Eliza Orzeszkowa
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Eliza Orzeszkowa
Eliza Orzeszkowa
Eliza Orzeszkowa.PNG
Born(1841-06-06)6 June 1841
Milkowszczyzna
Died18 May 1910(1910-05-18) (aged 68)
Grodno
Occupationnovelist, essayist, publisher
Notable worksMeir Ezofowicz, Nad Niemnem, Cham, Bene nati
SpousePiotr Orzeszko
Stanis?aw Nahorski

Eliza Orzeszkowa (6 June 1841 - 18 May 1910) was a Polish novelist and a leading writer[1] of the Positivism movement during foreign Partitions of Poland. In 1905, together with Henryk Sienkiewicz she was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Biography

She was born to a noble Paw?owski family in Milkowszczyzna, and died in Grodno (now in Belarus) nearby.[2] At the age of sixteen, Eliza married Piotr Orzeszko, a Polish nobleman twice her own age, who was exiled to Siberia after the January Uprising of 1863. They were legally separated in 1869.[3] She married again in 1894, after a 30-year-long loving relationship with Stanis?aw Nahorski who died a few years later.[4]

Orzeszkowa wrote a series of 30 novels and 120 powerful sketches, dramas and novellas, dealing with the social conditions of her occupied country. Her novel Eli Makower (1875) describes the relations between the Jews and the Polish nobility; and Meir Ezofowicz (1878), the conflict between Jewish orthodoxy and modern liberalism. In 1888 Orzeszkowa wrote two novels about the Niemen River (now part of Belarus): Cham (The Boor) focused on the life of fishermen; and her most famous novel, Nad Niemnem (On the Niemen) - often compared to Pan Tadeusz - dealing with the issues of Polish aristocracy against the backdrop of political and social order. Her study on patriotism and cosmopolitanism appeared in 1880.[3] A uniform edition of her works was published in Warsaw between 1884-1888.[5] Much of her output is available also in German translation.

In 1905 together with Henryk Sienkiewicz and Leo Tolstoy, Eliza Orzeszkowa was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature. The prize was awarded to Sienkiewicz. According to official records of the Nobel Prize committee, the idea of dividing the prize was rejected as an act of disparagement, and only the latter ended up as the laureate.[6]

Selected works

  • Obrazek z lat g?odowych 1866
  • Ostatnia mi?o, 1868
  • Z ?ycia realisty, 1868
  • Na prowincji, 1870
  • W klatce, 1870
  • Cnotliwi, 1871
  • Pami?tnik Wac?awy, 1871
  • Pan Graba, 1872
  • Na dnie sumienia, 1873
  • Marta, 1873
  • Eli Makower, 1875
  • Rodzina Brochwiczów, 1876
  • Pompali?scy, 1876
  • Maria, 1877
  • Meir Ezofowicz, 1878
  • Z ró?nych sfer, 1879-1882
  • Widma, 1881
  • Sylwek Cmentarnik, 1881
  • Zygmunt ?awicz i jego koledzy, 1881
  • Ba?ka mydlana, 1882-1883
  • Pierwotni, 1883
  • Niziny, 1885
  • Dziurdziowie, 1885
  • Mirtala, 1886
  • Nad Niemnem (On the Niemen), 1888
  • Cham (The Boor), 1888
  • Panna Antonina (collection of novels), 1888
  • W zimowy wieczór (collection of novels), 1888
  • Czciciel pot?gi, 1891
  • J?dza, 1891
  • Bene nati, 1891
  • Westalka, 1891
  • Dwa bieguny, 1893
  • Melancholicy, 1896
  • Australczyk, 1896
  • Iskry (collection of novels), 1898
  • Argonauci (The Argonauts),[7] 1900
  • Ad astra. Dwug?os, 1904
  • I pie niech zap?acze, 1904
  • Gloria victis (collection of novellas), 1910

Journalism for social justice

  • Kilka s?ów o kobietach (On women),[8] 1870
  • Patriotyzm i kosmopolityzm, 1880
  • O ?ydach i kwestii ?ydowskiej, 1882

References

Work of Orzeszkowa translated in Esperanto.
  1. ^ Eliza Orzeszkowa, Britannica, Retrieved June 5, 2016
  2. ^ "Eliza Orzeszkowa" from the Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Prof. dr hab. Józef Bachórz, Eliza Orzeszkowa. Virtual Library of Polish Literature. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  4. ^ Eliza Orzeszkowa. S?ownik pisarzy polskich. Brykowisko. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  5. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  6. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature: Nominations and Reports 1901-1950
  7. ^ Project Gutenberg's "The Argonauts" by Eliza Orzeszko (aka Orzeszkowa). Translator: Jeremiah Curtin, 1901.
  8. ^ "Kilka s?ów o kobietach" by E. Orzeszkowa. Kujawsko-Pomorska Digital Library. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
Attribution
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Orzeszko, Eliza". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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