Emperor %C5%8Cjin
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Emperor %C5%8Cjin
?jin
Emperor ?jin.jpg
Emperor of Japan
Reign270-310 (traditional)[1]
PredecessorJing? (de-facto)[a]
Ch?ai (traditional)
SuccessorNintoku
Born201[2]
Umi (Fukuoka)
Died310 (aged 108–109)
Karushima no Toyoakira (Nara)
Burial
Eega no Mofushi no oka no misasagi () (Osaka)
Spouse
IssueSee below
HouseImperial House of Japan
FatherEmperor Ch?ai
MotherEmpress Jing?
ReligionShinto

Emperor ?jin (?, ?jin-tenn?), also known as Hondawake no Mikoto (?) or Homuta no Sumeramikoto (?), was the 15th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.[3][4]

No firm dates can be assigned to this Emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 270 to 310.[5]

Legendary narrative

?jin is also identified by some as the earliest "historical" Emperor.

[6]

According to the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki, ?jin was the son of the Emperor Ch?ai and his consort Empress Jing?. As Ch?ai died before ?jin's birth, his mother Empress Jing? became the de facto ruler. The history book written to the 8th century, alleged that the boy ?jin was conceived but unborn when Ch?ai died. His widow, Empress Jing?, then spent three years in conquest of a promised land, which is conjectured to be Korea, but the story is largely dismissed by scholars for lack of evidence. Then, after her return to Japanese islands, the boy was born, three years after the death of the father.

Either a period of less than nine months contained three "years" (some seasons), e.g. three harvests, or the paternity is just mythical and symbolic, rather than real. ?jin was born (in 200 according to the traditional) in Tsukushi Province upon the return of his mother from the invasion of the promised land, and was named Prince Hondawake. He became the crown prince at the age of four. He was crowned (in 270) at the age of 70 and reigned for 40 years until his death in 310, although none of the TC dates around his reign have any historical basis. He supposedly lived in two palaces, both of which are in present-day Osaka.

?jin was traditionally identified as the father of Emperor Nintoku, who acceded after ?jin's death.[7]

Known information

Memorial Shinto shrine and mausoleum honoring Emperor ?jin.

Emperor ?jin is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" as there is insufficient material available for further verification and study regarding events in his life. There is enough evidence however to state that he was "probably real", and ruled later than attested.[8] Dates of reign have been proposed to be as early as 370 to 390 AD, to as late as the early 5th century.[8] There is also no evidence to suggest that the title tenn? was used during the time to which ?jin's reign has been assigned. It is certainly possible that he was a chieftain or local clan leader, and that the polity he ruled would have only encompassed a small portion of modern-day Japan. The name ?jin-tenn? was more than likely assigned to him posthumously by later generations.[9]

While the actual site of ?jin's grave is not known, this regent is traditionally venerated at a kofun-type Imperial tomb in Osaka. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as ?jin's mausoleum, and is formally named Eega no Mofushi no oka no misasagi.[10] At some point ?jin was made a guardian Kami of the Hata clan, and is now also deified as Hachiman Daimy?jin.[b] Outside of the Kiki, the reign of Emperor Kinmei[c] (c. 509 - 571 AD) is the first for which contemporary historiography has been able to assign verifiable dates.[12] The conventionally accepted names and dates of the early Emperors were not confirmed as "traditional" though, until the reign of Emperor Kanmu[d] between 737 and 806 AD.[13]

Family

Emperor ?jin's family allegedly consisted of 28 children, which include 2 unnamed princesses from a previous marriage. He had one spouse who bore him a son that would become the next Emperor, as well as 10 consorts.

Spouse & concubines

Position Name Father Issue
K?g? Nakatsu-hime () Homudamawaka  • Princess Arata
 • Prince Netori
 • Prince ?osazaki[e]
(later Emperor Nintoku)
Consort Takakiiri-hime () Homudamawaka  • Prince Izanomawaka
 • Princess Komukuta
 • Prince Nukata no ?nakatsuhiko
 • Princess Ohara
 • Prince ?yamamori
Consort Oto-hime () Homudamawaka  • Princess Ahe
 • Princess Awaji no Mihara
 • Princess Ki no Uno
 • Princess Mino no Iratsume
 • Princess Shigehara
Consort Miyanushiyaka-hime (?) Wani no Hifure no Omi  • Princess Metori
 • Prince Uji no Wakiiratsuko
 • Princess Yata
Consort Onabe-hime () Wani no Hifure no Omi  • Princess Uji no Wakiiratsu-hime
Consort Okinaga Mawakanakatsu-hime (?) Kawamata Nakatsuhiko  • Prince Wakanuke no Futamata
Consort Ito-hime () Sakuraitabe no Muraji Shimatarine  • Prince Hayabusawake
Consort Himuka no Izumi no Naga-hime () Unknown  • Princess Hatabi no Wakairatsume
 • Prince ?hae
 • Prince Ohae
Consort Kaguro-hime () Sumeiro?nakatsuhiko[f]  • Prince Kataji
 • Princess Kawarata no Iratsume
 • Princess Tama no Iratsume
Consort Katsuragi no Irome () Takenouchi no Sukune  • Prince Izanomawaka[g]
Consort E-hime () Kibi-no-Takehiko N/A

Issue

Status Name Mother Comments
Princess Arata (?) Nakatsu-hime Very little is known about this person.
Prince ?osazaki (?) Nakatsu-hime Would later become Emperor Emperor Nintoku.
Prince Netori (?) Nakatsu-hime Ancestor of ?ta no Kimi (), married Princess Awaji no Mihara (see below).
Prince Izanomawaka () Takakiiri-hime Ancestor of Fukakawawake ().
Prince Nukata no ?nakatsuhiko (?) Takakiiri-hime Very little is known about this person.
Prince ?yamamori () Takakiiri-hime ?yamamori died in 310 AD.[h]
Princess Komukuta () Takakiiri-hime Very little is known about this person.
Princess ?hara (?) Takakiiri-hime Very little is known about this person.
Princess Ahe (?) Oto-hime Very little is known about this person.
Princess Awaji no Mihara () Oto-hime Married to Prince Netori
Princess Ki no Uno () Oto-hime Very little is known about this person.
Princess Mino no Iratsume (?) Oto-hime Very little is known about this person.
Princess Shigehara (?) Oto-hime Very little is known about this person.
Prince Uji no Wakiiratsuko (?) Miyanushiyaka-hime Uji was a Crown Prince.
Princess Metori (?) Miyanushiyaka-hime Metori died in 353 AD, and was married to Prince "Hayabusawake" (see below).
Princess Yata (?) Miyanushiyaka-hime Yata was later married to Emperor Nintoku.
Princess Uji no Wakiiratsu-hime (?) Onabe-hime Uji was later married to Emperor Nintoku.
Prince Wakanuke no Futamata (?) Okinaga Mawakanakatsu-hime Ancestor of Okinaga clan (), amd great-grandfather of Emperor Keitai.
Prince Hayabusawake () Ito-hime Hayabusawake was the husband of Princess Metori (?).
Prince ?hae () Himuka no Izumi no Naga-hime Very little is known about this person.
Prince Ohae () Himuka no Izumi no Naga-hime Very little is known about this person.
Princess Hatabi no Wakairatsume () Himuka no Izumi no Naga-hime Hatabi was later married to Emperor Rich?
Princess Kawarata no Iratsume () Kaguro-hime Very little is known about this person.
Princess Tama no Iratsume () Kaguro-hime Very little is known about this person.
Prince Kataji (?) Kaguro-hime Very little is known about this person.
Prince Izanomawaka (? - ) Katsuragi no Irome Very little is known about this person.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Jing?'s reign as Empress is now confined to legends rather than fact. Modern historians have labeled her as an "Empress regent", who was the de-facto ruler until Homutawake (?jin) became emperor.
  2. ^ ?jin's Hachiman name is translated to "Guardian of warriors"
  3. ^ The 29th Emperor[4][11]
  4. ^ Kanmu was the 50th sovereign of the Yamato dynasty
  5. ^ It is only known that "?osazaki" was the Fourth son of Emperor ?jin. No mention is given about a numerical order of sons or daughters other than this historical footnote.
  6. ^ Additionally, there are 2 more unnamed princesses speculated to be Prince "Wakanuke no Futamata"s daughters.
  7. ^ This is unconfirmed
  8. ^ ?yamamori is also known as being an ancestor of Hijikata no Kimi () and Haibara no Kimi ().

References

  1. ^ ""Genealogy of the Emperors of Japan"" (PDF). Kunaicho.go.jp. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ Kenneth Henshall (2013). Historical Dictionary of Japan to 1945. Scarecrow Press. p. 487.
  3. ^ "? (15)". Imperial Household Agency (Kunaich?) (in Japanese). Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ a b Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon ?dai Ichiran (in French). Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. pp. 19-22, 34-36.
  5. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Ponsonby Memorial Society. p. 36.
  6. ^ Wakabayashi, Tadashi. (1995) Japanese loyalism reconstrued, p. 108., p. 108, at Google Books
  7. ^ Aston, William George. (1998). Nihongi, p. 254-271.
  8. ^ a b Kelly, Charles F. "Kofun Culture". www.t-net.ne.jp. Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ Brinkley, Frank (1915). A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the end of the Meiji Era. Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. p. 21. Posthumous names for the earthly Mikados were invented in the reign of Emperor Kanmu (782-805), i.e., after the date of the compilation of the Records and the Chronicles.
  10. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 419.
  11. ^ Brown, Delmer M. and Ichir? Ishida (1979). A Translation and Study of the Gukansh?, an Interpretative History of Japan Written in 1219. University of California Press. pp. 248, 261-262. ISBN 9780520034600.
  12. ^ Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds. Prentice Hall. p. 78. ISBN 9780132712897. According to legend, the first Japanese Emperor was Jimmu. Along with the next 13 Emperors, Jimmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kimmei.
  13. ^ Aston, William George. (1896). Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697, Volume 2. The Japan Society London. p. 109 & 217-223.

Further reading

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Ch?ai
Emperor of Japan:
?jin

270-310
(traditional dates)
Succeeded by
Emperor Nintoku

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