Eugene Manuel Landrum
|Born||February 6, 1891|
Pensacola, Florida, United States
|Died||July 24, 1967 (aged 76)|
Springfield, Illinois, United States
|Service/||United States Army|
|Years of service||1909-1951|
|Unit|| Coast Artillery Corps|
|Commands held||7th Infantry Division|
87th Infantry Division
90th Infantry Division
71st Infantry Division
Infantry Advanced Replacement Training Center, Camp Maxey, Texas
|Battles/wars||World War I|
World War II
|Awards||Army Distinguished Service Medal (2)|
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Major General Eugene M. Landrum (February 6, 1891 - July 24, 1967) was a senior United States Army officer. He is known primarily for defeating the Japanese in the Aleutian Islands Campaign at the start of World War II, being relieved as commander of the 90th Infantry Division shortly after the D-Day landings, and organizing the Pusan Perimeter to blunt the North Korean offensive during the Korean War.
Eugene Manuel Landrum was born in Pensacola, Florida, on February 6, 1891. He was educated in Florida and enlisted in the Alabama National Guard's Company M of the 1st Regiment in 1909. He joined the United States Army as a member of the Coast Artillery Corps on August 20, 1910, and quickly transferred to the Infantry Branch. Landrum served in the 17th and 2nd Infantry Regiments, and attained the rank of sergeant.
He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Infantry Branch, and was assigned to the 20th Infantry Regiment in November 1916. He served initially in Hawaii, where he was promoted to first lieutenant.
At the start of World War I Landrum was assigned to the 43rd Infantry Regiment, and performed duty as aide-de-camp to Robert K. Evans in the Philippines. Landrum later took part in action in Russia as part of American Expeditionary Force Siberia.
After the war Landrum continued his army career, receiving promotion to captain and carrying out Infantry and Adjutant General assignments in Washington, D.C., and at forts including Leavenworth, Benning, and Lewis. He was promoted to major in 1927. In the mid-1930s, he commanded the 23rd Forestry District of the Civilian Conservation Corps, with headquarters in Marion, Illinois.
In 1942 he was promoted to temporary brigadier general. Landrum commanded the 7th Infantry Division and other forces in the Aleutian Islands Campaign during combat as the United States reclaimed islands in the Aleutians which had been seized by the Japanese.
Landrum was promoted to temporary major general in 1943 and commanded the 87th Infantry Division during its training in the United States. He went to Europe shortly before the D-Day invasion, with the U.S. First Army commander, Lieutenant General Omar Bradley, intending to keep him unassigned and available to command a division on short notice.
In June, 1944, Major General J. Lawton Collins, commanding the VII Corps, became concerned that the 90th Division was not performing effectively in combat. As a result, he relieved the division commander, Brigadier General Jay W. MacKelvie and two regimental commanders. Landrum was then assigned to replace MacKelvie.
Landrum commanded the 90th Infantry Division during the rest of June and into August. During this period Landrum became involved in a verbal altercation with his assistant division commander (ADC), Brigadier General Samuel Tankersley Williams, and requested that Williams be reduced in rank to colonel and reassigned. Landrum's superiors concurred, and the action was carried out. (Williams remained in the army and was promoted again to brigadier general in 1951, and advanced to lieutenant general before retiring in 1960.)
In August, Landrum's corps, army and army group commanders were still not satisfied with the performance of the 90th Division, and Landrum was relieved. He was succeeded by Major General Raymond S. McLain, and returned to the United States.
Upon returning to the United States Landrum succeeded Major General Robert L. Spragins as commander of the 71st Infantry Division during its mobilization and training before it departed for combat in Europe. He then commanded the Infantry Advanced Replacement Training Center at Camp Maxey.
Walker, who had served with Landrum at Fifth Army, relied on him during the Eighth Army's organization of the Pusan Perimeter as the Eighth Army organized the defensive action which enabled U.S. and South Korean forces to begin the counterattack that pushed the North Koreans north across the 38th Parallel. Walker, who always referred to Landrum as "General Landrum" in recognition of his temporary World War II rank, made Landrum responsible for finding replacement troops and reinforcements and employing them where they could be most effective. Landrum received a second award of the Distinguished Service Medal to recognize his efforts in Korea.
Landrum was married to Frances Richardson Yeater (1894-1961), the daughter of Charles Yeater. Their children included son Eugene and daughter Marianna. Eugene M. Landrum, Jr. (1920-2009) was a lieutenant colonel in the army and served during World War II and the Korean War.
Albert E. Brown
| Commanding General 7th Infantry Division
May 1943 - June 1943
Archibald Vincent Arnold
Percy W. Clarkson
| Commanding General 87th Infantry Division
October 1943 - April 1944
Frank W. Culin, Jr.
Jay W. MacKelvie
| Commanding General 90th Infantry Division
July 1944 - August 1944
Raymond S. McLain
Robert L. Spragins
| Commanding General 71st Infantry Division
October 1944 - November 1944
Willard G. Wyman
Cortlandt V.R. Schuyler
| Commanding General Infantry Advanced Replacement Training Center, Camp Maxey, Texas
November 1944 - March 1946