Epoch (reference Date)
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Epoch Reference Date

An epoch, for the purposes of chronology and periodization, is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era. The "epoch" serves as a reference point from which time is measured.

The moment of epoch is usually decided by congruity, or by following conventions understood from the epoch in question. The epoch moment or date is usually defined from a specific, clear event of change, epoch event. In a more gradual change, a deciding moment is chosen when the epoch criterion was reached.

Calendar eras

Regnal eras

The official Japanese system numbers years from the accession of the current emperor, regarding the calendar year during which the accession occurred as the first year. A similar system existed in China before 1912, being based on the accession year of the emperor (1911 was thus the third year of the Xuantong period). With the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, the republican era was introduced. It is still very common in Taiwan to date events via the republican era. The People's Republic of China adopted the common era calendar in 1949 (the 38th year of the Chinese Republic).

Pre-modern eras

Modern eras

See also


  1. ^ Blackburn, B; Holford-Strevens, L (2003). "Incarnation era". The Oxford Companion to the Year: An exploration of calendar customs and time-reckoning. Oxford University Press. p. 881.
  2. ^ Solomin, Rachel M. "Counting the Jewish Years". myjewishlearning.com.
  3. ^ Lee, Scott E. (2006). "Overview of Calendars". rosettacalendar.com.
  4. ^ Dershowitz, Nachum; Reingold, Edward M. (2008). Calendrical Calculations (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-521-70238-6.
  5. ^ Richards, E. G. (2013). "Calendars". In Urban, S. E.; Seidelman, P. K. (eds.). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac (3rd ed.). Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books. pp. 616-617.
  6. ^ Higham, Thomas. "Radiocarbon dating - Age calculation". c14dating.com. Thomas Higham. Retrieved 2009.
  7. ^ Stuiver, Minze; Polach HA (1977). "Discussion; reporting of C-14 data". Radiocarbon. University of Arizona. 19 (3): 355-363. Retrieved 2018.

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