"Fever" is a song written by Eddie Cooley and Otis Blackwell, who used the pseudonym John Davenport. It was originally recorded by American R&B singer Little Willie John for his debut album, Fever (1956), and released as a single in April of the same year. The song managed to top the Billboard R&B Best Sellers in the US and peak at number 24 on the Billboard Hot 100. It was received positively by music critics and included on several lists of the best songs during the time it was released.
It has been covered by numerous artists from various musical genres, most notably by Peggy Lee whose rendition became the most widely known version of "Fever" and the singer's signature song. Lee's version contained rewritten lyrics different from the original and an altered music arrangement. It became a top-five hit on the music charts in the UK and Australia in addition to entering the top ten in the US and the Netherlands. "Fever" was nominated in three categories at the 1st Annual Grammy Awards in 1959, including Record of the Year and Song of the Year.
Other notable cover versions of "Fever" include those by Elvis Presley, Madonna, The McCoys, La Lupe and Beyoncé. Madonna released it as a single from her fifth studio album Erotica (1992) in March 1993 through Warner Bros. It topped the charts in Finland and the Hot Dance Club Songs in the US in addition to charting in the top 50 in many other countries. Madonna promoted "Fever" by filming and releasing a music video directed by Stéphane Sednaoui and performing the song on several television shows as well as her 1993 The Girlie Show World Tour. Various versions of "Fever" have been used in many films, plays and television shows.
Background and reception
The idea for "Fever" was presented to Otis Blackwell by an old friend, Eddie Cooley, who in 1956 had a hit song called "Priscilla". Blackwell said: "Eddie Cooley was a friend of mine from New York and he called me up and said 'Man, I got an idea for a song called 'Fever', but I can't finish it.' I had to write it under another name because, at that time, I was still under contract to Joe Davis." Little Willie John reportedly disliked the song, but was persuaded to record it, on March 1, 1956, by King Records owner Syd Nathan and arranger and producer Henry Glover. It became the title track for his debut album, Fever, released in 1956. "Fever" is a soul and rhythm and blues minor key opus with an arrangement consisting of low saxophones played by Ray Felder and Rufus "Nose" Gore and guitar by Bill Jennings. The vocal style of Willie John is similar to moaning and he is backed by finger snaps. Bill Dahl from the website AllMusic noted a contrast between the song's "ominous" arrangement and the vocals along with the finger snapping which "marginally lightened the mood".
"Fever" was released as a single in April 1956 and became a double-sided hit along with the top-ten R&B song "Letter from My Darling". "Fever" reached number one for three weeks on the Billboard R&B Best Sellers chart in the United States, peaking at the top on July 21, 1956. It also made the pop charts, peaking at number 24 on the Billboard Hot 100. The song has sold one million copies in the US. In a consumer review, Robert Christgau described Willie John's "Fever" as a very "fervid" song. Bill Dahl from the website AllMusic credited "Fever" for winning the "boisterous teen an across-the-board audience" for Willie John. The writer further opined that the singer's "sweaty case of love-rooted 'Fever' was seemingly grave, judging from his riveting intensity, yet he doesn't sound like he minds at all".NME magazine listed "Fever" as the 96th best song of the 1950s. In his The 1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made list published in 1989, critic Dave Marsh ranked "Fever" at the position of 109. The song was included on the greatest hits albums Fever: The Best of Little Willie John (1993) and The Very Best of Little Willie John (2001).
Peggy Lee version
Background and composition
In May 1958, Peggy Lee recorded a cover version of the song in Hollywood, which featured significantly rewritten lyrics composed by Lee herself without credit. "Fever" was not included on Lee's album Things Are Swingin' when it was first released in 1959; however it was listed as a bonus track on its 2004 reissue release. The uncopyrighted lyrics by Lee featured historical invokings (including the verses beginning "Romeo loved Juliet," and "Captain Smith and Pocahontas") are now generally thought of as a standard part of the song, and have been included in most subsequent covers of "Fever".
Lee's cover, most likely arranged by the singer herself (despite the official credit to conductor Jack Marshall) was a more slow-tempo version than the original; it was described as being in "torchy lounge" mode, accompanied only by bass (played by Joe Mondragon) and a very limited drum set (played in part with fingers by Shelly Manne), while the finger snaps were provided by the singer herself, by Howard Roberts, the guitarist for the date, who set aside his guitar for this number, or possibly even by the producer, Dave Cavanaugh. Lee's rendition was further described as "smooth, sultry". It is written in the key of A Minor in a medium swing tempo with 135 beats per minute; Lee's vocals span from the musical note of G3 to B4.
Reception and accolades
A writer of the website NPR deemed "Fever" as Lee's "most memorable tune" and considered it to be "slinky and inimitable". He went on to note that it displayed characteristics which were most remembered about the singer - "her playful delivery, charisma and sexuality". John Bush from the website AllMusic opined that the singer managed to excel in sounding "sizzling" in the song. John Fordham writing for The Guardian felt that the "heated" atmosphere heard on Lee's version of "Fever", "has an underlying suggestion that the person raising the temperature for her right now doesn't have to be the one doing it next week".
Lee's version peaked at number eight on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US and spent a total of 12 weeks on that chart. It set a peak at number five on the UK Singles Chart where it first appeared on August 15, 1958. A reissue of the single charted again in 1992, appearing at 75 and staying for only one week. Elsewhere in Europe, Lee's "Fever" managed to peak at number eight on January 3, 1959 on the Dutch Singles Chart in Netherlands for five consecutive weeks before falling off the chart. The song also peaked at number two on the Australian Singles Chart compiled by Kent Music Report and emerged as the twentieth best-selling single of 1958 in that country.
It was nominated in the categories for Record of the Year, Song of the Year and Best Female Vocal Performance at the 1st Annual Grammy Awards held in 1959. Lee's cover version of "Fever" became her signature song and her best-known work in addition to becoming her most successful hit. It was ranked at number 100 in the book and the accompanying list 1001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die by Robert Dimery. Joey Cohn ranked it as the tenth best jazz vocal in a list of 50 Great Jazz Vocals on NPR.
- Original version
- Reissue version
- Year-end charts
Background and composition
In 1992, American singer and songwriter Madonna recorded a cover version of "Fever" for her fifth studio album, Erotica. She served as a producer for the song along with Shep Pettibone. Madonna was in the studio putting down tracks for the album and had just recorded a song called "Goodbye to Innocence". She was going through the final stages of production on the song and suddenly started singing the lyrics to "Fever" over "Goodbye to Innocence". Madonna liked the way it sounded so much that she recorded it. "Goodbye to Innocence" was never released on a Madonna album, although it did appear on Just Say Roe, a charity record, and a dub mix of it titled "Up Down Suite" was a bonus track to the "Rain" maxi-single. In September 2008, Madonna's version of "Fever" was used in television promos for the fifth season of Desperate Housewives.
According to author Rikky Rooksby, Madonna changed the composition of the original version by adding drum rhythms, accompanied by a beatbox sound like snare drums. Removing the chord progression of the original, Madonna introduces original lyrics into the song. Instrumentation of the track includes strings, marimba and finger-pops at various intervals throughout. Rooksby noticed that Madonna sang with a distant and disembodied voice, and relegated it to the dance music accompanying the lyrics. Describing it as "unsexy", Rooksby called it a "sterile track" which is "certainly misplaced as the second track of [Erotica]".
Critical and commercial reception
The New York Times editor Stephen Holden wrote that "The album's softer moments include a silky hip-hop arrangement of 'Fever'".The Baltimore Sun J. D. Considine praised the song as a "sassy, house-style remake" of the original version. He noted that when Madonna and the team of producers that worked on the album "push beyond the expected... [it] really heats up, providing a sound that is body-conscious in the best sense of the term", exemplifying his statements with "Fever". Alfred Soto of Stylus Magazine wrote that this song has its unique, idiosyncratic energy which he compared with material by Joni Mitchell from her album Blue (1971). A writer from Billboard called the song a "house-inflected rendition" and noted it was single-worthy. David Browne of Entertainment Weekly criticized Madonna's voice as "souless": "You and Shep sure do a bang-up job -- pun intended -- transforming 'Fever,' that old Peggy Lee hit, into a techno drone, but listen to the parched sound emitted from your throat on such tracks. It's cold, deadened, remote."
Although "Fever" was never officially released as a single in the United States, it managed to become a dance hit, becoming Madonna's 15th song to hit number one on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play. It topped the chart for the issue dated May 15, 1993 in its eleventh week of ascending. In the United Kingdom, the song debuted at its peak position of number six on the UK Singles Chart on the issue dated April 3, 1993. It peaked at number one on the Finnish Singles Chart on April 15, 1993. In Ireland it managed to enter the top ten of the Irish Singles Chart, peaking at the position of six and charting for four weeks. Elsewhere, it peaked at numbers 12 in Italy, 17 in New Zealand, 22 on the Ultratop chart of the Flanders region in Belgium, 31 in France and 51 in Australia.
Music video and promotion
The music video for "Fever", directed by Stéphane Sednaoui, was shot on April 10-11, 1993 at Greenwich Studios in Miami, Florida, and received its world premiere on May 11, 1993, on MTV. It has since been made commercially available on the DVD collection, The Video Collection 93:99. The music video alternately features Madonna with a red wig and silver bodypaint in a variety of costumes dancing in front of funky, kaleidoscopic backgrounds. It showcases her posing like ancient goddesses. She is enveloped in a flame-like atmosphere and eventually burns up. In a review of the video, Jeremy Kinser of The Advocate criticized Madonna's look saying that the outfit by Jean Paul Gaultier she wears was "bizarre" and made her look "like she's pregnant with a duck-billed platypus". Charles Aaron writing for Spin magazine classified the clip as "dub".
To start the promotion for Erotica, Madonna performed "Fever" and "Bad Girl" on Saturday Night Live in January 1993. During the 1000th The Arsenio Hall Show, Madonna performed the original version of "Fever" accompanied by a band, wearing a black classic dress and smoking a cigarette. Madonna also performed "Fever" on the 1993 Girlie Show World Tour as the second song from the setlist. After "Erotica", the singer partially strips and proceeds to straddle and dances suggestively with two half-naked male dancers. At the end of the song, Madonna and the two backup dancers descend into a literal ring of fire. On October 8, 2015 Madonna performed an a cappella version of "Fever" during her concert at the Xcel Energy Center in Saint Paul, Minnesota, which was a part of her Rebel Heart Tour.
Background and release
American singer Beyoncé included her version of "Fever" on multiple releases. Her original recording of the song was included on the soundtrack album for the 2003 American musical dramedy film, The Fighting Temptations, in which she also had a leading role. The song was also featured in the film itself, during a scene in which the character Beyoncé portrayed, named Lilly, sang the song in a nightclub while her eventual love interest Darrin (played by Cuba Gooding, Jr.) watches her. Beyoncé's version was produced by Damon Elliott and was recorded by her while she was still working on the 2002 film Austin Powers in Goldmember. Elliott suggested to the singer to record "Fever" as it was one of his favorite songs. When she got a role in The Fighting Temptations, the song seemed "perfect" for it as stated by Elliot. Ed Gonzalez of Slant Magazine provided a positive review for the cover, saying: "The seductive iciness of Peggy Lee's 'Fever' is successfully transplanted with a gumbo sound and sexy Southern comfort."
Beyoncé appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on September 17, 2003 to promote The Fighting Temptations with a live performance of "Fever". In November 2003, the song was included in the set list of the singer's first headlining solo Dangerously in Love Tour. Beyoncé was backed by four male dancers dressed in white, performing a choreography with her. In a review of the show, Dave Simpson from The Guardian felt that the performance of "Fever" was "a note perfect if pointless version" of the original. In 2004, the song was included on the live album Live at Wembley which was filmed during a London concert as part of the tour. Beyoncé's original recording was additionally included on the track-listing of her first mixtape Speak My Mind released in 2005.
After releasing her first fragrance Heat, Beyoncé re-recorded her version of "Fever" as promotion for the fragrance, using the song in its advertisements. The re-recorded 2010 version of the song was produced by Chink Santana and Beyoncé herself. It was released for digital download on the iTunes Store in the US on February 8, 2010. The next day, it was released in the United Kingdom. In February the following year, "Fever" was included on the track-listing of the extended play (EP) Heat, a limited CD released with the perfume.
Usage in media
As promotion for the fragrance, a TV commercial for Heat was directed by Jake Nava, who had previously worked with Beyoncé on various of her music videos. The commercial features Beyoncé in a red satin dress sweating in a steamy room while the 2010 cover version of "Fever" plays in the background. Throughout the clip, she is seen lying naked in the middle of a room, touching her body, dancing and leaving a trail of fire as she touches a wall. The commercial concludes with Beyoncé walking away from the camera and melting the floor with her footprints. During the end, she turns and says "Catch the fever", the tagline of the fragrance.
In an interview with Women's Wear Daily, the singer described the sexual tone of the video stating: "My sexiest moments are when I'm just getting out of the tub or the shower and I'm clean, so I wanted to incorporate that in the ads. The dress was this liquid-y satin. The song Fever I did years ago and always loved it. [For the commercial] I got to sing it a bit more whispery, more natural." The silky red dress she wears in the video has been noted for exposing partial cleavage. The commercial for the fragrance found controversy in the United Kingdom with the Advertising Standards Authority where it was banned from daytime TV rotation due to its "sexy imagery".
- Elvis Presley released a near identical version to Lee's two years following her cover, for his 1960 album, Elvis Is Back!, backed by Hank Garland on bass, Bob Moore on double bass, and D. J. Fontana and Buddy Harman on drums.
- British singer Helen Shapiro recorded a powerhouse version of "Fever" in 1964; her cover reached number 38 on the UK Singles Chart on January 23 of the same year.
- The Kingsmen released a version on their 1964 debut album The Kingsmen In Person.
- Paul Revere & the Raiders recorded the song for their 1965 album Here They Come!.
- In late 1965, the rock group The McCoys released a version of the song "Fever", which had a very similar beat and rhythm to their previous hit "Hang On Sloopy". The McCoys cover version of "Fever" peaked at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 and 34 on the German Singles Chart.
- In 1967, James Brown recorded a version of the song for the album Cold Sweat. Music critic Robert Christgau opined that "Fever" placed on the album with several other cover versions "smelled a little fishy at the time".
- La Lupe covered the song on her 1968 Queen of Latin Soul album. Her version became widely famous worldwide; Elizabeth Bougerol writing for the website NBCNewYork.com described it as one of the "best versions ever" of "Fever" before noting that it was an essential addition to Boogaloo parties.
- Junior Wells recorded a version in 1969, which appears on the album Live at the Golden Bear. His lyrics are much closer to Jones' original version than Lee's cover, but not identical to either.
- A version of the song with the same music but different lyrics, called "Pennant Fever", was recorded by seven members of the ill-fated 1969 Chicago Cubs - Billy Williams, Randy Hundley, Ron Santo, Don Kessinger, Willie Smith, Gene Oliver, and Nate Oliver.
- In 1972, Rita Coolidge covered "Fever" for her album The Lady's Not for Sale and it became a minor hit in her early career. Her version charted at the position of 76 on the Billboard Hot 100.
- Suzi Quatro included her own version of "Fever" on Your Mamma Won't Like Me in 1975. Dave Thompson from AllMusic called her cover "lukewarm".
- Boney M.s album Take the Heat Off Me released in 1976 contained their interpretation of the song.
- Madleen Kane released her version in 1978, it peaked #19 in Canadian Dance Chart.
- Indian singer Usha Uthup performed the song on various of her concerts (including those in 2010) and included it on the album Usha in Nairobi released in 1978.
- On their debut studio album Songs the Lord Taught Us in 1980, The Cramps covered "Fever". It received praise from Ned Raggett of AllMusic who felt that it challenged the original. The Cramps' cover of the song was included on the soundtrack to the 2009 comedy film The Hangover.
- French singer Amanda Lear released a single-only cover of the song in 1982. The cover photo of most single releases was taken by Lear's then-husband, Alain-Philippe Malagnac d'Argens de Villèle. Although "Fever" was not a commercial success and did not chart, it appeared on her hits compilation Super 20 in 1989.
- During their 1982 world tour, the British group The Jam covered the song as part of a medley with their own "Pity Poor Alfie" and Ray Charles 1961 song "Hit the Road Jack". A studio version of this (minus the latter song) was released in September 1982 on the B-side of their single "The Bitterest Pill (I Ever Had to Swallow)". The track dubbed as "Pity Poor Alfie/Fever" was also included on many of the group's compilation releases.
- "Fever" was also covered by Grateful Dead guitarist and singer Bob Weir. Two of Weir's live albums, both recorded in the late 1980s, include the song -- Live (released in 1998) and Fall 1989: The Long Island Sound (released in 2013). Weir performed the song with the Grateful Dead only once -- on September 13, 1987, at the Capital Centre in Landover, Maryland.
- In 1989, Joe Cocker recorded a version of the song for the album One Night of Sin. Jim Farber writing in the Rolling Stone deemed his version as having "greater distinction" with being "out-and-out awful".
- In 1993, Tom Verlaine released a version of "Fever" on the Otis Blackwell tribute album Brace Yourself: A Tribute To Otis Blackwell by various artists.
- In 1995, Argentine musician Charly García released an album Estaba en llamas Cuando me Acosté which included a cover version "Fever".
- In 2003, Michael Bublé released his cover of this song on his self named debut album. Aaron Latham from AllMusic considered it to be among the highlights on the album, stating that Bublé "gives it a satiny sheen that the song hasn't seen in years".
- In 2004, a live rendition of the song was included on his live album Come Fly with Me.
- In 2004, Kate Ceberano covered the song for her album 19 Days in New York.
- In 2005, Bette Midler recorded a cover of the Peggy Lee version of the song for her album Bette Midler Sings the Peggy Lee Songbook. It was released as a single from the album on March 21, 2006 as a three-song extended play (EP) on the iTunes Store. Midler further performed the song live on the Late Show with David Letterman.
- The group Fishtank Ensemble covered it for their Woman in Sin album released in May 2010.
- In 2012, Barry Gibb performed "Fever" live at the Hard Rock Cafe in Miami with his own "Stayin' Alive" in the tempo faithful to Peggy Lee's version.
- Lulu Roman recorded a cover for her 2013 album At Last which contained her renditions of musical standards.
In other media
- On June 3, 1976, Rita Moreno sang "Fever" on episode 105 of The Muppet Show, accompanied by Animal on the drums who repeatedly and comically distracted her with a more aggressive drumming style than the song required, which caused Moreno to use two cymbals to crush Animal's head in order to stop his wild playing. This resulted in his saying: "That my kind of woman" to the audience, thus ending the musical skit. In a review for The A.V. Club, Erik Adams considered it to be one of the best segments of the series, further hailing it as a "classic of the genre" and suitable for various generations.
- In the seventh-season episode "The Fabulous Robinson Sisters" of Who's the Boss? which aired on October 2, 1990, the character Angela Bower (Judith Light) sings "Fever" in a night club where her mother Mona takes her.
- In the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine April 22, 1998 episode "His Way", the holographic singer modeled on Major Kira (portrayed by Nana Visitor) sings "Fever" for an audience including Constable Odo.
- During the episode "Marge Simpson in: 'Screaming Yellow Honkers'" of The Simpsons tenth season which aired on February 21, 1999, the character Edna Krabappel is seen performing a dance while singing "Fever".
- In the Gilmore Girls episode "Lorelai? Lorelai?", Babette (Sally Struthers) and Miss Patty (Liz Torres) sing "Fever" as their last karaoke number with Babette dedicating the number to her husband Morey.
- "Fever" was included in the Broadway musical Million Dollar Quartet which opened in New York in April 2010; it was sung in the Broadway production by Elizabeth Stanley as "Dyanne".
- Christina DeRosa sings "Fever" in Jim Wynorski's 2012 film Gila!
- La Lupe's version of "Fever" was featured on the episode "Angels of Death" of the second season of the TV series Magic City which aired on June 21, 2013.
- The documentary film Red Obsession released in 2013 featured Lee's version of "Fever".
- Figure skating world champion Javier Fernández performed part of his Elvis Presley-themed free program to "Fever" during the 2016-17 season.
- On January 30, 2018, reality TV star Dorit Kemsley performed a version of the song with pop star friend Boy George on The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills.
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