The Philips Pavilion
|Category||First category General Exposition|
|Area||2 square kilometres (490 acres)|
|Bidding||7 May 1948|
|Opening||17 April 1958|
|Closure||19 October 1958|
|Previous||Exposition internationale du bicentenaire de Port-au-Prince in Port-au-Prince|
|Next||Century 21 Exposition in Seattle|
|Previous||Interbau in Berlin|
|Next||Expo 61 in Turin|
|Next||Floriade 1960 in Rotterdam|
Expo 58, also known as the Brussels World's Fair (Dutch: Brusselse Wereldtentoonstelling, French: Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles), was held from 17 April to 19 October 1958. It was the first major World Expo registered under the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE) after World War II.
Nearly 15,000 workers spent three years building the 2 km2 (490 acres) site on the Heysel plateau, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) northwest of central Brussels, Belgium. Many of the buildings were re-used from the Brussels International Exposition of 1935, which had been held on the same site.
Every 25 years starting in 1855, Belgium had staged large national events to celebrate its national independence following the Belgian Revolution of 1830. However, the Belgian government under prime minister Achille Van Acker decided to forego celebrations in 1955 to have additional funding for the 1958 Expo.
Expo 58 was the 11th World's Fair hosted by Belgium, and the fifth in Brussels, following the fairs in 1888, 1897, 1910 and 1935. Since Expo 58, Belgium has not arranged any more world fairs.
The site is best known for the Atomium, a giant model of a unit cell of an iron crystal (each sphere representing an atom). More than 41 million visitors visited the site, which was opened with a call for world peace and social and economic progress, issued by King Baudouin I.
Notable exhibitions include the Philips Pavilion, where "Poème électronique", commissioned specifically for the location, was played back from 425 loudspeakers, placed at specific points as designed by Iannis Xenakis, and Le Corbusier.
The Austrian pavilion was designed by Austrian architect Karl Schwanzer in modernist style. It was later transferred to Vienna to host the museum of the 20th century. In 2011 it was reopened under the new name 21er Haus. It included a model Austrian Kindergarten, which doubled as a day care facility for the employees, the Vienna Philharmonic playing behind glass, and a model nuclear fusion reactor that fired every 5 minutes.
The exposition "One Day in Czechoslovakia" was designed by Jind?ich Santar who cooperated with artists Ji?í Trnka, Antonín Kybal, Stanislav Libenský and Jan Kotík. Architects of the simple, but modern and graceful construction were Franti?ek Cubr, Josef Hrubý and Zden?k Pokorný. The team's artistic freedom, so rare in the hard-line communist regime of the 1950s, was ensured by the government committee for exhibitions chairman Franti?ek Kahuda. He supported the famous Laterna Magika show, as well as Josef Svoboda's technically unique Polyekran. The Czechoslovak pavilion was visited by 6 million people and was officially awarded the best pavilion of the Expo 58.
This was designed by the architect Pedro Ramírez Vázquez. It was awarded the exposition's star of gold.
The city of Paris had its own pavilion, separate from the French one.
The Soviet pavilion was a large impressive building which they folded up and took back to Russia when Expo 58 ended. They had a facsimile of Sputnik which mysteriously disappeared, and they accused the US of stealing it. They had a bookstore selling science and technology books in English and other languages published by the Moscow Press. On the exposition there was also a model of Lenin the first nuclear icebreaker, and cars: GAZ-21 Volga, GAZ-13 Chaika, ZIL-111, Moskvitch 407 and 423, trucks GAZ-53 and MAZ-525. The Soviet exposition was awarded with a Grand Prix.
The US pavilion was quite spacious and included a fashion show with models walking down a large spiral staircase, an electronic computer that demonstrated a knowledge of history, and a color television studio behind glass. It also served as the concert venue for performance by the Seventh Army Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Edward Lee Alley. It was designed by architect Edward Durell Stone.
The pavilion of Yugoslavia was designed by the architect Vjenceslav Richter, who originally proposed to suspend the whole structure from a giant cable-stayed mast. When that proved too complicated, Richter devised a tension column consisting of six steel arches supported by a pre-stressed cable, which stood in front of the pavilion as a visual marker and symbolized Yugoslavia's six constituent republics. Filled with modernist art, the pavilion was praised for its elegance and simplicity and Richter was awarded as Knight of the Order of the Belgian Crown. After the end of Expo 58, the pavilion was sold and reconstructed as a school in the Belgian municipality of Wevelgem, where it still stands.
The Centenary Palace in Heysel Park, a centrepiece at the Expo (viewed from the Atomium)
The autograph of Mozart's Requiem was placed on display. At some point, someone was able to gain access to the manuscript, tearing off the bottom right-hand corner of the second to last page (folio 99r/45r), containing the words "Quam olim d: C:". As of 2012 the perpetrator has not been identified and the fragment has not been recovered.
|1||? (Battleship Potemkin)||Sergei Eisenstein||1925|
|2||The Gold Rush||Charles Chaplin||1925|
|3||Ladri di biciclette (Bicycle Thieves)||Vittorio De Sica||1948|
|4||La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc (The Passion of Joan of Arc)||Carl Theodor Dreyer||1928|
|5||La Grande Illusion (Grand Illusion)||Jean Renoir||1937|
|6||Greed||Erich von Stroheim||1924|
|7||Intolerance: Love's Struggle Through the Ages||D. W. Griffith||1916|
|8||? (Mother)||Vsevolod Pudovkin||1926|
|9||Citizen Kane||Orson Welles||1941|
|11||Der letzte Mann (The Last Laugh)||F.W. Murnau||1924|
|12||Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari)||Robert Wiene||1920|