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English Wikipedia

English Wikipedia
85%
Logo of the English Wikipedia
Screenshot
The homepage of the English Wikipedia
Main Page of the English popflock.com resource in July 2020
Type of site
Internet encyclopedia
OwnerWikimedia Foundation
Created byJimmy Wales, Larry Sanger[1]
URLen.wikipedia.org
CommercialNo
RegistrationOptional, but required for certain tasks including
  • oprotected page edit  
  • onon-talk page creation (autoconfrmed for articles) 
  • ofile upload (autoconfirmed) 
  • opage move (autoconfirmed) 
Users40,736,371 users, 1,114 administrators as of 17 January 2021
Launched15 January 2001; 20 years ago (2001-01-15)
Content license
(most text also dual-licensed under GFDL)
Media licensing varies

The English Wikipedia is the English-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Founded on 15 January 2001, it is the first edition of popflock.com resource and, as of November 2020, has the most articles of any edition.[2] As of January 2021, 11% of articles in all Wikipedias belong to the English-language edition. This share has gradually declined from more than 50 percent in 2003, due to the growth of Wikipedias in other languages.[3] As of 17 January 2021, there are 6,231,200 articles on the site,[4] having surpassed the 6 million mark on 23 January 2020.[5] In August 2020, the total volume of the compressed texts of the English Wikipedia's articles amounted to 18.6 gigabytes.[6]

The Simple English Wikipedia (simplewiki) is a variation in which most articles use only basic English vocabulary. There is also the Old English (Ænglisc/Anglo-Saxon) popflock.com resource (angwiki), and a test incubator version for the Middle English popflock.com resource (enmwiki). Community-produced news publications include The Signpost.[7]

Pioneering edition

The English popflock.com resource was the first popflock.com resource edition and has remained the largest. It has pioneered many ideas as conventions, policies or features which were later adopted by popflock.com resource editions in some of the other languages. These ideas include "featured articles",[8] the neutral-point-of-view policy,[9] navigation templates,[10] the sorting of short "stub" articles into sub-categories,[11]dispute resolution mechanisms such as mediation and arbitration,[12] and weekly collaborations.[13]

The English popflock.com resource has adopted features from Wikipedias in other languages. These features include verified revisions from the German Wikipedia and town population-lookup templates from the Dutch Wikipedia.

Although the English popflock.com resource stores images and audio files, as well as text files, many of the images have been moved to Wikimedia Commons with the same name, as passed-through files. However, the English popflock.com resource also has fair-use images and audio/video files (with copyright restrictions), most of which are not allowed on Commons.

Many of the most active participants in the Wikimedia Foundation, and the developers of the MediaWiki software that powers Wikipedia, are English users.

Users and editors

Steven Pruitt, as of January 2020, has made more edits on the English popflock.com resource than any other editor
English popflock.com resource statistics
Number of user accounts Number of articles Number of files Number of administrators
40,736,371 6,231,200 891,007 1,114

Wikipedians

The English popflock.com resource reached 4,000,000 registered user accounts on 1 April 2007,[14] just a little over a year since the millionth Wikipedian registered an account in late February 2006.[15]

Over 1,100,000 editors have edited popflock.com resource more than 10 times.[16] Over 30,000 editors perform more than 5 edits per month, and a little over 3,000 perform more than 100 edits per month.[17] By 24 November 2011, a total of 500 million edits had been performed on the English Wikipedia.[]

As the largest popflock.com resource edition, and because English is such a widely used language, the English popflock.com resource draws many users and editors whose native language is not English. Such users may seek information from the English popflock.com resource rather than the popflock.com resource of their native language because the English popflock.com resource tends to contain more information about general subjects. Often bringing in new perspectives, a strong motivation to contribute for them is to increase the coverage of topics outside the English world for an international audience and to enrich existing topics with missing information from non-English countries, thereby helping to reduce systemic bias. Successful collaborations have been developed between non-native English speakers who successfully add content to the English popflock.com resource and native English speakers who act as copyeditors for them.[]

Arbitration committee

The English popflock.com resource has an arbitration committee (also known as ArbCom) that consists of a panel of editors that imposes binding rulings with regard to disputes between other editors of the online encyclopedia.[18] The committee was created by Jimmy Wales on 4 December 2003 as an extension of the decision-making power he had formerly held as owner of the site.[19][20]

When initially founded, the committee consisted of 12 arbitrators divided into three groups of four members each.[19][21] Since then, the committee has gradually expanded its membership to 18 arbitrators.[22][failed verification]

As with other aspects of the English Wikipedia, some of Wikipedia's sister projects have emulated the arbitration committee with their own similar versions.[23] For instance, in 2007, an arbitration committee was founded on the German Wikipedia called the Schiedsgericht [de].[24]

Controversies

English varieties

One controversy in the English popflock.com resource concerns which national variety of the English language is to be preferred, with the most commonly advocated candidates being American English and British English.[25] Perennial suggestions range from standardizing upon a single form of English to forking the English popflock.com resource project. A style guideline states, "the English popflock.com resource has no general preference for a major national variety of the language" and "an article on a topic that has strong ties to a particular English-speaking nation uses the appropriate variety of English for that nation".[26] An article should use spelling and grammar variants consistently; for example, color and colour are not to be used in the same article, since they represent American and British English, respectively. The guide also states that an article must remain in its original national variant.

There has been a similar issue in the Chinese-language Wikipedia concerning regional differences in writing. Efforts toward a language fork for Portuguese Wikipedia have failed, but those regarding Norwegian Wikipedia succeeded.

Andrew Lih wrote that the English popflock.com resource "didn't have the chance to go through a debate over whether there should be a British English popflock.com resource or an American English Wikipedia" because the English popflock.com resource was the original edition.[27][clarification needed] Editors agreed to use U.S. spellings for primarily American topics and British spellings for primarily British topics. In 2009 Lih wrote, "No doubt, American spellings tend to dominate by default just because of sheer numbers."[28]

Disputed articles

A 2013 study from Oxford University concluded that the most disputed articles on the English popflock.com resource tended to be broader issues, while on other language Wikipedias the most disputed articles tended to be regional issues; this is due to the English language's status as a global lingua franca, which means that many who edit the English popflock.com resource do not speak English as a native language.[clarification needed] The study stated that the most disputed entries on the English popflock.com resource were: George W. Bush, anarchism, Muhammad, list of WWE personnel, global warming, circumcision, United States, Jesus, race and intelligence, and Christianity.[29]

Threats against high schools

Several incidents of threats of violence against high schools on popflock.com resource have been reported in the mainstream press.[30][31][32] The Glen A. Wilson High School was the subject of such a threat in 2008,[30][31][32] and a 14-year-old was arrested for making a threat against Niles West High School on popflock.com resource in 2006.[33]

Wikiprojects, and assessments of articles' importance and quality

A "WikiProject" is a group of contributors who want to work together as a team to improve Wikipedia. These groups often focus on a specific topic area (for example, women's history), a specific location or a specific kind of task (for example, checking newly created pages). The English popflock.com resource currently has over 2,000 WikiProjects and activity varies.[34]

In 2007, in preparation for producing a print version, the English popflock.com resource introduced an assessment scale of the quality of articles.[35] Articles are rated by WikiProjects. The range of quality classes begins with "Stub" (very short pages), followed by "Start", "C" and "B" (in increasing order of quality). Community peer review is needed for the article to enter one of the highest quality classes: either "good article", "A" or the highest, "featured article". Of the about 4.4 million articles and lists assessed as of March 2015, a little more than 5,000 (0.12%) are featured articles, and fewer than 2,000 (0.04%) are featured lists. One featured article per day, as selected by editors, appears on the main page of Wikipedia.[36][37]

The articles can also be rated for "importance" as judged by a WikiProject. Currently, there are five importance categories: "low", "mid", "high", "top", and "" for unclassified/uncertain level. For a particular article, different WikiProjects may assign different importance levels.

The Wikipedia Version 1.0 Editorial Team has developed a table (shown below) that displays data of all rated articles by quality and importance, on the English Wikipedia. If an article or list receives different ratings by two or more WikiProjects, then the highest rating is used in the table, pie-charts, and bar-chart. The software regularly auto-updates the data.

Researcher Giacomo Poderi found that articles tend to reach featured status via the intensive work of a few editors.[38] A 2010 study found unevenness in quality among featured articles and concluded that the community process is ineffective in assessing the quality of articles.[39]

Quality-wise distribution of over 5.5 million articles and lists on the English Wikipedia, as of 29 January 2017[40]

  Featured articles (0.11%)
  Featured lists (0.04%)
  A class (0.03%)
  Good articles (0.50%)
  B class (2.00%)
  C class (4.32%)
  Start class (26.41%)
  Stub class (53.01%)
  Lists (3.65%)
  Unassessed (9.94%)

Importance-wise distribution of over 5.5 million articles and lists on the English Wikipedia, as of 29 January 2017[40]

  Top (0.91%)
  High (3.20%)
  Medium (12.21%)
  Low (51.68%)
   (32.00%)
500,000
1,000,000
1,500,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
3,000,000
Top
High
Medium
Low
  •   Featured articles
  •   Featured lists
  •   A-class articles
  •   Good articles
  •   B-class articles
  •   C-class articles
  •   Start-class articles
  •   Stub articles
  •   Lists
  •   Unassessed articles and lists

Graphics

Internal news publications

Community-produced news publications include The Signpost.[7]The Signpost (previously known as The popflock.com resource Signpost[44]) is the English Wikipedia's newspaper.[7][45][46] It is managed by the Wikipedia community and is published online weekly.[7][47] Each edition contains stories and articles related to the popflock.com resource community.[48][49] A wide range of editors contribute articles and other pieces.[7] Some of the editors make minor changes in the existing contributions.

The publication was founded in January 2005 by Wikipedia administrator and later Chair of the Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees, Michael Snow.[7][44][50] Originally titled The popflock.com resource Signpost, it was later shortened to simply The Signpost.[44][51] The newspaper reports on popflock.com resource events including Arbitration Committee rulings,[52] Wikimedia Foundation issues,[53] and other Wikipedia-related projects.[54] Snow continued to contribute as a writer to The Signpost until his appointment to the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation in February 2008.[55]

Investigative journalism by The Signpost in 2015 on changes to freedom of panorama copyright restrictions in Europe was covered by publications in multiple languages including German,[56] Italian,[57] Polish,[58] and Russian.[59] popflock.com resource users Gamaliel and Go Phightins! became editors-in-chief of The Signpost in January 2015; prior editor-in-chief The ed17 noted that during his tenure the publication expanded its scope by including more reporting on the wider Wikimedia movement and English popflock.com resource itself.[60] In a letter to readers upon the newspaper's tenth anniversary, the new co-editors-in-chief stressed the importance of maintaining independence from the Wikimedia Foundation in their reporting.[61]

The Signpost has been the subject of academic analysis in publications including Sociological Forum,[62] the social movements journal Interface,[63] and New Review of Academic Librarianship;[64] and was consulted for data on popflock.com resource by researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Dartmouth College.[65] It has garnered generally positive reception from media publications including The New York Times,[66]The Register,[67]Nonprofit Quarterly,[68] and Heise Online.[69] John Broughton's 2008 book Resource: The Missing Manual called The Signpost "essential reading for ambitious new popflock.com resource editors".[70]

Other past and present community news publications include the "WikiWorld" web comic, the Wikipedia Weekly podcast, and newsletters of specific WikiProjects like The Bugle from WikiProject Military History and the monthly newsletter from The Guild of Copy Editors. There are also a number of publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and This Month in Education.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ There is controversy over who founded Wikipedia. Wales considers himself to be the sole founder of popflock.com resource and has told the Boston Globe that "it's preposterous" to call Sanger the co-founder.[] However, Sanger strongly contests that description. He was identified as a co-founder of popflock.com resource as early as September 2001 and referred to himself as being founder as early as January 2002.[]* Sidener, Jonathan (6 December 2004). "Everyone's Encyclopedia". San Diego Union Tribune. Archived from the original on 14 January 2016. Retrieved 2006.* Meyers, Peter (20 September 2001). "Fact-Driven? Collegial? This Site Wants You". The New York Times. Retrieved 2006.* Sanger, Larry. "What popflock.com resource is and why it matters". Retrieved 2006.
  2. ^ About 10 percent more than the next in rank, the Cebuano Wikipedia. See m:List of Wikipedias.
  3. ^ Wikimedia Meta-Wiki (21 September 2008). "List of Wikipedias". Retrieved 2008.
  4. ^ The number of articles on the English popflock.com resource is shown by the MediaWiki variable {{NUMBEROFARTICLES}}, with all Wikipedias as total {{NUMBEROF|ARTICLES|total}} = 55,631,932.
  5. ^ "popflock.com Resource: Six million articles". Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ See size of downloads at popflock.com Resource: Database download and a list of historical sizes here
  7. ^ a b c d e f Phoebe Ayers; Charles Matthews; Ben Yates (2008). How popflock.com resource Works: And how You Can be a Part of it. No Starch Press. pp. 345-. ISBN 978-1-59327-176-3.
  8. ^ English popflock.com resource (30 January 2007). "Featured articles". Retrieved 2007.
  9. ^ English popflock.com resource (25 January 2007). "Neutral point of view". Retrieved 2007.
  10. ^ Wikimedia Meta-Wiki (29 January 2007). "Help:Template". Retrieved 2007.
  11. ^ English popflock.com resource (19 January 2007). "WikiProject Stub sorting". Retrieved 2007.
  12. ^ English popflock.com resource (27 January 2007). "Resolving disputes". Retrieved 2007.
  13. ^ English popflock.com resource (30 January 2007). "Article Creation and Improvement Drive". Retrieved 2007.
  14. ^ popflock.com Resource: popflock.com resource Signpost/2007-04-02/News and notes. Retrieved 20 April 2007
  15. ^ popflock.com Resource: popflock.com resource Signpost/2006-02-27/News and notes. Retrieved 20 April 2007
  16. ^ "Wikipedia Statistics - Tables - English". Stats.wikimedia.org. Retrieved 2013.
  17. ^ "Wikipedia Statistics - Tables - English". Stats.wikimedia.org. Retrieved 2013.
  18. ^ Schiff, Stacy (2 December 2006). "Know-alls". The Age. Australia: Fairfax Digital Network. Retrieved 2009.
  19. ^ a b Wales, Jimmy (4 December 2003). "WikiEN-l Wikiquette committee appointments". Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 2009.
  20. ^ Hoffman, David A.; Salil Mehra (2010). "Wikitruth Through Wikiorder". Emory Law Journal. 59 (2010). SSRN 1354424.
  21. ^ Hyatt, Josh (1 June 2006). "Secrets of Greatness: Great Teams". Fortune. Retrieved 2009.
  22. ^ Wales, Jimmy (20 December 2008). "ArbCom Appointments". Wikipedia. Retrieved 2009.
  23. ^ Wikidata (1 April 2015). "Wikipedia sitelinks for Arbitration Committee". Retrieved 2015.
  24. ^ Kleinz, Torsten (30 April 2007). "Wikipedia sucht Schiedsrichter" [Wikipedia is looking for referees] (in German). heise online. Retrieved 2009.
  25. ^ English Wikipedia. "popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style (spelling)". Retrieved 2006.
  26. ^ English Wikipedia. "popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style". Retrieved 2007.
  27. ^ Lih, p. 135.
  28. ^ Lih, p. 136.
  29. ^ Gross, Doug. "Wiki wars: The 10 most controversial popflock.com resource pages." CNN. 24 July 2013. Retrieved on 26 July 2013. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  30. ^ a b Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (29 April 2008). "Wikipedia threats went unchecked - Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times.
  31. ^ a b "Hacienda Heights school receives possible threat". abc7.com. Abclocal.go.com. 18 April 2008. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  32. ^ a b "Student arrested for violent threats on Wikipedia". Los Angeles Times. 29 April 2008. Retrieved 2012.
  33. ^ "Teen charged after threat to school on Wikipedia". Bloomington, IL: Pantagraph.com. Associated Press. 31 October 2006. Retrieved 2011.
  34. ^ "Resource: Wikiprojects". Retrieved 2015.
  35. ^ "popflock.com Resource: Version 1.0 Editorial Team/Assessment". Retrieved 2007.
  36. ^ "Comparing featured article groups and revision patterns correlations in Wikipedia". First Monday. Archived from the original on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 2010.
  37. ^ Fernanda B. Viégas; Martin Wattenberg; Matthew M. McKeon (22 July 2007). "The Hidden Order of Wikipedia" (PDF). Visual Communication Lab, IBM Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 2007. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  38. ^ Poderi, Giacomo, Wikipedia and the Featured Articles: How a Technological System Can Produce Best Quality Articles, Master thesis, University of Maastricht, October 2008.
  39. ^ Lindsey, David (5 April 2010). "Evaluating quality control of Wikipedia's featured articles". First Monday. 15 (4). Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 2017.
  40. ^ a b popflock.com Resource: Version 1.0 Editorial Team/Statistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  41. ^ Zachte, Erik (14 November 2011). "Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report - Page Edits Per popflock.com resource Language - Breakdown". Wikimedia Statistics. Retrieved 2011.
  42. ^ "Usability and Experience Study". Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 2012.
  43. ^ "Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report - Page Edits Per popflock.com resource Language - Breakdown". Stats.wikimedia.org. Retrieved 2014.
  44. ^ a b c Cohen, Noam (5 March 2007). "A Contributor to popflock.com resource Has His Fictional Side". The New York Times. p. C5. Retrieved 2016.
  45. ^ Koebler, Jason (16 February 2016). "The Secret Search Engine Tearing popflock.com resource Apart". Vice.
  46. ^ Geoffroy, Romain (16 January 2014). "Une employée de Wikipédia débarquée pour avoir monnayé ses articles" [Wikipedia employee disembarks for minting her articles]. Les Inrockuptibles (in French).
  47. ^ Dobusch, Leonhard (12 January 2014). "Interview mit Dirk Franke über "Grenzen der Bezahlung" in der Wikipedia" [Interview with Dirk Franke about "Limits of Payment" in Wikipedia]. Netzpolitik.org (in German).
  48. ^ Rosen, Rebecca (6 February 2013). "If You Want Your popflock.com resource Page to Get a TON of Traffic, Die While Performing at the Super Bowl Half-Time Show". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016.
  49. ^ Dariusz Jemielniak (2014). Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia. Stanford University Press. pp. 231-. ISBN 978-0804797238.
  50. ^ McCarthy, Caroline (18 July 2008). "Wikimedia Foundation edits its board of trustees". CNET.
  51. ^ Okoli, Chitu; Mehdi, Mohamad; Mesgari, Mostafa; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Lanamäki, Arto (24 October 2012). "The people's encyclopedia under the gaze of the sages: A systematic review of scholarly research on Wikipedia". doi:10.2139/ssrn.2021326. SSRN 2021326. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  52. ^ Oz, Ayelet (1 September 2014). "The Legal Consciousness of Wikipedia". Harvard Law School. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2572381. SSRN 2572381. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  53. ^ Sotirios Paroutis; Loizos Heracleous; Duncan Angwin (1 February 2013). Practicing Strategy: Text and Cases. SAGE Publications. pp. 237-. ISBN 978-1-4462-9047-7.
  54. ^ Waters, John K. (2010). The Everything Guide to Social Media. Adams Media. pp. 180, 270. ISBN 978-1440506314.
  55. ^ Ral315 (18 February 2008). "From the editor: This week, I'd like to congratulate and thank Michael Snow". The popflock.com resource Signpost. Retrieved 2016.
  56. ^ Diener, Andrea (27 June 2015). "Geben Sie Panoramafreiheit, Sire!" [Give freedom of panorama, sire!]. FAZ - Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  57. ^ "Libertà di Panorama: a rischio in Europa con una riforma del copyright" [Freedom of Panorama: at risk in Europe with a copyright reform]. Blogo: Informazione libera e indipendente (in Italian). 22 June 2015. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  58. ^ "Chcesz robi? zdj?cia znanych budowli Europy? Spiesz si?. To mog? by? ostatnie tygodnie" [Do you want to take photos of famous European buildings? Rush. These may be the last weeks]. Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). 24 June 2015. ISSN 0860-908X. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  59. ^ "?! - ?" [ANXIETY! Free shooting on the streets of Europe - at risk] (in Russian). 23 June 2015. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  60. ^ The ed17 (21 January 2015). "From the editor: Introducing your new editors-in-chief". The Signpost. Retrieved 2016.
  61. ^ Go Phightins! and Gamaliel (28 January 2015). "From the editor: An editorial board that includes you". The Signpost. Retrieved 2016.
  62. ^ Konieczny, Piotr (March 2009). "Governance, Organization, and Democracy on the Internet: The Iron Law and the Evolution of Wikipedia" (PDF). Sociological Forum. 24 (1): 162-192. doi:10.1111/j.1573-7861.2008.01090.x. JSTOR 40210340.
  63. ^ Konieczny, Piotr. "Resource: community or social movement?" (PDF). Interface: A Journal for and About Social Movements. 1 (2): 212-232. ISSN 2009-2431. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 2016.
  64. ^ Bayliss, Gemma (January 2013). "Exploring the Cautionary Attitude Toward popflock.com resource in Higher Education: Implications for Higher Education Institutions". New Review of Academic Librarianship. 19 (1): 39. doi:10.1080/13614533.2012.740439. ISSN 1361-4533. S2CID 61150982.
  65. ^ Yan, Guanhua; Arackaparambil, Chrisil (2011). "Wiki-watchdog: Anomaly detection in popflock.com resource through a distributional lens". Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conferences on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology - Volume 01. IEEE Computer Society Washington. pp. 257-264. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.721.2953. doi:10.1109/WI-IAT.2011.86. ISBN 978-0-7695-4513-4. S2CID 11693510. Retrieved 2016.
  66. ^ Dee, Jonathan (1 July 2007). "All the News That's Fit to Print Out". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016.
  67. ^ Orlowski, Andrew (12 January 2016). "Wikimedia Foundation bins community-elected trustee". The Register.
  68. ^ McCambridge, Ruth (16 February 2016). "Knight Foundation Grant Request Tears at Wikipedia's Community". Nonprofit Quarterly.
  69. ^ Kleinz, Torsten (27 February 2016). "Kommentar: Wie geht es weiter mit der Wikimedia Foundation?" [Comment: What's next with the Wikimedia Foundation?]. Heise Online (in German).
  70. ^ John Broughton (25 January 2008). Resource: The Missing Manual: The Missing Manual. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". pp. 454-. ISBN 978-0-596-55377-7.

References

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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