Foreign Relations of Germany
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Foreign Relations of Germany

The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) is a Central European country and member of the European Union, G4, G8, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It maintains a network of 229 diplomatic missions abroad and holds relations with more than 190 countries. As one of the world's leading industrialized countries it is recognized as a major power in European and global affairs.

History

Primary institutions and actors

Federal Cabinet

The three cabinet-level ministries responsible for guiding Germany's foreign policy are the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development and the Federal Foreign Office. In practice, most German federal departments play some role in shaping foreign policy in the sense that there are few policy areas left that remain outside of international jurisdiction. The bylaws of the Federal Cabinet (as delineated in Germany's Basic Law), however, assign the Federal Foreign Office a coordinating function. Accordingly, other ministries may only invite foreign guests or participate in treaty negotiations with the approval of the Federal Foreign Office.

Bundestag

With respect to foreign policy, the Bundestag acts in a supervisory capacity. Each of its committees - most notably the foreign relations committee - oversees the country's foreign policy. The consent of the Bundestag (and insofar as Länder are impacted, the Bundesrat) is required to ratify foreign treaties. If a treaty legislation passes first reading, it is referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, which is capable of delaying ratification and prejudice decision through its report to the Bundestag.[1]

In 1994, a full EU Committee was also created for the purpose of addressing the large flow of EU-related topics and legislation. Also, the committee has the mandate to speak on behalf of the Bundestag and represent it when deciding an EU policy position.[2] A case in point was the committee's involvement regarding the European Union's eastern enlargement wherein the Committee on Foreign Affairs is responsible for relations with ECE states while the EU Committee is tasked with the negotiations.[2]

NGOs

There is a raft of NGOs in Germany that engage foreign policy issues. These NGOs include think-tanks (German Council on Foreign Relations), single-issue lobbying organizations (Amnesty International), as well as other organizations that promote stronger bilateral ties between Germany and other countries (Atlantic Bridge). While the budgets and methods of NGOs are distinct, the overarching goal to persuade decision-makers to the wisdom of their own views is a shared one. In 2004, a new German governance framework, particularly on foreign and security policy areas, emerged where NGOs are integrated into actual policymaking.[3] The idea is that the cooperation between state and civil society groups increases the quality of conflict resolution, development cooperation and humanitarian aid for fragile states. The framework seeks to benefit from the expertise of the NGOs in exchange for these groups to have a chance for influencing foreign policy.[3]

Disputes

Former Chancellor Gerhard Schröder with former U.S. President George W. Bush at the White House in 2001

In 2001, the discovery that the terrorist cell which carried out the attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001, was based in Hamburg, sent shock waves through the country[clarification needed].

The government of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder backed the following U.S. military actions, sending Bundeswehr troops to Afghanistan to lead a joint NATO program to provide security in the country after the ousting of the Taliban.

Nearly all of the public was strongly against America's 2003 invasion of Iraq, and any deployment of troops.[4] This position was shared by the SPD/Green government, which led to some friction with the United States.

In August 2006, the German government disclosed a botched plot to bomb two German trains. The attack was to occur in July 2006 and involved a 21-year-old Lebanese man, identified only as Youssef Mohammed E. H. Prosecutors said Youssef and another man left suitcases stuffed with crude propane-gas bombs on the trains.

As of February 2007, Germany had about 3,000 NATO-led International Security Assistance Force force in Afghanistan as part of the War on Terrorism, the third largest contingent after the United States (14,000) and the United Kingdom (5,200).[5] German forces are mostly in the more secure north of the country.

However, Germany, along with some other larger European countries (with the exception of the UK and the Netherlands), have been criticised by the UK and Canada for not sharing the burden of the more intensive combat operations in southern Afghanistan.[6][7]

Global initiatives

Humanitarian aid

Germany is the largest net contributor to the United Nations and has several development agencies working in Africa and the Middle East. The development policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is an independent area of German foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.[8] It is the world's third biggest aid donor after the United States and France.[9] Germany spent 0.37 per cent of its gross domestic product (GDP) on development, which is below the government's target of increasing aid to 0.51 per cent of GDP by 2010. The international target of 0.7% of GNP would have not been reached either.

Ecological involvement

International organizations

Germany is a member of the Council of Europe, European Union, European Space Agency, G4, G8, International Monetary Fund, NATO, OECD, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, UN, World Bank Group and the World Trade Organization.

European Union

European integration has gone a long way since the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the Elysée Treaty. Peaceful collaborations with its neighbors remain one of Germany's biggest political objectives, and Germany has been on the forefront of most achievements made in European integration:

Most of the social issues facing European countries in general: immigration, aging populations, straining social-welfare and pension systems - are all important in Germany. Germany seeks to maintain peace through the "deepening" of integration among current members of the European Union member states

Germany has been the largest net contributor to EU budgets for decades (in absolute terms - given Germany's comparatively large population - not per capita) and seeks to limit the growth of these net payments in the enlarged union.

NATO

A meeting of NATO heads of States and governments on 11 July 2018 in Brussels

Under the doctrine introduced by the 2003 Defense Policy Guidelines, Germany continues to give priority to the transatlantic partnership with the United States through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. However, Germany is giving increasing attention to coordinating its policies with the European Union through the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

UN

The German Federal Government began an initiative to obtain a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council, as part of the Reform of the United Nations. This would require approval of a two-thirds majority of the member states and approval of all five Security Council veto powers.

This aspiration could be successful due to Germany's good relations with the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation. Germany is a stable and democratic republic and a G7 country which are also favourable attributes. The United Kingdom and France support German ascension to the supreme body.[10] The U.S. is sending mixed signals.

NATO member states, including Germany, decided not to sign the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, a binding agreement for negotiations for the total elimination of nuclear weapons, supported by more than 120 nations.[11]

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 1962-07-03[12]
 Angola 1979-08-16[13]
  • Angola has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Luanda.[13]
 Botswana 1966-10-01[14]
  • Botswana has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Gaborone.[14]
 Burundi 1963-01-24[15]
  • Burundi has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bujumbura.[15]
 Cabo Verde 1997-07-01[16]
  • Cabo Verde has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is represented in Cabo Verde through its embassy in Senegal.[16]
 Cameroon 1960-01-01[17]
  • Cameroon has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Yaoundé.[17]
 Central African Republic 1960-12-01[18]
  • The Central African Republic is represented in Germany through its embassy in France.
  • Following the closing of the German embassy in Bangui in 1997 Germany is represented through its embassy in Cameroon.[18]
 Chad 1960-08-11[19]
  • Chad has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in N'Djamena.[19]
 Comoros 1978-02-02[20]
  • Comoros is represented in Germany through its embassy in Belgium.
  • Germany is represented in Comoros through its embassy in Tanzania.[20]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960-06-30[21]
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kinshasa.[21]
 Republic of the Congo 1960-08-15[22]
  • Republic of the Congo has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Brazzaville.[22]
 Egypt 1952-10-16[23] See Egypt-Germany relations
  • Egypt has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Cairo.[23]
 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Addis Ababa.[24]
 Gabon 1962-04-13[25]
  • Gabon has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Libreville.[25]
 Ghana 1957-06-24[26]
  • Ghana has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Accra.[26]
 Kenya 1963-12-18[27] See Germany-Kenya relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya has an embassy in Berlin.[27]
 Liberia 1953-07-23[28]
  • Liberia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Monrovia.[28]
 Libya 1955-06-03[29] See Germany-Libya relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany closed its embassy in Tripoli due to the ongoing civil war. Thus at the moment, Germany is represented in Libya through its embassy in Tunesia.[29]
 Madagascar 1960-06-26[30]
  • Madagascar has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Antananarivo.[30]
 Mali 1960-09-23[31]
  • Mali has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bamako.[31]
 Mauritania 1963-08-08[32]
  • Mauritania has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Nouakchott.[32]
 Morocco 1957-03-36[33]
  • Morocco has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf and Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Rabat.[33]
 Mozambique 1976-02-03[34]
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Maputo.
 Namibia 1990-03-21[35] See Germany-Namibia relations
  • Namibia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Windhoek.[35]
 Niger 1963-01-11[36]
  • Niger has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Niamey.[36]
 Nigeria 1960-09-30[37]
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.[37]
 Rwanda 1963-12-13[38]
  • Rwanda has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kigali.[38]
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1975-07-12[39]
  • São Tomé and Príncipe is represented in Germany through its embassy in Belgium.
  • Germany is represented in São Tomé and Príncipe though its embassy in Gabon.[39]
 Senegal 1960-09-23[40]
  • Senegal has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Dakar.[40]
 Sierra Leone 1961-04-27[41]
  • Sierra Leone has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Freetown.[41]
 Somalia 1960-07-01[42]
  • Somalia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is represented in Somalia through its embassy in Kenya.[42]
 South Africa 1951-08-14[43] See Germany-South Africa relations
  • South Africa has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate-general in Cape Town.[43]
 South Sudan 2011-07-09[44]
  • South Sudan has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Juba.[44]
 Sudan 1956-03-12[45]
  • Sudan has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Khartoum.
 Tanzania 1961-12-09[46]
 Togo 1960-04-27[47]
  • Togo has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Lomé.[47]
 Tunisia 1956[48]
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Berlin, a consulate-general in Bonn, and consulates in Hamburg and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tunis.[48]
 Uganda 1962-10-09[49]
  • Uganda has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kampala.[49]
 Zambia 1964-10-24[50]
  • Zambia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Lusaka.[50]
 Zimbabwe 1980-04-18[51]
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Harare.[51]

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 1982-03-11[52]
  • Antigua and Barbuda is represented in Germany through its embassy in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany is represented in Antigua and Barbuda through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[52]
 Argentina May 1871[]/ As Federal Republic of Germany: 1951-12-30[53] See Argentina-Germany relations
 Bahamas
  • The Bahamas is represented in Germany through its embassy in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany is represented in the Bahamas through its embassy in Jamaica.[56]
 Barbados 1966-11-30[57] See Barbados-Germany relations
 Belize 1982-03-01[58]
  • Belize is represented in Germany through its embassy in Brussels.[58]
  • Germany is represented in Belize through its embassy in Guatemala.[58][59]
 Bolivia July 1921[60]/ As Federal Republic of Germany: 1952-12-30[61]
  • Diplomatic relations between the two states were broken during the First World War.
  • Relations were restored after the war under the agreement concluded on 20 July 1921.[60][62]
  • Around 375,000 Bolivians are of German descent and some presidents were of German descent.[]
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in La Paz.[61]
  • See also: Ethnic Germans in Bolivia
 Brazil 1870[63]/ As Federal Republic of Germany: 1951-07-10[64] See Brazil-Germany relations
 Canada With the Allied High Commission: 1949[67]/As Federal Republic of Germany: 1951-11-08[68] See Canada-Germany relations

Until 2005 Canada's embassy was in Bonn, but in April 2005 a new embassy opened in Berlin.[] Canada also operates consulates in Munich and Düsseldorf.[68] The provinces of Ontario and Alberta have representatives in Germany, co-located in the consulates.[]Quebec runs a stand-alone bureau in Munich, with an "antenne culturelle" office in Berlin.[] In addition to its embassy in Ottawa, Germany maintains consulates in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.[68]

 Chile 1850[69]/ As Federal Republic of Germany: 1952-02-04[70] See Chile-Germany relations
 Colombia 1882[]/ As Federal Republic of Germany: 1953-01-13[72]
  • Colombia has an embassy in Berlin, a consulate-general in Frankfurt and three honorary consulates in Bremen, Hamburg and Stuttgart.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bogotá and four honorary consulates in Armenia, Barranquilla, Cali, and Medellin.[72]
 Costa Rica
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in San José.[73]
 Cuba 1955-06-30 (interrupted between 1963 and 1974 due to the Hallstein Doctrine)[74]
  • Cuba has an embassy in Berlin and an embassy outpost in Bonn.
  • Germany has an embassy in Havana.[74]
 Dominica 1980[75]
  • Dominica is represented in Germany through its embassy in London.
  • Germany is represented in Dominica through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[75]
 Dominican Republic
  • The Dominican Republic has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Santo Domingo.[76]
 Ecuador 1952-07-04[77]
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate in Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Quito.[77]
 El Salvador 1952-08-25[78]
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in San Salvador.[78]
 Grenada 1974-02-06[79]
  • Grenada has closed its embassy in Germany on August 17, 2013.
  • Germany is represented in Grenada through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[79]
 Guatemala 1959-10-09[80]
 Guyana 1967-03-14[81]
  • Guyana is represented in Germany through its embassy in Brussles.
  • Germany is represented in Guyana through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[81]
 Haiti 1953-09-23[82]
 Honduras 1960-01-20[83]
  • Honduras has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tegucigalpa.[83]
 Jamaica 1963-02-06[84]
  • Jamaica has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kingston.[84]
 Mexico January 1879[]/ As Federal Republic of Germany: 1952-08-29[85] See Germany-Mexico relations
 Nicaragua 1952-04-10[88]
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Managua.[88]
 Panama 1953-02-20[89]
  • Panama has an embassy in Berlin and a consalate-general in Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Panama City.[89]
 Paraguay 1860-08-01[]/ As Federal Republic of Germany: 1952-10-01[90]
 Peru 1951-06-28[92]
  • Peru has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Hamburg, Munich and Offenbach.
  • Germany has an embassy in Lima.[92]
 St. Kitts and Nevis 1984-08-27[93]
  • St. Kitts and Nevis is represented in Germany through its High Commission in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany is represented in St. Kitts and Nevis through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[93]
 St. Lucia 1980-08-01[94]
  • St. Lucia is represented in Germany through its High Commission in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany is represented in St. Lucia through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[94]
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1980-06-13[95]
  • St. Vincent and the Grenadines is represented in Germany through its High Commission in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany is represented in St. Vincent and the Grenadines through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[95]
 Suriname 1975-11-25[96]
  • Suriname is represented in Germany through its embassy in the Netherlands.
  • Germany is represented in Suriname through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[96]
 Trinidad and Tobago 1963-08-28[97]
  • Trinidad and Tobago is represented in Germany through its High Commission in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany has an embassy in Port of Spain.[97]
 United States 1951-07-02[98] See Germany-United States relations

Since 2006, the current chancellor Angela Merkel has sought warmer relations with the United States and to rebuild political ties on common values and beliefs.

 Uruguay 1952-01-09[100] See Germany-Uruguay relations
 Venezuela 1952-04-28[101]
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Caracas.[101]

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 24 January 1916[102]/As Federal Republic of Germany: 1954-12-22[103] See Afghanistan-Germany relations
  • German was one of the first nations to recognise Afghan sovereignty, following the Soviet Union in 1991.[104]
  • Afghanistan an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Bonn and Grünwald.[103]
  • Germany maintains an embassy in Kabul and a consulate-general in Mazar-i-Sharif.[103]
  • Afghanistan and Germany established close ties in 1935, as Afghanistan sought to break from their historical patterns of British and Russian alignment. Afghanistan resisted calls from Moscow and London to expel the Italian and German diplomatic corps for most of World War II.[105]
 Armenia 1992-01-31[106] See Armenia-Germany relations

Armenian-German relations have always been stable and solid; they continue to work together and advance through the years in cooperation. Their leaders have discussed bilateral relations and noted that they have considerably improved over the last few years.[107]

 Azerbaijan 1992-02-20[108]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Berlin.[109]
  • Germany has an embassy in Baku.[108]
 Bahrain 1972-05-17[110]
  • Bahrain has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Manama.[110]
 Bangladesh 1972-02-04[111]

After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971 East Germany was the third country in the world, and the first country in Europe, to officially recognise Bangladesh in 1972.[112] Bangladesh also warmly greeted German reunification. As an economic power as well as an important member of the European Union (EU), Germany is a reliable partner of Bangladesh in development cooperation. After establishment of diplomatic relations, the bilateral relations between the two countries began to grow steadily. Bangladesh is a priority partner country of German Development Cooperation (GTZ). In trade with Germany, Bangladesh has for years recorded a large surplus. Germany is the second largest export market of Bangladesh after the US. The cultural relationship of both the countries is very strong. The cultural cooperation between them is mainly channeled through the Goethe Institute that work on developing the cultural ties between both the countries by sponsoring local and German cultural activities. Both Germany and Bangladesh share common views on various international issues and work together in the UN and in other international forum. They have maintained and developed close and friendly relations in a wide range of field. The two countries are harmonized together by their commitment to various sectors mutually agreed upon, which is expected to be strengthened further in future.[]

  • Bangladesh has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Dhaka.[111]
 Bhutan 2000 (only consular relations)[113] There are no diplomatic relations between Bhutan and Germany, but consular relations have existed since 2000.
  • The consular affairs in Germany are handled by the embassy of Bhutan in Belgium.
  • The consular affairs in Bhutan are handled by the embassy of Germany in India.[113]
 Brunei 1984-01-30[114] See Brunei-Germany relations
 Cambodia 1964-02-19[116]
  • Cambodia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Phnom Penh.[116]
 China 1972-11-10[117] See China-Germany relations

Germany has good relationships with the People's Republic of China, even though Angela Merkel and large parts of Germany's political class have recently criticised the People's Republic for holding back reforms in the field of democracy and human rights. In recent years trade between them has reached high volumes, both in import and exports.[] In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Germany, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China's mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.[118][119]

 Georgia 1992-04-13[120] See Foreign relations of Georgia
  • Georgia has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tbilisi.[120]
 Hong Kong 2009[121] There are no formal diplomatic relations between Hong Kong and Germany, due to the character of Hong Kong being a Special Administrative Region and not an independent nation.
 India 1951-03-07[122]

During the Cold War India maintained diplomatic relations with both West Germany and East Germany. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the reunification of Germany, relations have further improved. The German ambassador to India, Bernd Mutzelburg, once said that India and Germany, are not just 'natural partners', but important countries in a globalised world. Germany is India's largest trade partner in Europe. German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited India recently, as did the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi visit Germany. Both countries have been working towards gaining permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council. As both countries are strong liberal democracies, they have similar objectives. UN reforms, fighting terrorism and climate change, and promotion of science, education, technology, and human rights, are some areas of shared interests, and collaboration between these two countries. Culturally too, Indian and German writers and philosophers, have influenced each other.[123] Recently, Germany has invested in developing education and skills amongst rural Indians. Germany was one of the first countries to agree with the Indo-US Nuclear deal.

 Indonesia 1952-06-25[134]
  • Indonesia and Germany have traditionally enjoyed good, intensive and wide-ranging relations.
  • Germany and Indonesia, as the largest members of the European Union and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), respectively, take similar positions on many issues relating to the development of the two regional organizations.[135]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Jakarta.[134]
 Iran 1952-01-26[136] Se Germany-Iran relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tehran.[136]
 Iraq 1953-09-19[137] See Germany-Iraq relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Baghdad and a consulate-general in Erbil.[137]
  • There are currently some 84,000-150,000 Iraqis living in Germany.[]
 Israel 1965-05-10[138] See Germany-Israel relations

Germany-Israel relations refers to the special relationship between Israel and Germany based on shared beliefs, Western values and a combination of historical perspectives.[139] Among the most important factors in their relations is Nazi Germany's role in the genocide of European Jews during the Holocaust.[140] Following German history during the Holocaust, one of Postwar Germany's aims were to establish and maintain relations of Wiedergutmachung with the State of Israel. Starting with the Reparations Agreement in 1952, support for the national security of the State of Israel is central to German foreign policy. Germany has been actively involved in the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty in 1979, the Oslo Accords (1993) which led to the Israel-Jordan peace treaty in 1994 and the continuing Israeli-Palestinian peace process which make Germany arguably (next to the United States) Israel's closest ally.[]

 Japan 1952-04-19[141] See Germany-Japan relations

Regular meetings between the two countries have led to several cooperations. In 2004 German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi agreed upon cooperations in the assistance for reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan,[142][143] the promotion of economic exchange activities,[144] youth and sports exchanges[145] as well as exchanges and cooperation in science, technology and academic fields.[146] After China, Japan is Germany's principal trading partner in Asia in 2006.[147]

  • Japan has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tokyo and a consulate-general in Osaka.[141]
 Jordan 1953[148]
  • Jordan has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Amman.[148]
 Kazakhstan According to German Foreign Office: 1992-02-12[149]/ According to Kazakh Foreign Ministry: 1992-02-11.[150] See Germany-Kazakhstan relations
  • Kazakhstan and Germany have established partnerships in the energy, technology and raw materials sectors.
  • Germany has a national pavilion at the Astana Expo 2017.[]
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Berlin,[151] an embassy outpost in Bonn, a consultaetegeneral in Frankfurt, and a consulate in Munich.[149]
  • Germany has an embassy in Astana and a consulate-general in Almaty.[149]
 Kuwait 1964[152]
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kuwait City.[152]
 Kyrgyzstan 1992-02-03[153]
  • Kyrgyzstan has an embassy in Berlin, an embassy outpost in Bonn, and a consulate in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bishkek.[153]
 Laos 1958-01-31[154]
  • Laos has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Vientiane.[154]
 Lebanon 1953-05-20[155]
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Beirut.[155]
 Malaysia 1957-08-31[156] See Germany-Malaysia relations
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[156]
 Maldives 1966-10-10[157]
  • The Maldives have an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is represented in the Maldives through its embassy in Sri Lanka.[157]
 Mongolia 1950-04-13[158]
   Nepal 1958-04-23[159]
  • Nepal has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kathmandu.[159]
 North Korea 2001-03-01[160] See Germany-North Korea relations
  • North Korea has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Pyongyang.[160]
 Oman 1972-05-16[161]
  • Oman has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Muscat.[161]
 Pakistan 1972-05-14[162] See Germany-Pakistan relations

Pakistan and Germany enjoy extremely close, warm and historical relations.[163] Germany is Pakistan's fourth largest trading partner and biggest trading partner in the EU. Germany has been a reliable partner in trade, development, military, scientific and cultural co-operation.the collaboration between Germany and Pakistan dates back to the creation of Pakistan. Germany is home to 53,668 Pakistani immigrants.[]

  • Pakistan has an embassy in Berlin, a consulate-general in Frankfurt, and honorary consulates in Frankfurt, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, and Isartal.[162]
  • Germany has an embassy in Islamabad, a consulate-general in Karachi, and an honorary consulate in Lahore.[162]
  • See also Pakistanis in Germany
 Palestine 1994-08-08[164]
  • Palestine has a representative office in Berlin.
  • Germany has a representative office in Ramallah.[164]
 Philippines 1954-10-08[165] See Germany-Philippines relations

The relation between Germany and the Philippines remain strong and positive. In 1955 an agreement was signed which led to a dynamic cooperation between the two countries.[]

  • The Philippines has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Manila.[165]
 Qatar 1973-01-15[166] See Germany-Qatar relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Berlin, an embassy outpost in Bonn, and a consulate-general in Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Doha.[166]
 Saudi Arabia 1954-11-10[167]
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.[167]
 Singapore 1965-12-24[168] See Germany-Singapore relations
  • Singapore has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Singapore.[168]
 South Korea 1883-11-26[169]/As Federal Republic of Germany according to Korean Foreign Ministry: 1955-12-01[170]/As Federal Republic of Germany according to German Foreign Office: 1957-05-25[171] See Germany-South Korea relations
 Sri Lanka 1952-12-09[175]
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Colombo.[175]
 Taiwan - Germany and Taiwan don't maintain official diplomatic relations. However Taiwan maintains Taipei Representative Offices in Berlin, Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Munich. Germany on the other hand maintains a German Institute in Taipei.[176]
 Tajikistan 1992-02-28[177]
  • Tajikistan has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Dushanbe.[177]
 Thailand 1952-05-28[178]
  • Thailand has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bangkok.[178]
 Turkey 1952-06-21[179] See Germany-Turkey relations

Good Turkish/Ottoman-German relations from the 19th century onwards. They were allies in First World War. Germany promoted Turkish immigration after 1945 when it suffered an acute labor shortage. They were called Gastarbeiter (German for guest workers). Most Turks in Germany trace their ancestry to Central and Eastern Anatolia. Today, Turks are Germany's largest ethnic minority and form most of Germany's Muslim minority. Berlin is home to about 250,000 Turks,[180] making it the largest Turkish community outside of Turkey.

 Turkmenistan 1992-03-06[181]
  • Turkmenistan has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Ashgabat.[181]
 United Arab Emirates 1972-05-17[182] See Germany-United Arab Emirates relations
  • UAE has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Bonn and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.[182]
 Uzbekistan 1992-03-06[183]
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tashkent.[183]
 Vietnam North: 1975-09-12/South: 1957-06-12[184] See Germany-Vietnam relations
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.[184]
 Yemen
  • Yemen has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Sana?a which at the moment is only working to a limited extend due to the civil war.[185]

Europe

Balkan states

The European Union and the Eurozone

The German government was a strong supporter of the enlargement of NATO.

Germany was one of the first nations to recognize Croatia and Slovenia as independent nations, rejecting the concept of Yugoslavia as the only legitimate political order in the Balkans (unlike other European powers, who first proposed a pro-Belgrade policy). This is why Serb authorities sometimes referred to "new German imperialism" as one of the main reasons for Yugoslavia's collapse. German troops participate in the multinational efforts to bring "peace and stability" to the Balkans.

Central Europe

Weimar triangle (France, Germany and Poland); Germany continues to be active economically in the states of Central Europe, and to actively support the development of democratic institutions. In the 2000s, Germany has been arguably the centerpiece of the European Union (though the importance of France cannot be overlooked in this connection).

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 1987-09-15[186] See Albania-Germany relations
 Andorra 1994-03-08[187]
  • Andorra is represented in Germany through its embassy in Andorra.
  • Germany is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Spain.[187]
 Austria 1956-01-05[188] See Austria-Germany relations

Relations between them are close because as countries have strong historical and cultural ties.

  • Austria has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Vienna.[188]
 Belarus 1992-03-13[189]
 Belgium 1951-06-27[192] See Foreign relations of Belgium
  • Belgium has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Brussels.[192]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-11-13[193] The German government has made continuous efforts concerning the peace process after the civil war.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt, Munich, and Stuttgart.
  • Germany has an embassy in Sarajevo.[193]
 Bulgaria 1973-12-21[194] See Bulgaria-Germany relations

The Bulgarian government views Germany as its key strategic partner in the EU.

  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Sofia.[194]
 Croatia 1992-01-15[195] See Croatia-Germany relations
  • There are more than 200,000 Croats who live in Germany. Historically Germany has had a close collaboration with Croatia.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich and Stuttgart,[196] and honorary consulates in Dresden and Mainz.[195]
  • Germany has an embassy in Zagreb and an honorary consulate in Osijek.[195]
 Cyprus 1960-08-20[197] See Cyprus-Germany relations
  • In 2004, an agreement on mutual recognition of university degrees was signed, designed to facilitate Cypriot and German students' admission to German and Cypriot universities.
  • There is a close and trustful cooperation at a government level. Minister of State Hoyer visited Cyprus on 11 and 12 February 2010. Federal Foreign Minister Westerwelle met with his Cypriot counterpart Marcos Kyprianou in Berlin on 2 March.[]
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Hamburg.[198]
  • Germany has an embassy in Nicosia.[197]
 Czech Republic 1973-12-11[199] See Czech Republic-Germany relations

Today, they share 815 km of common borders.

  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Berlin, consulates-general in Dresden and Munich, a consulate in Düsseldorf, and honorary consulates in Dortmund, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Nuremberg, and Rostock.
  • Germany has an embassy in Prague.[199]
 Denmark 1951-06-27[200] See Denmark-Germany relations
  • Denmark has an embassy in Berlin and three consulates-general in Flensburg, Hamburg and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Copenhagen.[200]
 Estonia 1991-08-28[201]
  • Estonia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tallinn.[201]
 Finland 1973-01-07[202] See Finland-Germany relations
  • Finland has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Helsinki.[202]
 France 1951-07-11[203] See France-Germany relations

Being the historic core of Europe and the "twin engine for European integration", the cooperation with France is one of the most central elements of German foreign policy. The Elysée Treaty from 1963 set the foundation for a collaboration that - next to the European project - also repeatedly called for a "Core Union" with maximum integration.[204] In recent times, France and Germany are among the most enthusiastic proponents of the further integration of the EU. They are sometimes described as the "twin engine" or "core countries" pushing for moves.[]

 Greece 1834 (Prussia)[]/1950-12-07[205]
  • The first Greek Embassy in Berlin was established in 1834, when Berlin was the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia.[]
  • Greece has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart.
  • Germany has an embassy in Athens and a consulate-general in Thessaloniki.[205]
  Holy See 1954-06-01[206] See Germany-Holy See relations
  • Holy See has an apostolic nunciature in Berlin.
  • Germanys embassy to the Holy See is located in Rome.[206]
 Hungary 1973-12-13[207] See Germany-Hungary relations
  • Hungary has an embassy in Berlin,[208] consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Munich, and Stuttgart, an honorary consulate-general in Bremerhaven, and honorary consulates in Dresdener, Erfurt, Essen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Nuremberg, and Schwerin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Budapest and an honorary consulate in Pécs.[207]
 Iceland 1952-12-16[209]
  • German-Icelandic cultural relations go back more than a thousand years; they share a Germanic cultural background.[]
  • Iceland has an embassy in Berlin and nine honorary consulates in Bremen, Cologne, Cuxhaven, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart, and Warnemünde.[209]
  • Germany has an embassy in Reykjavík an honorary consulates in Akureyri and Seyðisfjörður.[209]
 Ireland 1922[]/As Federal Republic of Germany: 1951-07-26[210] See Germany-Ireland relations
 Italy 1950-12-02[211] See Germany-Italy relations
  • These two countries were part of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • The Italian regions of Friuli-Venezia Giulia and South Tyrol were located inside the boundaries of the German Confederation.
  • Relations were established after the Unification of Italy.
  • They enjoy friendly relations and were members of the Axis during World War II, formed an alliance during the Cold War (West Germany), and are full members of the European Union and NATO.[]
  • Italy has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-generals in Cologne, Frankfurt, Hannover, Munich, and Suttgart, consulates in Freiburg and Dortmund, and a consular agency in Wolfsburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.[211]
 Kosovo 2008-02-21[212] See Germany-Kosovo relations
  • Germany is the second-largest donor to Kosovo, behind the United States.[213]
  • Kosovo will open an embassy in Berlin, a consulate-general in Munich, and consulates in Frankfurt and Stuttgart.[212]
  • Germany has an embassy in Pristina since 27 February 2008.[212][214]
 Latvia 1920[215] and again as Federal Republic of Germany 1991-08-28[216]
  • Diplomatic relations were first established following Latvia's independence from Russian rule, under agreement signed in Berlin on 15 July 1920.[215] These relation lasted until the Soviet take over of Latvia in 1940.[]
  • Relations were reestablished in 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Berlin[217] and honorary consulates in Bremen, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Künzelsau, Munich and Rostock.[216]
  • Germany has an embassy in Riga.[218]
 Liechtenstein 1952-05-06[219]
  • Liechtenstein has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is accredited to Liechtenstein from its embassy in Bern, Switzerland.[219]
 Lithuania 1991-08-28[220]
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Berlin and honorary consulates in Dresden, Erfurt, Essen, Künzelsau, and Munich.[220]
  • Germany has an embassy in Vilnius[221] and an honorary consulate in Klaip?da.[220]
 Luxembourg 1951-04-23[222]
 Malta 1965-02-16[223]
 Moldova 1992-04-30[225] See Germany-Moldova relations
 Monaco 1951-10-16[226]
  • Monaco has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France.[226]
 Montenegro 2006-06-03[227]
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Podgorica.[227]
 Netherlands 1951-03-06[228] See Germany-Netherlands relations
  • Relations were established following the unification of Germany in 1871.
  • During the First World War, the German army refrained from attacking the Netherlands, and thus relations between the two states were preserved. At war's end in 1918, the former Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to the Netherlands, where he lived till his death in 1941.
  • The German army occupied the Netherlands during the Second World War and kept the country under occupation in 1940-1945.[]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general which is at the same time an embassy outpost in Amsterdam.[228]
 North Macedonia 1993-12-16[229]
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Berlin, an embassy outpost in Bonn, and a consulate-general in Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Skopje.[229]
 Norway 1951-05-10[230] See Germany-Norway relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Oslo.[230]
 Poland 1972-09-14[231] See Germany-Poland relations

During the Cold War, communist Poland had good relations with East Germany, but had strained relations with West Germany. After the fall of communism, Poland and the reunited Germany have had a mostly positive but occasionally strained relationship due to some political issues. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Germany has been a proponent of Poland's participation in NATO and the European Union. The Polish-German border is 467 km long.[232]

  • Poland has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Cologne, Hamburg, and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Warsaw, consulates-general in Gda?sk, Kraków, Wroc?aw and a consulate in Opole, which is an outpost of the consulate-general in Wroc?aw.[231]
 Portugal 1952-11-10[233]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Berlin, consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Stuttgart, and an outpost of the consulate-general Stuttgart in Hattersheim am Main.
  • Germany has an embassy in Lisbon.[233]
 Romania 1872[]/As Federal Republic of Germany: 1967-01-31[234] See Germany-Romania relations
  • Both countries have - due to a formerly significant number of Germans of Romania - also cultural relations.[]
  • Romania has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Bonn, Munich, and Stuttgart.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bucharest and consulates in Sibiu and Timi?oara.[234]
 Russia 1955-09-13[235] See Germany-Russia relations

Germany tries to keep Russia engaged with the rest of the Western world. The future aim is to promote a stable market-economy liberal democracy in Russia, which is part of the Western world.[]

 San Marino 1995-10-01[236]
  • San Marino is represented in Germany through its embassador in San Marino.
  • Germany is represented in Germany through its embassy in Rome and its consulate-general in Milan.[236]
 Serbia 1951-12-08[237] See Germany-Serbia relations
  • There are 505,000 registered people of Serbian descent living in Germany.
  • Germans of Serbia today constitute a small minority, but used to be the largest minority in Serbia before World War II.[]
  • Serbia has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, and Stuttgart.[238][239]
  • Germany has an embassy in Belgrade.[237]
 Slovakia 1993[]
 Slovenia 1992-01-15[242]

See Germany-Slovenia relations

  • Slovenia has an embassy in Berlin, and a consulate-general in Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Ljubljana.[242]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 2017
  • Diplomatic relations were established on 15 December 2017[243]
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta has an Embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is represented to Sovereign Military Order of Malta through its Embassy to the Holy See.[244]
 Spain 1952-11-06[245] See Germany-Spain relations
 Sweden 1951-04-04[246]
  • Relations have been strong with cultural and economic cooperation.[]
  • Sweden has an embassy in Berlin and 12 honorary consulates.
  • Germany has an embassy in Stockholm and 8 honorary consulates.[246]
  Switzerland 1952-05-06[247] See Germany-Switzerland relations
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt, Munich, and Stuttgart.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bern.[247]
 Ukraine 1992-01-17[248] See Germany-Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom 1951-06-20[249] See Germany-United Kingdom relations

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 1952-01-28[254] See Australia-Germany relations
  • Australia has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.[254]
 Cook Islands 2001-09-11[255]
  • Germany is represented in the Cook Islands through its embassy in New Zealand.[255]
 Fiji 1973-08-01[256]
  • Fiji is represented in Germany through its embassy in Brussels.
  • Germany is represented in Fiji through its embassy in New Zealand.[256]
 Kiribati 1980-07-01[257]
  • Kiribati has an honorary consulate in Hamburg.
  • Germany is represented in Kiribati through its embassy in New Zealand.[257]
 Marshall Islands 1991-09-23[258]
  • The Marshall Islands is represented in Germany through its permanent mission to the United Nations.
  • Germany is represented in the Marshall Islands through its embassy in the Philippines.[258]
 Micronesia 1992-04-21[259]
  • Micronesia is represented in Germany though its embassy in the United States.
  • Germany is represented in Germany through its embassy in the Philippines.[259]
 Nauru 1979-04-15[260]
  • Nauru is represented in Germany through its consulate-general in Australia.
  • Germany is represented in Nauru through its embassy in Australia.[260]
 New Zealand 1953-11-10[261]
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Wellington.[261]
 Palau 1997-11-11[262]
  • Palau is represented in Germany through its embassy in the United States.
  • Germany is represented in Palau through its embassy in the Philippines.[262]
 Papua New Guinea 1976-09-16[263]
  • Papua New Guinea is accredited to Germany from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Germany is accredited to Papua New Guinea from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.[263]
 Samoa 1972-05-18[264]
  • Samoa is accredited to Germany from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Germany is accredited to Samoa from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.[264]
 Solomon Islands 1978-07-11[265]
  • Solomon Islands is represented in Germany through its embassy in Belgium.
  • Germany is represented in Solomon Islands through its embassy in Australia.[265]
 Tonga 1976-05-01[266]
  • Tonga is accredited to Germany from its embassy in London, United Kingdom.
  • Germany is accredited to Tonga from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.[266]
 Tuvalu 1979-06-26[267]
  • Tuvalu is represented in Germany through its embassy in Belgium.
  • Germany is represented in Tuvalu through its embassy in New Zealand.[267]
 Vanuatu 1981-04-22[268]
  • Vanuatu is represented in Germany through its embassy in Belgium.
  • Germany is represented in Vanuatu through its embassy in Australia.[268]

See also

References

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Further reading

German diplomacy

  • Bark, Dennis L., and David R. Gress. A History of West Germany. Vol. 1: From Shadow to Substance, 1945-1963. Vol. 2: Democracy and Its Discontents, 1963-1991 (1993), the standard scholarly history
  • Blumenau, Bernhard, 'German Foreign Policy and the "German Problem" During and After the Cold War: Changes and Continuities'. in: B Blumenau, J Hanhimäki & B Zanchetta (eds), New Perspectives on the End of the Cold War: Unexpected Transformations? Ch. 5. London: Routledge, 2018. ISBN 9781138731349 .
  • Brandenburg, Erich. From Bismarck to the World War: A History of German Foreign Policy 1870-1914 (1927) online.
  • Buse, Dieter K., and Juergen C. Doerr, eds. Modern Germany: an encyclopedia of history, people and culture, 1871-1990 (2 vol. Garland, 1998.
  • Cole, Alistair. Franco-German Relations (2000)
  • Feldman, Lily Gardner. Germany's Foreign Policy of Reconciliation: From Enmity to Amity (Rowman & Littlefield; 2012) 393 pages; on German relations with France, Israel, Poland, and Czechoslovakia/the Czech Republic. excerpt and text search
  • Geiss, Imanuel. German foreign policy, 1871-1914 (1976)
  • Haftendorn, Helga. German Foreign Policy Since 1945 (2006), 441pp
  • Hanrieder, Wolfram F. Germany, America, Europe: Forty Years of German Foreign Policy (1991)
  • Heuser, Beatrice. NATO, Britain, France & the FRG: Nuclear Strategies & Forces for Europe, 1949-2000 (1997) 256pp
  • Hewitson, Mark. "Germany and France before the First World War: a reassessment of Wilhelmine foreign policy." English Historical Review 115.462 (2000): 570-606. in JSTOR
  • Junker, Detlef, ed. The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War (2 vol 2004), 150 short essays by scholars covering 1945-1990 excerpt and text search vol 1; excerpt and text search vol 2
  • Kimmich, Christoph. German Foreign Policy 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials (2nd ed. Scholarly Resources, 1991) 264 pp.
  • Leitz, Christian. Nazi Foreign Policy, 1933-1941: The Road to Global War (2004)
  • Maulucci Jr., Thomas W. Adenauer's Foreign Office: West German Diplomacy in the Shadow of the Third Reich (2012) excerpt and text search
  • Papayoanou, Paul A. "Interdependence, institutions, and the balance of power: Britain, Germany, and World War I." International Security 20.4 (1996): 42-76.
  • Schwarz, Hans-Peter. Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution and Reconstruction (2 vol 1995) excerpt and text search vol 2; also full text vol 1; and full text vol 2
  • Schmitt, Bernadotte E. "Triple Alliance and Triple Entente, 1902-1914." American Historical Review 29.3 (1924): 449-473. in JSTOR
  • Sontag, Raymond James. Germany and England: Background of Conflict, 1848-1898 (1938)
  • Spang, Christian W. and Rolf-Harald Wippich, eds. Japanese-German Relations, 1895-1945: War, Diplomacy and Public Opinion (2006)
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany (2 vol, 1970-80).
  • Wright, Jonathan. Germany and the Origins of the Second World War (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007) 223pp. online review
  • Young, William. German Diplomatic Relations 1871-1945: The Wilhelmstrasse and the Formulation of Foreign Policy (2006); how the foreign ministry shaped policy

World/European diplomatic context

  • Albrecht-Carrié, René. A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna (1958), 736pp; a basic introduction that gives context to Germany's roles
  • Kaiser, David E. Economic Diplomacy and the Origins of the Second World War: Germany, Britain, France, and Eastern Europe, 1930-1939 (Princeton UP, 2015).
  • Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (1989) excerpt and text search; very wide-ranging, with much on economic power
  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973), very detailed outline
  • Langer, William. European Alliances and Alignments 1870-1890 (2nd ed. 1950); advanced coverage of Bismarckian system
  • Langer, William L. The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890-1902 (2 vol, 1935)
  • Macmillan, Margaret. The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 (2013) cover 1890s to 1914; see esp. ch 3-5, 8,
  • Mowat, R. B. A History of European Diplomacy 1815-1914 (1922), basic introduction
  • Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics 1763-1848 (1996)
  • Steiner, Zara. The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919-1933 (2007) excerpt and text search
  • Steiner, Zara. The Triumph of the Dark: European International History 1933-1939 (2011) excerpt and text search
  • Taylor, A. J. P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe: 1848-1918 (1957) excerpt and text search, advanced coverage of all major powers

External links


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