Viscount Enomoto Takeaki
|President of Republic of Ezo|
27 January 1869 - 27 June 1869
|Born||5 October 1836|
|Died||26 October 1908 (aged 72)|
|Resting place||Kissh?-ji, Bunky?-ku, Tokyo|
|Relatives||Enomoto Takeshi (brother)|
|Allegiance|| Tokugawa bakufu |
Republic of Ezo
Empire of Japan
|Branch/service||Imperial Japanese Navy|
|Years of service||1874-1908|
|Battles/wars||Boshin War |
Battle of Hakodate
Naval Battle of Hakodate Bay
Viscount Enomoto Takeaki ( , 5 October 1836 – 26 October 1908) was a Japanese samurai and admiral of the Tokugawa navy of Bakumatsu-period Japan, who remained faithful to the Tokugawa shogunate and fought against the new Meiji government until the end of the Boshin War. He later served in the Meiji government as one of the founders of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Enomoto was born as a member of a samurai family in the direct service of the Tokugawa clan in the Shitaya district of Edo (modern Tait?, Tokyo). Enomoto started learning Dutch in the 1850s, and after Japan's forced "opening" by Commodore Matthew Perry in 1854, he studied at the Tokugawa shogunate's Naval Training Center in Nagasaki and at the Tsukiji Warship Training Center in Edo.
At the age of 26, Enomoto was sent to the Netherlands to study western techniques in naval warfare and to procure western technologies. He stayed in Europe from 1862 to 1867, and became fluent in both the Dutch and English languages.
Enomoto returned to Japan on board the Kaiy? Maru, a steam warship purchased from the Netherlands by the Shogunal government. During his stay in Europe, Enomoto had realized that the telegraph would be an important means of communication in the future, and started planning a system to connect Edo and Yokohama. Upon his return, Enomoto was promoted to Kaigun Fukus?sai (), the second highest rank in the Tokugawa Navy, at the age of 31. He also received the court title of Izumi-no-kami ().
During the Meiji Restoration, after the surrender of Edo in 1868 during the Boshin War to forces loyal to the Satch? Alliance, Enomoto refused to deliver up his warships, and escaped to Hakodate in Hokkaido with the remainder of the Tokugawa Navy and a handful of French military advisers and their leader Jules Brunet. His fleet of eight steam warships was the strongest in Japan at the time.
Enomoto hoped to create an independent country under the rule of the Tokugawa family in Hokkaid?, but the Meiji government refused to accept partition of Japan. On 27 January 1869, the Tokugawa loyalists declared the foundation of the Republic of Ezo and elected Enomoto as president.
The Meiji government forces invaded Hokkaid? and defeated Enomoto's forces in the Naval Battle of Hakodate. On 27 June 1869, the Republic of Ezo collapsed, and Hokkaid? came under the rule of the central government headed by the Meiji Emperor.
After his surrender, Enomoto was arrested, accused of high treason and imprisoned. However, the leaders of the new Meiji government (largely at the insistence of Kuroda Kiyotaka) pardoned Enomoto in 1872, realizing that his various talents and accumulated knowledge could be of use. Enomoto became one of the few former Tokugawa loyalists who made the transition to the new ruling elite, as politics at the time was dominated by men from Ch?sh? and Satsuma, who had a strong bias against outsiders in general, and former Tokugawa retainers in particular. However, Enomoto was an exception, and rose quickly within the new ruling clique, to a higher status than any other member of the former Tokugawa government.
In 1874, Enomoto was given the rank of vice-admiral in the fledgling Imperial Japanese Navy. The following year, he was sent to Russia as a special envoy to negotiate the Treaty of St. Petersburg. The successful conclusion of the treaty was very well received in Japan and further raised Enomoto's prestige within the ruling circles, and the fact that Enomoto had been chosen for such an important mission was seen as evidence of reconciliation between former foes in the government.
In 1880, Enomoto became Navy Minister (). In 1885, his diplomatic skills were again called upon to assist It? Hirobumi in concluding the Convention of Tientsin with Qing China. Afterwards, Enomoto held a series of high posts in the Japanese government. He was Japan's first Minister of Communications (1885-1888) after the introduction of the cabinet system in 1885. He was also Minister of Agriculture and Commerce from 1894 to 1897, Minister of Education from 1889 to 1890 and Foreign Minister from 1891 to 1892.
Enomoto was especially active in promoting Japanese emigration through settler colonies in the Pacific Ocean and South and Central America. In 1891, he established--against the will of the cabinet of Matsukata Masayoshi--a "section for emigration" in the Foreign Ministry, with the task of encouraging emigration and finding new potential territories for Japanese settlement overseas. Two years later, after leaving the government, Enomoto also helped to establish a private organization, the "Colonial Association", to promote external trade and emigration.
|New creation|| President of Ezo
Jan 1869 - Jun 1869
| Naval Lord
(Ministry of Military Affairs)
Feb 1880 - Apr 1881
|New creation|| Minister of Communications
Dec 1885 - Mar 1889
Mar 1889 - May 1890
May 1891 - Aug 1892
Apr-Jul 1888 (interim)
Jan 1894 - March 1897