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Francis turbine converts energy at high pressure heads which are not easily available and hence a turbine was required to convert the energy at low pressure heads, given that the quantity of water was large enough. It was easy to convert high pressure heads to power easily but difficult to do so for low pressure heads. Therefore, an evolution took place that converted the Francis turbine to Kaplan turbine, which generated power at even low pressure heads efficiently.
Turbines are sometimes differentiated on the basis of the type of inlet flow, whether the inlet velocity is in axial direction, radial direction or a combination of both. Francis turbine is a mixed hydraulic turbine (the inlet velocity has Radial and Tangential Components) while the Kaplan turbine is an Axial hydraulic turbine(the inlet velocity has only Axial Velocity Component). The evolution consisted of the change in the inlet flow mainly.
The image describes the changes in velocity triangles on decreasing the Specific speed or decreasing the Pressure Head and finally shows the evolution from Francis Hydraulic turbine to Kaplan Hydraulic turbine.