European United Left-Nordic Green Left
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European United Left%E2%80%93Nordic Green Left

European United Left/Nordic Green Left
European Parliament group
GUE-NGL logo.svg
Name
English abbr.EUL/NGL[1]
French abbr.GUE/NGL[2][3]
Formal nameConfederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left[2][4][5]
IdeologyLeft-wing populism[6]
Soft Euroscepticism[7]
Political position
European partiesParty of the European Left
Nordic Green Left Alliance
Now the People!
Animal Politics EU
From6 January 1995; 25 years ago (1995-01-06)[15]
Preceded byEuropean United Left
Chaired by
MEP(s)
Websiteguengl.eu

The European United Left/Nordic Green Left (French: Gauche unitaire européenne/Gauche verte nordique, GUE/NGL) is a political group of the European Parliament established in 1995,[16] and composed of left-wing[9] to far-left[13] members.

The group comprises political parties of socialist and communist orientation.[8][13][14]

History

In 1995, the enlargement of the European Union led to the creation of the Nordic Green Left group of parties. The Nordic Green Left (NGL) merged with the Confederal Group of the European United Left (GUE) on 6 January 1995,[15] forming the Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left.[2][4][5] The NGL suffix was added to the name of the expanded group on insistence of Swedish and Finnish MEPs.[17] The group initially consisted of MEPs from the Finnish Left Alliance, the Swedish Left Party, the Danish Socialist People's Party, the United Left of Spain (including the Spanish Communist Party), the Synaspismos of Greece, the French Communist Party, the Portuguese Communist Party, the Communist Party of Greece and the Communist Refoundation Party of Italy.

In 1998, Ken Coates, an expelled MEP from the British Labour Party who co-founded the Independent Labour Network, joined the group.[18]

In 1999, the German Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) and the Greek Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI) joined as full members while the five MEPs elected from the list of the French Trotskyist alliance LO-LCR and the one MEP for the Dutch Socialist Party joined as associate members.

In 2002, four MEPs from the French Citizen and Republican Movement and one from the Danish People's Movement against the EU also joined the group.

In 2004, no MEPs were elected from LO-LCR and DIKKI--which was undergoing a dispute with its leader over the party constitution--, as well as the French Citizen and Republican Movement, did not put forward candidates. MEPs from the Portuguese Left Bloc, the Irish Sinn Féin, the Progressive Party of Working People of Cyprus and the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia joined the group. The Danish Socialist People's Party, a member of the Nordic Green Left, left the group to instead sit in the Greens-European Free Alliance group.

In 2009, no MEPs were elected from the Irish Sinn Féin, the Italian Communist Refoundation Party and the Finnish Left Alliance. MEPs from the Irish Socialist Party, the Socialist Party of Latvia and the French Left Party joined the group.

In 2013, one MEP from the Croatian Labourists - Labour Party also joined the group.

In 2014, no MEPs were elected from the Irish Socialist Party, the Socialist Party of Latvia and the Croatian Labourists - Labour Party. MEPs from the Spanish Podemos as well as EH Bildu and the Dutch Party for the Animals joined the group, while MEPs from the Italian Communist Refoundation Party and the Finnish Left Alliance reentered parliament and rejoined. The Communist Party of Greece, a founding member of the group, decided to leave and instead sit as Non-Inscrits.[19]

In 2019, no MEPs were elected from the French Communist Party, the Danish People's Movement against the EU, the Dutch Socialist Party and from the Italian parties The Left and the Communist Refoundation Party. MEPs from the French La France insoumise, the Belgian Workers' Party of Belgium, the German Human Environment Animal Protection, the Irish Independents 4 Change and the Danish Red-Green Alliance joined the group.

Position

According to its 1994 constituent declaration, the group is opposed to the present European Union political structure, but it is committed to integration.[20] That declaration sets out three aims for the construction of another European Union, namely the total change of institutions to make them fully democratic, breaking with neo-liberal monetarist policies, and a policy of co-development and equitable cooperation. The group wants to disband the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and strengthen the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

The group is ambiguous between reformism and revolution, leaving it up to each party to decide on the manner they deem best suited to achieve these aims. As such, it has simultaneously positioned itself as insiders within the European institutions, enabling it to influence the decisions made by co-decision; and as outsiders by its willingness to seek another Europe which would abolish the Maastricht Treaty.[21]

Organisation

The GUE/NGL is a confederal group who is composed of MEPs from national parties. Those national parties must share common political objectives with the group as specified in the group's constituent declaration. Nevertheless, those national parties and not the group retain control of their MEPs, therefore the group may be divided on certain issues.

Members of the group meet regularly to prepare for meetings, debate on policies and vote on resolutions. The group also publishes reports on various topics.

Member parties

MEPs may be full or associate members.

  • Full members must accept the constitutional declaration of the group.
  • Associate members need not fully do so, but they may sit with the full members.

National parties may be full or associate members.

  • Full member parties must accept the constitutional declaration of the group.
  • Associate member parties may include parties that do not have MEPs (e.g. French Trotskyist parties which did not get elected in the 2004 European elections), are from states that are not part of the European Union, or do not wish to be full members.

Membership

Map of GUE/NGL MEPs by member state. Red indicates member states sending multiple GUE/NGL MEPs, light red indicates member states sending a single GUE/NGL MEP.

9th European Parliament

Country National party European party/

alliance

MEPs
 Belgium Workers' Party of Belgium
Partij van de Arbeid van België (PVDA)
Parti du Travail de Belgique (PTB)
None
 Cyprus Progressive Party of Working People
? ? (?)
PEL (observer)
 Czech Republic Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia
Komunistická strana ?ech a Moravy (KS?M)
PEL (observer)
 Denmark Red-Green Alliance
Enhedslisten - De Rød-Grønne (Ø)
PEL/NTP!/NGL
 Finland Left Alliance
Vasemmistoliitto (vas.)
PEL/NTP!/NGL
 France La France Insoumise
(LFI)
NTP!
 Germany The Left
Die Linke
PEL
 Greece Syriza
? ()
PEL
 Ireland Sinn Féin
(SF)
None
Independents 4 Change
Neamhspleáigh ar son an Athraithe
None
Luke 'Ming' Flanagan
(Independent)
Independent
 Netherlands Party for the Animals
Partij voor de Dieren (PvdD)
APEU
 Portugal Left Bloc
Bloco de Esquerda (BE)
PEL/NTP!
Portuguese Communist Party
Partido Comunista Português (PCP)
None
 Spain Podemos NTP!
United Left
Izquierda Unida (IU)
PEL
Basque Country Unite
Euskal Herria Bildu (EHB)
EFA
 Sweden Left Party
Vänsterpartiet (V)
NTP!/NGL
 European Union
Total

The initial member parties for the 9th European Parliament was determined at the first meeting on 29 May 2019.[22]

8th European Parliament

7th European Parliament

6th European Parliament

European Parliament results

Election year No. of
overall seats won
+/-
1995
1999
8 Increase
2004
1 Decrease
2009
6 Decrease
2014
17 Increase
2019
11 Decrease

See also

Sources

References

  1. ^ a b "Democracy in the European Parliament" (PDF). Retrieved 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d "Political Groups Annual Accounts 2001-2006". European Parliament. Retrieved 2010.
  3. ^ a b "Political Groups of the European Parliament". Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 May 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  4. ^ a b c "Group names 1999". European Parliament. Retrieved 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d "European Parliament profile of Alonso José Puerta". European Parliament. Retrieved 2010.
  6. ^ "As right-wing populism gains, is the left lagging behind? | Al Jazeera".
  7. ^ "How Eurosceptic is the new European Parliament?". BBC. 1 July 2014.
  8. ^ a b c Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ a b
  10. ^ "Euroscepticism on rise in Europe, poll suggests". BBC News. 8 June 2016. Retrieved 2020.
  11. ^ Abidor, Mitchell (3 June 2019). "What's Left of the Left?". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2020.
  12. ^ "European United Left-Nordic Green Left". The Democratic Society. Retrieved 2020.
  13. ^ a b c Alexander H. Trechsel (13 September 2013). Towards a Federal Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-317-99818-1.
  14. ^ a b Marlies Casier; Joost Jongerden (9 August 2010). Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey: Political Islam, Kemalism and the Kurdish Issue. Taylor & Francis. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-203-84706-0.
  15. ^ a b c "EUL/NGL on Europe Politique". Europe-politique.eu. Retrieved 2010.
  16. ^ Andreas Staab (24 June 2011). The European Union Explained, Second Edition: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact. Indiana University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-253-00164-1. Retrieved 2013.
  17. ^ Tapio Raunio; Teija Tiilikainen (5 September 2013). Finland in the European Union. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-135-76204-9.
  18. ^ Izzo, Federica (25 April 2014). "From the Italian Communist Party to Tsipras: The path of Europe's radical left" (PDF). CISE.
  19. ^ "Communist Party of Greece - Statement of the Central Committee of the KKE on the stance of the KKE in the EU parliament". Retrieved 2015.
  20. ^ a b "GUE/NGL Site". Guengl.eu. 14 July 1994. Retrieved 2014.
  21. ^ Edinburgh, Luke March, Professor of Post-Soviet and Comparative Politics, the University of; Keith, Daniel (20 October 2016). Europe's Radical Left: From Marginality to the Mainstream?. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-78348-537-6.
  22. ^ "First GUE/NGL group meeting - 05/19". GUE/NGL. Retrieved 2019.
  23. ^ "Podemos acuerda con Tsipras entrar en el grupo de la Izquierda Unitaria de la Eurocámara". Público (in Spanish). 26 May 2014. Retrieved 2018.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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