|Emperor of Japan|
|Died||310 (aged 108–109)|
Karushima no Toyoakira (Nara)
Eega no Mofushi no oka no misasagi () (Osaka)
|House||Imperial House of Japan|
No firm dates can be assigned to this Emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 270 to 310.
?jin is also identified by some as the earliest "historical" Emperor.
According to the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki, ?jin was the son of the Emperor Ch?ai and his consort Empress Jing?. As Ch?ai died before ?jin's birth, his mother Empress Jing? became the de facto ruler. The history book written to the 8th century, alleged that the boy ?jin was conceived but unborn when Ch?ai died. His widow, Empress Jing?, then spent three years in conquest of a promised land, which is conjectured to be Korea, but the story is largely dismissed by scholars for lack of evidence. Then, after her return to Japanese islands, the boy was born, three years after the death of the father.
Either a period of less than nine months contained three "years" (some seasons), e.g. three harvests, or the paternity is just mythical and symbolic, rather than real. ?jin was born (in 200 according to the traditional) in Tsukushi Province upon the return of his mother from the invasion of the promised land, and was named Prince Hondawake. He became the crown prince at the age of four. He was crowned (in 270) at the age of 70 and reigned for 40 years until his death in 310, although none of the TC dates around his reign have any historical basis. He supposedly lived in two palaces, both of which are in present-day Osaka.
Emperor ?jin is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" as there is insufficient material available for further verification and study regarding events in his life. There is enough evidence however to state that he was "probably real", and ruled later than attested. Dates of reign have been proposed to be as early as 370 to 390 AD, to as late as the early 5th century. There is also no evidence to suggest that the title tenn? was used during the time to which ?jin's reign has been assigned. It is certainly possible that he was a chieftain or local clan leader, and that the polity he ruled would have only encompassed a small portion of modern-day Japan. The name ?jin-tenn? was more than likely assigned to him posthumously by later generations.
While the actual site of ?jin's grave is not known, this regent is traditionally venerated at a kofun-type Imperial tomb in Osaka. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as ?jin's mausoleum, and is formally named Eega no Mofushi no oka no misasagi. At some point ?jin was made a guardian Kami of the Hata clan, and is now also deified as Hachiman Daimy?jin.[b] Outside of the Kiki, the reign of Emperor Kinmei[c] (c. 509 - 571 AD) is the first for which contemporary historiography has been able to assign verifiable dates. The conventionally accepted names and dates of the early Emperors were not confirmed as "traditional" though, until the reign of Emperor Kanmu[d] between 737 and 806 AD.
Emperor ?jin's family allegedly consisted of 28 children, which include 2 unnamed princesses from a previous marriage. He had one spouse who bore him a son that would become the next Emperor, as well as 10 consorts.
|K?g?||Nakatsu-hime ()||Homudamawaka|| • Princess Arata|
• Prince Netori
• Prince ?osazaki[e]
(later Emperor Nintoku)
|Consort||Takakiiri-hime ()||Homudamawaka|| • Prince Izanomawaka|
• Princess Komukuta
• Prince Nukata no ?nakatsuhiko
• Princess Ohara
• Prince ?yamamori
|Consort||Oto-hime ()||Homudamawaka|| • Princess Ahe|
• Princess Awaji no Mihara
• Princess Ki no Uno
• Princess Mino no Iratsume
• Princess Shigehara
|Consort||Miyanushiyaka-hime (?)||Wani no Hifure no Omi|| • Princess Metori|
• Prince Uji no Wakiiratsuko
• Princess Yata
|Consort||Onabe-hime ()||Wani no Hifure no Omi||• Princess Uji no Wakiiratsu-hime|
|Consort||Okinaga Mawakanakatsu-hime (?)||Kawamata Nakatsuhiko||• Prince Wakanuke no Futamata|
|Consort||Ito-hime ()||Sakuraitabe no Muraji Shimatarine||• Prince Hayabusawake|
|Consort||Himuka no Izumi no Naga-hime ()||Unknown|| • Princess Hatabi no Wakairatsume|
• Prince ?hae
• Prince Ohae
|Consort||Kaguro-hime ()||Sumeiro?nakatsuhiko[f]|| • Prince Kataji|
• Princess Kawarata no Iratsume
• Princess Tama no Iratsume
|Consort||Katsuragi no Irome ()||Takenouchi no Sukune||• Prince Izanomawaka[g]|
|Princess||Arata (?)||Nakatsu-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Prince||?osazaki (?)||Nakatsu-hime||Would later become Emperor Emperor Nintoku.|
|Prince||Netori (?)||Nakatsu-hime||Ancestor of ?ta no Kimi (), married Princess Awaji no Mihara (see below).|
|Prince||Izanomawaka ()||Takakiiri-hime||Ancestor of Fukakawawake ().|
|Prince||Nukata no ?nakatsuhiko (?)||Takakiiri-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Prince||?yamamori ()||Takakiiri-hime||?yamamori died in 310 AD.[h]|
|Princess||Komukuta ()||Takakiiri-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Princess||?hara (?)||Takakiiri-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Princess||Ahe (?)||Oto-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Princess||Awaji no Mihara ()||Oto-hime||Married to Prince Netori|
|Princess||Ki no Uno ()||Oto-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Princess||Mino no Iratsume (?)||Oto-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Princess||Shigehara (?)||Oto-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Prince||Uji no Wakiiratsuko (?)||Miyanushiyaka-hime||Uji was a Crown Prince.|
|Princess||Metori (?)||Miyanushiyaka-hime||Metori died in 353 AD, and was married to Prince "Hayabusawake" (see below).|
|Princess||Yata (?)||Miyanushiyaka-hime||Yata was later married to Emperor Nintoku.|
|Princess||Uji no Wakiiratsu-hime (?)||Onabe-hime||Uji was later married to Emperor Nintoku.|
|Prince||Wakanuke no Futamata (?)||Okinaga Mawakanakatsu-hime||Ancestor of Okinaga clan (), amd great-grandfather of Emperor Keitai.|
|Prince||Hayabusawake ()||Ito-hime||Hayabusawake was the husband of Princess Metori (?).|
|Prince||?hae ()||Himuka no Izumi no Naga-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Prince||Ohae ()||Himuka no Izumi no Naga-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Princess||Hatabi no Wakairatsume ()||Himuka no Izumi no Naga-hime||Hatabi was later married to Emperor Rich?|
|Princess||Kawarata no Iratsume ()||Kaguro-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Princess||Tama no Iratsume ()||Kaguro-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Prince||Kataji (?)||Kaguro-hime||Very little is known about this person.|
|Prince||Izanomawaka (? - )||Katsuragi no Irome||Very little is known about this person.|
Posthumous names for the earthly Mikados were invented in the reign of Emperor Kanmu (782-805), i.e., after the date of the compilation of the Records and the Chronicles.
According to legend, the first Japanese Emperor was Jimmu. Along with the next 13 Emperors, Jimmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kimmei.