis with Bolivia in 2005 due to a misunderstanding was quickly resolved by Zapatero and Spain became the first European country visited by Evo Morales on January 4, 2006. However, there remain problems surrounding the exploitation of oil and gas fields in the country by Spanish corporations like Repsol.

Bolivian President Evo Morales met King Juan Carlos and held talks with Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero during a visit to Spain in September 2009 with the intention of resolving issues concerning the nationalisation of the Bolivian energy sector. The move has the potential to hurt some Spanish companies however relations were said to be "positive" between the Bolivian state and Spanish private sector energy companies. Evo Morales said that Bolivia is ready to accept outside investment in its energy and natural resource industries as long as foreign firms do not act as owners and that Bolivia is "looking for investment, be it from private or state sector. We want partners, not owners of our natural resources."

It was suggested that Bolivia would also negotiate with Spanish companies to produce car parts and lithium batteries in the future.[30]

 Brazil 1834 See Brazil-Spain relations
 Canada July 1935 See Canada-Spain relations
 Chile 1844 See Chile-Spain relations

Both nations are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

 Colombia 1881 See Colombia-Spain relations
 Costa Rica 10 May 1850 See Costa Rica-Spain relations
 Cuba 1902 See Cuba-Spain relations
 Dominican Republic 1855 See Dominican Republic-Spain relations
 Ecuador 1840 See Ecuador-Spain relations
 El Salvador 24 June 1865 See El Salvador-Spain relations
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.[52]
  • Spain has an embassy in San Salvador.[53]
 Guatemala 1838 See Guatemala-Spain relations
 Haiti 1 April 1939 See Haiti-Spain relations
 Honduras 17 November 1894 See Honduras-Spain relations
  • Honduras has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.[57]
  • Spain has an embassy in Tegucigalpa.[58]
 Jamaica See Jamaica-Spain relations
  • Jamaica is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kingston.
 Mexico 26 December 1836 See Mexico-Spain relations
 Nicaragua 20 March 1851 See Nicaragua-Spain relations
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Managua.[64]
 Panama May 1904 See Panama-Spain relations
 Paraguay 10 September 1880 See Paraguay-Spain relations
 Peru 1879 See Peru-Spain relations
 Trinidad and Tobago See Spain-Trinidad and Tobago relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
 United States See Spain-United States relations

Under the government of José María Aznar, Spain developed exceptionally good relations with the US, in great part due to the personal empathy between Aznar and George W. Bush. Following Zapatero's decision to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq immediately after the 2004 general elections, relations predictably soured, although important commercial links remained intact. When elected, President Barack Obama expressed his wish to enhance cooperation between both countries, especially in policies like the Green Energy plan from Zapatero,[73] introducing the AVE (the Spanish High Speed Train) in United States [74] and aiding US by receiving in Spanish prisons Guantanamo Prison detainees [75]

 Uruguay 19 July 1870 See Spain-Uruguay relations
 Venezuela 1846 See Spain-Venezuela relations

Asia

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Afghanistan See Afghanistan-Spain relations
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kabul.
 Armenia See Armenia-Spain relations
 Azerbaijan See Azerbaijan-Spain relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy office in Baku.
 Bahrain See Bahrain-Spain relations
 Bangladesh See Bangladesh-Spain relations
 Bhutan See Bhutan-Spain relations
 China See China-Spain relations
 East Timor See East Timor-Spain relations
  • East Timor is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal.
  • Spain is accredited to East Timor from its embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia.
 Georgia See Georgia-Spain relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 India 1956 See India-Spain relations
 Indonesia See Indonesia-Spain relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran See Iran-Spain relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tehran.
 Iraq See Iraq-Spain relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Baghdad.
 Israel 1975 See Israel-Spain relations
 Japan 12 November 1868 See Japan-Spain relations
 Jordan See Jordan-Spain relations
  • Jordan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Amman.
 Kazakhstan 11 February 1992 See Kazakhstan-Spain relations
 Kuwait See Kuwait-Spain relations
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kuwait City.
 Kyrgyzstan See Kyrgyzstan-Spain relations
  • Spain is accredited to Kyrgyzstan from its embassy in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Kyrgyzstan does not have an accreditation to Spain.
 Lebanon See Lebanon-Spain relations
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Beirut.
 Malaysia 12 May 1967 See Malaysia-Spain relations
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
 Mongolia See Mongolia-Spain relations
  • Mongolia is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 North Korea 7 February 2001 See North Korea-Spain relations
  • North Korea has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to North Korea from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 Pakistan See Pakistan-Spain relations

Pakistan and Spain enjoy extremely cordial and friendly ties.[99] Relations were established in the late 1950s. Pakistanis form the largest Asian immigrant community in Spain.

  • Pakistan has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.
  • Spain has an embassy in Islamabad and honorary consulates in Karachi and Lahore.
 Philippines See Philippines-Spain relations

Philippine former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo concluded her second state visit in Spain in July 2006, bringing back millions of dollars of Spanish investments, particularly in Tourism and Information Technology. The Spanish king, Juan Carlos I, also reiterated in Mrs. Arroyo's visit, his support for her project in the Philippines to re-establish Spanish as an official language in the country. He and his wife, Queen Sofia attended the 1998 centennial celebrations in Manila, commemorating 100 years of independence from Spain. The mediation of King Juan Carlos I is said to have produced the pardon and liberation of two Filipina domestic workers sentenced to death in Kuwait and the UAE.

 Qatar See Qatar-Spain relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Doha.
 Saudi Arabia See Saudi Arabia-Spain relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Málaga.
  • Spain has an embassy in Riyadh.
 South Korea 7 March 1950 See South Korea-Spain relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Kingdom of Spain began on 7 March 1950.[102]

 Taiwan See Spain-Taiwan relations
 Tajikistan 4 August 1992 See Spain-Tajikistan relations
  • Spain is accredited to Tajikistan from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Geneva, Switzerland.
 Thailand See Spain-Thailand relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Madrid.
 Turkey See Spain-Turkey relations
 Turkmenistan See Spain-Turkmenistan relations
 United Arab Emirates See Spain-United Arab Emirates relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Madrid.
 Uzbekistan See Spain-Uzbekistan relations
  • Spain is accredited to Uzbekistan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Madrid.
 Vietnam See Spain-Vietnam relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Madrid.
 Yemen See Spain-Yemen relations

Europe

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Albania 12 September 1986 See Albania-Spain relations
 Andorra See Andorra-Spain relations
 Austria See Austria-Spain relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Belarus 13 February 1992 See Belarus-Spain relations
 Belgium See Belgium-Spain relations
  • Belgium has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina See Bosnia and Herzegovina-Spain relations
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Sarajevo.
 Bulgaria 8 May 1810 See also Bulgaria-Spain relations
 Croatia 9 March 1992 See Croatia-Spain relations
 Cyprus See Cyprus-Spain relations
 Czech Republic See Czech Republic-Spain relations
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Prague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Denmark See Denmark-Spain relations
 Estonia See Estonia-Spain relations
  • Estonia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Finland 16 August 1918 See Finland-Spain relations
  • Finland has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 France See France-Spain relations
 Germany See Germany-Spain relations
 Greece See Greece-Spain relations

Both countries maintain enhanced cooperation on the serious problem of illegal migration, which they have in common. The need for effective confrontation of the illegal migration pressures on both states in the Mediterranean basin have led to close cooperation both bilaterally and within the framework of the European Union.

  Holy See 1530 See Holy See-Spain relations
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy to the Holy See based in Rome.[125]
 Hungary See Hungary-Spain relations
 Iceland See Iceland-Spain relations
  • Iceland is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Oslo, Norway and maintains an honorary consulate in Reykjavík.
  • Both countries are full members of the NATO.
 Ireland 1924 See Ireland-Spain relations
 Italy See Italy-Spain relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations after the unification of Italy. Relations between Italy and Spain have remained strong and affable for centuries owing to various political, cultural, and historical connections between the two nations. In the Early modern period, southern and insular Italy came under Spanish control, having been previously a domain of the Crown of Aragon. This extended period of foreign domination left marked influences in the modern southern Italian dialects. During the Spanish civil war, the Corps of Volunteer Troops, a fascist expeditionary force from Italy, supported the Nationalist forces led by Francisco Franco. It's estimated that around 75,000 Italians fought in the war.

 Latvia See Latvia-Spain relations
  • Latvia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Riga.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Lithuania See Lithuania-Spain relations
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Vilnius.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Luxembourg See Luxembourg-Spain relations
 Malta 1977 See Malta-Spain relations
 Moldova 30 January 1992 See Moldova-Spain relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Madrid.[134]
  • Spain is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • In 2008, the Spanish government indicated that 12,582 Moldovan citizens were legally working there.[135] Spain is a significant investor in Moldova through Unión Fenosa which owns three of Moldova's five energy distribution companies.[136]
 Monaco See Monaco-Spain relations
  • Monaco has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Montenegro See Montenegro-Spain relations
 Netherlands See Netherlands-Spain relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 North Macedonia See North Macedonia-Spain relations
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Skopje.
  • Both countries are full members of the NATO.
 Norway See Norway-Spain relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Both countries are full members of the NATO.
 Poland See Poland-Spain relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Portugal See Portugal-Spain relations

Portugal's copy of the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided the New World between Portugal and Castile. During the 15th century, Portugal built increasingly large fleets of ships and began to explore the world beyond Europe, sending explorers to Africa and Asia. Castile followed suit decades later. Following the first Spanish voyage of Christopher Columbus to the Caribbean in 1492, both states began acquiring territory in the New World. As a result of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal acquired its most potentially important colony, Brazil (much of the South American continent), as well as a number of possessions in Africa and Asia, while Castile took the rest of South America and much of the North American continent as well as a number of possessions in Africa, Oceanía and Asia as the important colony of the Philippines. This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already Portuguese) and the islands claimed for Castile by Columbus on his first voyage. Although the Treaty of Tordesillas attempted to clarify their empires, many subsequent treaties were needed to establish the modern boundaries of Brazil and the 1529 Treaty of Zaragoza was needed to demarcate their Asian possessions.

Henry of Portugal, reigned until his death (31 January 1580). He lacked heirs and his death triggered a succession crisis, where the main claimants to the throne were Philip II of Spain and Anthony, Prior of Crato. After the Spanish victory in the War of Portuguese Succession Philip of Spain was crowned king of Portugal in 1581, beginning a personal union between the two nations known as the Iberian Union generating a decline of the Portuguese Empire during the period of Union. The Iberian Union lasted for almost sixty years until 1640, when the Portuguese Restoration War was initiated against Spain and Portugal reestablished the Portuguese dynasty under the Bragança.

Relations between Portugal and Spain are also good. They cooperate in the fight against drug trafficking and tackling forest fires (common in the Iberian Peninsula in summers), for example. These close relations are facilitated by similar governments: the government of conservative Spanish PM José María Aznar coincided with the government of also conservative José Manuel Durão Barroso in Portugal; today, both José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero of Spain and José Sócrates of Portugal are socialists.

Portugal also holds claim to the disputed territory of Olivença in the Portuguese-Spanish border.

 Romania 5 January 1967 See Romania-Spain relations
  • Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 5 January 1967; 21 years after they were broken.
  • Romania has an embassy in Madrid and consulates-general in Barcelona, Bilbao and Seville.[139]
  • Spain has an embassy in Bucharest.[140]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union, of the NATO and of the Latin Union.
  • There are around 730,000 people of Romanian descent living in Spain.
 Russia 1520 See Russia-Spain relations

Spain and the Grand Duchy of Moscow first exchanged envoys in the 1520s; regular embassies were established in 1722. Soviet-Spanish relations, once terminated after the Spanish Civil War, were gradually reestablished since 1963 and fully established in 1977. Trade between two countries amounts to two billion Euros (2008); in March 2009 two countries signed an energy agreement providing national energy companies access to other party's domestic markets.

 Serbia 14 October 1916 See Serbia-Spain relations
 Slovakia See Slovakia-Spain relations
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Bratislava.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Slovenia See Slovenia-Spain relations
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Sweden See Spain-Sweden relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  Switzerland See Spain-Switzerland relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.
 Ukraine 30 January 1992 See Spain-Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom See Spain-United Kingdom relations

During the 16th century (1500-1599) There were complex political, commercial, and cultural connections that linked the large powerful Spanish Empire under the Habsburgs with a small but ambitious England.[147] The Habsburgs sought allies against France. Both countries were constantly in turmoil and it was a love-hate relationship. The marriage of sovereigns -Philip II and Mary Tudor- in 1554 was the high point in a century of negotiations, wars and treaties. Philip and Mary got along personally, but there were no children and their retainers displayed mistrust and the marriage lacked in ceremonies and entertainments. The death of Queen Mary brought Queen Elizabeth to the throne, and the two friendly nations became hostile enemies.[148]

The 2001 UK Census recorded 54,482 Spanish-born people living in the UK.[149] In comparison, it is estimated that 100,000 British-born people live in Spain.[]

Oceania

Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Australia 26 October 1967 See Australia-Spain relations
 Federated States of Micronesia See Federated States of Micronesia-Spain relations

The FS of Micronesia were once part of the Spanish East Indies.

  • The FS of Micronesia do not have an accreditation to Spain.
  • Spain is accredited to the FS of Micronesia from its embassy in Manila, Philippines.
 Fiji See Fiji-Spain relations
  • Fiji is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain is accredited to Fiji from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.
 Kiribati See Kiribati-Spain relations
 Marshall Islands See Marshall Islands-Spain relations

The Marshall Islands were once part of the Spanish East Indies.

  • Marshall Islands do not have an accreditation to Spain.
  • Spain is accredited to the Marshall Islands from its embassy in Manila, Philippines.
 New Zealand 28 March 1969 See New Zealand-Spain relations
 Palau See Palau-Spain relations

Palau was once part of the Spanish East Indies.

  • Palau does not have an accreditation to Spain.
  • Spain is accredited to Palau from its embassy in Manila, Philippines.
 Papua New Guinea See Papua New Guinea-Spain relations
  • Papua New Guinea is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain is accredited to Papua New Guinea from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
 Samoa 5 November 1980 See Samoa-Spain relations
  • Samoa is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain is accredited to Samoa from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.
 Solomon Islands See Solomon Islands-Spain relations
 Tonga See Spain-Tonga relations
  • Spain is accredited to Tonga from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Tonga does not have an accreditation to Spain.
 Tuvalu See Spain-Tuvalu relations
 Vanuatu See Spain-Vanuatu relations

See also

References

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  53. ^ Embassy of Spain in San Salvador in (in Spanish)
  54. ^ Embassy of Guatemala in Spain (in Spanish)
  55. ^ Embassy of Spain in Guatemala (in Spanish)
  56. ^ Embassy of Spain in Haiti
  57. ^ Embassy of Honduras in Madrid (in Spanish)
  58. ^ Embassy of Spain in Managua (in Spanish)
  59. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Madrid (in Spanish)
  60. ^ Consulate of Mexico in Barcelona (in Spanish)
  61. ^ Embassy of Spain in Mexico City (in Spanish)
  62. ^ Consulate-General of Spain in Guadalajara (in Spanish)
  63. ^ Consulate-General of Spain in Monterrey (in Spanish)
  64. ^ Embassy of Spain in Managua (in Spanish)
  65. ^ Embassy of Panama in Madrid (in Spanish)
  66. ^ Embassy of Spain in Panama City (in Spanish)
  67. ^ Embassy of Paraguay in Madrid (in Spanish only)
  68. ^ "Consulate-General of Paraguay in Barcelona (in Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2017-02-06. Retrieved .
  69. ^ Consulate-General of Paraguay in Málaga (in Spanish)
  70. ^ "Embassy of Spain in Asunción (in Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2012-08-04. Retrieved .
  71. ^ Embassy of Peru in Madrid
  72. ^ Embassy of Spain in Lima
  73. ^ "Renewable Energy in Spain: Details on the Government's New FIT Regulation".
  74. ^ "Obama's Transportation Secretary Impressed by Spain's AVE". Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved .
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  76. ^ Emabassy of Spain in Washington, DC (in English and Spanish)
  77. ^ "Embassy of the United States in Madrid (in English and Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2014-10-15. Retrieved .
  78. ^ Embassy of Uruguay in Madrid (in Spanish)
  79. ^ Consulate-General of Uruguay in Barcelona (in Spanish)
  80. ^ Consulate-General of Uruguay in Las Palmas (in Spanish)
  81. ^ Consulate-General of Uruguay in Santiago de Compostela (in Spanish)
  82. ^ Embassy of Spain in Montevideo (in Spanish)
  83. ^ Embassy of Venezuela in Madrid (in Spanish)
  84. ^ Consulate-General of Venezuela in Barcelona (in Spanish)
  85. ^ Consulate-General of Venezuela in Bilbao (in Spanish)
  86. ^ Consulate-General of Venezuela in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in Spanish)
  87. ^ Consulate-General of Venezuela in Vigo (in Spanish)
  88. ^ Embassy of Spain in Caracas (in Spanish)
  89. ^ Embassy of Armenia in Madrid (in Armenian, English and Spanish)
  90. ^ "Indian Embassy in Madrid". Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. Retrieved .
  91. ^ "Honorary Consulate Generals of India in Spain". Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. Retrieved .
  92. ^ Spanish Embassy in India
  93. ^ Embassy of Israel in Madrid (in Hebrew and Spanish)
  94. ^ Embassy of Spain in Tel Aviv (in English and Spanish)
  95. ^ Embassy of Japan in Madrid
  96. ^ Embassy of Spain in Tokyo
  97. ^ "Embassy of Kazakhstan in Madrid". Archived from the original on 2018-09-12. Retrieved .
  98. ^ Embassy of Spain in Astana
  99. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  101. ^ Embassy of Spain in Manila (in English and Spanish)
  102. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/europe/countries/20070823/1_24610.jsp?menu=m_30_40
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  105. ^ Embassy of South Korea in Madrid (in Korean and Spanish)
  106. ^ Embassy of Spain in Seoul (in English and Spanish)
  107. ^ Embassy of Spain in Ankara (in Spanish and Turkish)
  108. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Madrid (in Spanish and Turkish)
  109. ^ Embassy of Albania in Madrid (in English and Spanish)
  110. ^ Embassy of Spain in Tirana (in Spanish)
  111. ^ Embassy of Andorra in Madrid (in Spanish)
  112. ^ Embassy of Spain in Andorra la Vella (in English and Spanish)
  113. ^ Embassy of Bulgaria in Madrid (in Bulgarian, English and Spanish)
  114. ^ Embassy of Spain in Sofia (in Bulgarian and Spanish)
  115. ^ Embassy of Croatia in Madrid (in Croatian and Spanish)
  116. ^ Embassy of Spain in Zagreb (in Croatian, English and Spanish)
  117. ^ "Embassy of Denmark in Madrid (in Danish and Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2014-12-04. Retrieved .
  118. ^ Embassy of Spain in Copenhagen (in Danish, English and Spanish)
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  120. ^ Embassy of Spain in Paris (in French and Spanish)
  121. ^ "Embassy of Germany in Madrid (in German and Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2016-04-16. Retrieved .
  122. ^ Embassy of Spain in Berlin (in German and Spanish)
  123. ^ Embassy of Greece in Madrid (in Greek and Spanish)
  124. ^ Embassy of Spain in Athens (in English and Spanish)
  125. ^ Embassy of Spain to the Holy See (in Spanish)
  126. ^ Embassy of Hungary in Madrid (in Hungarian and Spanish)
  127. ^ Embassy of Spain in Budapest (in English and Spanish)
  128. ^ Embassy of Ireland in Madrid (in English and Spanish)
  129. ^ Embassy of Spain in Dublin (in English and Spanish)
  130. ^ Embassy of Italy in Madrid (in Italian and Spanish)
  131. ^ Embassy of Spain in Rome (in Italian and Spanish)
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  134. ^ "Embassy of Moldova in Madrid (in Moldovan)". Archived from the original on 2020-09-23. Retrieved .
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  137. ^ Embassy of Portugal in Madrid
  138. ^ Embassy of Spain in Lisbon
  139. ^ Embassy of Romania in Madrid (in Romanian and Spanish)
  140. ^ Embassy of Spain in Bucharest (in English, Romanian and Spanish)
  141. ^ Embassy of Russia in Madrid (in Russian and Spanish)
  142. ^ Embassy of Spain in Moscow (in English and Spanish)
  143. ^ Embassy of Serbia in Madrid (in Serbian and Spanish) Archived 2014-11-19 at the Wayback Machine
  144. ^ Embassy of Spain in Belgrade (in Serbian and Spanish only)
  145. ^ Embassy of Spain in Kyiv (in Spanish and Ukrainian)
  146. ^ Embassy of Ukraine in Madrid (in Spanish and Ukrainian)
  147. ^ Alexander Samson, "A Fine Romance: Anglo-Spanish Relations in the Sixteenth Century." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 39.1 (2009): 65-94. Online
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  149. ^ "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 2011.
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  152. ^ Embassy of Australia in Spain[permanent dead link]
  153. ^ Embassy of Spain in Australia
  154. ^ Embassy of New Zealand in Madrid
  155. ^ Embassy of Spain in Wellington

Further reading

  • Aznar, José María. Eight Years as Prime Minister: A Personal Vision of Spain 1996-2004 (Barcelona: Planeta, 2005).
  • Chari, Raj S., and Paul M. Heywood. "Institutions, European Integration, and the Policy Process in Contemporary Spain." in Democracy and Institutional Development (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2008) pp. 178-202.
  • Closa, Carlos, and Paul M. Heywood, eds. Spain and the European Union (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).
  • Esteban, Mario. "Spain's Relations with China: Friends but not Partners." Chinese Political Science Review 1.2 (2016): 373-386 online.
  • Garcia Cantalapiedra, David, and Ramon Pacheco Pardo, Contemporary Spanish Foreign Policy (Routledge, 2014). text
  • Gillespie, Richard (April 2007). "Spanish foreign policy: party alternatives or the pursuit of consensus?". Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans. 9 (1): 29-45. doi:10.1080/14613190701216995.
  • Heywood, Paul M. "Desperately seeking influence: Spain and the war in Iraq." European Political science 3.1 (2003): 35-40.
  • Iglesias-Cavicchioli, Manuel (Summer-Fall 2007). "A Period of Turbulent Change: Spanish-US Relations Since 2002" (PDF). Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations. 8 (2): 113-129. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-30. Retrieved .
  • Woodworth, Paddy. "Spain Changes Course: Aznar's Legacy, Zapatero's Prospects." World Policy Journal (Summer 2004): 8-26.

Historical

  • Black, Jeremy. The Rise of the European Powers, 1679-1793 (1990) excerpt and text search, 220pp
  • Cortada, James W. Spain in the Nineteenth-Century World: Essays on Spanish Diplomacy, 1789-1898 (1994)
  • Cortada, James W. Spain in the Twentieth-Century World: Essays on Spanish Diplomacy, 1898-1978 (1980) online
  • Cortada, James W. A Bibliographic Guide to Spanish Diplomatic History, 1460-1977 (Greenwood Press, 1977) 390 pages
  • Dadson, Trevor J. Britain, Spain and the Treaty of Utrecht 1713-2013 (2014).
  • Elliott, J. H. Imperial Spain: 1469-1716 (2002) excerpt and text search
  • Elliott, J. H. Spain, Europe and the Wider World 1500-1800 (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Finucane, Adrian. The Temptations of Trade: Britain, Spain, and the Struggle for Empire (2016).
  • Gold, Peter. Gibraltar: British or Spanish? (2005).
  • Hayes, Paul. Modern British Foreign Policy: The Nineteenth Century 1814-80 (1975) pp. 133-54.
  • Kamen, Henry. Empire: how Spain became a world power, 1492-1763 (2004).
  • Kamen, Henry. "Vicissitudes of a world power 1500-1900" in Raymond Carr, ed, Spain: A history (2000) pp. 152-72.
  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973), very detailed outline
  • Lovett, Gabriel H. Napoleon and the birth of modern Spain (1965) online
  • Mckay, Derek and H.M. Scott. The Rise of the Great Powers 1648-1815 (1983) online
  • Merriman, R. B. The Rise of the Spanish Empire in the Old World and in the New (4 vols, 1918) online free vol 1-2-4
  • Mowat, R. B. A History of European Diplomacy, 1451-1789 (1928), basic introduction online
  • New Cambridge Modern History vol III. The Counter-Reformation and price revolution, 1559-1610 (1968) ed by R. B. Wernham; ch 6, 9, 17
  • New Cambridge Modern History vol IV. The Decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War 1609-48/59 (1970) ed, by J. P. Cooper, ch 9, 15,23
  • Parker, Geoffrey. Philip II (4th ed. 2002) excerpt and text search
  • Parker, Geoffrey. Emperor: A New Life of Charles V (2019)
  • Parker, Geoffrey. The Grand Strategy of Philip II (2000)
  • Payne, Stanley G. The Franco Regime, 1936-1975 (1987)
  • Payne, Stanley G. A History of Spain and Portugal (2 vol 1973)
  • Petrie, Charles. Earlier Diplomatic History 1492-1713 (1949)
  • Petrie, Charles. Diplomatic History 1713-1933 (1949)
  • Slape, Emily, ed. The Spanish Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia (2 vol ABC-CLIO, 2016).

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