|Name||The Lone Star Flag|
|Use||Civil and state flag|
|Design||One-third of the hoist is blue containing a single centered white star. The remaining field is divided horizontally into a white and red bar.|
The flag of Texas is the official flag of the U.S. state of Texas. It is well known for its prominent single white star which gives the flag its commonly-used name: "Lone Star Flag". This lone star, in turn, gives rise to the state's nickname: "The Lone Star State". The flag, flown at homes and businesses statewide, is highly popular among Texans and is treated with a great degree of reverence and esteem within Texas. Along with the flag of Hawaii, it is one of two state flags to have previously served as a national flag.
In 2001, the North American Vexillological Association surveyed its members on the designs of the 72 U.S. state, territorial, and Canadian provincial flags and ranked the Texas flag 2nd, behind New Mexico.
The state flag is officially described by law as:
a rectangle that: (1) has a width to length ratio of two to three; and (2) contains: (A) one blue vertical stripe that has a width equal to one-third the length of the flag; (B) two equal horizontal stripes, the upper stripe white, the lower stripe red, each having a length equal to two-thirds the length of the flag; and (C) one white, regular five-pointed star: (i) located in the center of the blue stripe; (ii) oriented so that one point faces upward; and (iii) sized so that the diameter of a circle passing through the five points of the star is equal to three-fourths the width of the blue stripe.
Legislation authorizing the flag was introduced in the Congress of the Republic of Texas on December 28, 1838, by Senator William H. Wharton. The flag was adopted on January 25, 1839 as the national flag of the Republic of Texas. "Accompanying the original Act ... is a drawing by Peter Krag of the national flag and seal ... although in the original President Lamar's approval and signature are at the top and upside down[.]"  When Texas became the 28th U.S. state on December 29, 1845, the national flag became the state flag. From 1879 until 1933 there was no official state flag, although the Lone Star Flag remained the de facto state flag; in adopting the Revised Civil Statutes of 1879, the Legislature repealed all statutes not expressly continued in force; since the statutes pertaining to the flag were not among those renewed, Texas was formally flagless until the passage of the 1933 flag law.
The actual designer of the flag is unknown. Some claim that Dr. Charles B. Stewart is either the designer of the flag or drew the image used by the Third Congress when enacting the legislation adopting the flag. However, Stewart's drawing "looks suspiciously like a tracing of the Peter Krag art, including the upside down signature of President Lamar".
|Color||Cable color||Pantone||Web color||RGB Values|
|Dark Blue||70075||281 C||
The Texas Flag Code assigns the following symbolism to the colors of the Texas flag: blue stands for loyalty, white for purity, and red for bravery. The code also states that the single (lone) star "represents ALL of Texas and stands for our unity as one for God, State, and Country".
The idea of the single red stripe and single white stripe actually dates back to the short-lived Republic of Fredonia, a small state near modern Nacogdoches which seceded from Mexico in 1826 before being forcibly re-integrated. The new state was formed through an alliance between local Anglo settlers and Native American tribes and the Fredonian flag used a white and red stripe to symbolize the two ethnic/racial groups from which the state was formed. Though this rebellion ultimately failed it served as an inspiration to the later Texas Revolution.
The idea of the "lone star" is, in fact, an older symbol predating the flag which was used to symbolize Texans' solidarity in declaring independence from Mexico. A similar lone star was on the "Burnet Flag", which resembled the flag of the short-lived Republic of West Florida. The "Lone Star" is still seen today as a symbol of Texas' independent spirit, and gave rise to the state's official nickname "The Lone Star State".
The pledge of allegiance to the state flag is as follows:
Honor the Texas flag; I pledge allegiance to thee, Texas, one state under God, one and indivisible.
The pledge was instituted by the Texas Legislature in 1933. The pledge originally referred to the "Texas flag of 1836" (which was the Burnet Flag, and not the Lone Star Flag then in use). In 1965, the error was corrected by deleting the words "of 1836" because the current flag was not officially adopted by the Texas government until 1839. In 2007, the phrase "one state under God" was added. The addition of "under God" has been challenged in court, though an injunction was denied. As of 2001 (amended 2017), recite the pledge by holding your head cover with your right hand and placing that hand over your heart; if in uniform, however, render a military salute. The Texas Pledge is always recited after reciting the Pledge of Allegiance to the American flag every morning in the majority of schools across the state.
The flag is required by law to be displayed on or near the main administration building of each state institution during each state or national holiday, and on any special occasion of historical significance, permanently above both doors of the Texas State Capitol, alone at the north door, and under the U.S. flag at the south door, with the exception being if the flags are at half mast or if the POW/MIA flag is being flown with the U.S. flag; in which event the Texas flag shall only fly at the North Door. State law also requires that the state flag be flown at or near any International Port of Entry. When displayed vertically, the blue stripe should be at top and, from the perspective of an observer, the white stripe should be to the left of the red stripe.
Spanish state flag on land
The flag of the Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition, sometimes called the "first Republic of Texas", which encompassed land from San Antonio to Nacogdoches and Goliad.
One of the flags of the Long Expedition, sometimes called the "second Republic of Texas", from 1819 to 1821. This flag was known as the Jane Long Flag, named after Dr. James Long's wife. This is also the first Lone Star flag.
Another flag of the Long Expedition, sometimes called the "second Republic of Texas". This flag was known as the James Long flag, named after Dr. James Long. Stripes were added to entice Americans to help James on his second attempt to claim Texas, though they controlled only Nacogdoches.
Flag of the first Mexican Empire
The Republic of Fredonia claimed land within Edward's land grant and its capital was Nacogdoches.
Republic of Texas national flag from 1839 to 1845/46 (identical to modern state flag)
CS flag in 1861 when Texas became a part of the Confederacy (for further CS flags, see Flags of the Confederate States of America § National flags)
Emerald flag of Augustus W. Magee and Bernardo Gutierrez's short-lived coup of 1812-13 which was the first Republic of Texas.
1816-17 - Used by Louis-Michel Aury as Civil and Military Governor of Texas
1817-1821 - Used by pirate Jean Lafitte at Galveston Island
Jane Long Flag (1819), named after James Long's wife. The first uniquely Texan flag to predominantly feature a lone star which was flown over Nacogdoches as a republic of Texas, or the Second Republic of Texas.
Speculative design of the amended Zavala flag based on the July 7, 1836 issue of The New York American.
The Zavala Flag - The purported first official flag of the Republic of Texas, reportedly designed by Lorenzo de Zavala
The "Burnet Flag", used from 1836 to 1839 as the national flag of the Republic of Texas until it was replaced by the currently used "Lone Star Flag"
Troutman flag under which the Georgia Battalion of Volunteers led by William Ward marched to Texas to participate in the fight against Mexico
This banner was carried by volunteers comprising Capt. Andrew Robinson's company from Harrisburg and designed by Sarah Rudolph Bradley Dodson in Sep 1835 for her husband, 1st Lt. A. B. Dodson and colleagues
The Lone Star and Stripes/Ensign of the First Texas Navy/War Ensign flag was widely used by both Texan land and naval forces. This flag was simply the United States flag with a Lone star in the canton. This flag echoes an earlier design, carried by the forces of James Long in failed 1819 and 1821 attempts to separate Texas from Spanish control. This earlier flag was exactly the same, save for the canton having a red background rather than blue. There is evidence that the Lone Star and Stripes was used at the battles of Goliad, the Alamo, and San Jacinto, and the first Congress of the Republic of Texas as convened under it in 1836. Although interim President David Burnet issued a decree making the Lone Star and Stripes the first official flag of the Republic of Texas, it never became the legal national flag. It did remain the naval flag of Texas until annexation, and was noted for being "beneficial to our [Texan] Navy and Merchantmen" due to its resemblance to the U.S. flag. Despite its unofficial status, the flag remained well known inside the region and internationally as the symbol of Texas. The official blue and gold "Burnett Flag", on the other hand, was little known by Texans, and no contemporary illustrations of it have been discovered except for on the first series 2 dollar note of the Texas Dollar. An 1837 chart of national flags printed in Philadelphia showed the Lone Star and Stripes as the national flag of Texas, and Texas Senator Oliver Jones, who led the 1839 committee which approved the Lone Star Flag, was unaware that the Lone Star and Stripes was not the current official flag. Later, prior to the American Civil War, this flag was carried by Floridian militiamen in Pensacola during the seizure of U.S. property in that city.
The "Come and Take It Flag" was created by the people of Gonzales, featuring the phrase, a black five pointed star, and the image of the town cannon Mexican forces had demanded they turn over. In March 1831, Juan Gomez, a lieutenant in the Mexican Army, granted a small cannon to the colony of San Antonio. It was then transported to Gonzales, Texas and later was the object of Texas pride. At the minor skirmish known as the Battle of Gonzales, a small group of Texans successfully resisted the Mexican forces who had orders to seize their cannon. As a symbol of defiance, the Texans had fashioned a flag containing the phrase along with a black star and an image of the cannon which they had received six years earlier from Mexican officials.
The so-called "Alamo Flag" or "1824 flag" was created by replacing the Eagle in the center of the Mexican tricolor with the year "1824", referencing the 1824 Constitution of Mexico, in support of which Texas was fighting. This was the first flag approved for use by rebel forces by a Texan legislative body. In 1835, the Texan provisional government approved the use of this flag for privateers preying on Mexican commerce. It has often been said that the 1824 flag was flown by Texan forces at the Battle of the Alamo. However, this was never alleged until 1860, long after the battle had occurred. Modern writers have pointed out that the presence of the 1824 flag at the time and place of the battle is highly unlikely. A similar flag was flown at least briefly by Texan Tejano forces, featuring two black, six pointed stars in place of the date. It is likely that the actual "Alamo flag" referred to by accounts of the time was the Lone Star and Stripes, which had been depicted in use at earlier battles such as Goliad, and was widely referred to as the "Texian flag".
The Dodson Tricolor or Dodson flag was designed and sewn by a Mrs. Sarah Dodson during the Revolution. It resembled the flag of Revolutionary France, but with longer proportions and the Texan Lone Star in the canton. Stephen F. Austin was initially so alarmed by the obvious symbolism that he requested the flag not be used, but it nevertheless flew over Texan forces in Cibolo Creek, and may have been the first Texan flag raised over San Antonio. The flag was one of two that flew over the small cabin in which Texas delegates ratified their declaration of independence.
The Burnet Flag, used from 1836 to 1839 as the national flag of the Republic of Texas until it was replaced by the currently used "Lone Star Flag"; it was the de jure war flag from then until 1879
The Burnet Flag was adopted by the Texan Congress on December 10, 1836. The name refers David G. Burnet, who was provisional president of the Republic of Texas when the flag was adopted. It consisted of an azure background with a large golden star, inspired by the 1810 "Bonnie Blue Flag" of the Republic of West Florida. Variants of the Burnet Flag with a white star, virtually identical to the Bonnie Blue Flag, were also common. Other variants featured the star (of either color) upside down, and/or ringed with the word TEXAS, with each letter filling one of the gaps of the star.
Flag of the State of Texas as a part of the United States
In early 1861, between the secession of Texas from the U.S. and its accession to the Confederacy, Texas flew an unofficial, variant flag of Texas with fifteen stars, representing the fifteen slave states. No drawings exist of the flag; there are only imprecise descriptions. The flag may have been based on the state flag or the Bonnie Blue Flag.
Various flags used by Texan soldiers during the American Civil War.
This flag flew over the Alamo when Texas seceded in 1861; it was later given to Hood's Texas Brigade
Flag of Waul's Legion (Spring 1862 - July 4, 1863)
Flag of Terry's Texas Rangers (1861-1865)
It is a urban legend that the Texas flag is the only state flag that is allowed to fly at the same height as the U.S. flag. However, the legend is false. Neither the Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas to the United States nor the Ordinance of Annexation contain any provisions regarding flags. According to the United States Flag Code, any state flag can be flown at the same height as the U.S. flag, but the U.S. flag should be on its right (the viewer's left). Consistent with the U.S. Flag Code, the Texas Flag Code specifies that the state flag should either be flown below the U.S. flag if on the same pole or at the same height as the U.S. flag if on separate poles.
The Texas governor currently uses a flag consisting of the state coat of arms (a lone star encircled by live oak and olive branches) on a light blue circle, all on a dark blue field with a white star in each corner. The flag has been in use since the late 1960s or early 1970s. The design has never been formally adopted by executive order or legislation. Legislation was introduced to the Texas Legislature in 2007 and 2009 to adopt the 1839 pilot flag/civil ensign of the Republic of Texas as the official flag of the Governor of Texas. While the 2007 bill died in committee, the 2009 bill was passed by the House but died in a Senate committee due to the flag's similarity to the flag of Russia.
Amendments to the Texas Flag Code, signed into law in 1993, authorize the Governor to adopt a flag of his or her own choosing, but this executive authority has not been exercised.