An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one- or two-step mechanism. The one-step mechanism is known as the E2 reaction, and the two-step mechanism is known as the E1 reaction. The numbers refer not to the number of steps in the mechanism, but rather to the kinetics of the reaction: E2 is bimolecular (second-order) while E1 is unimolecular (first-order). In cases where the molecule is able to stabilize an anion but possesses a poor leaving group, a third type of reaction, E1CB, exists. Finally, the pyrolysis of xanthate and acetate esters proceed through an "internal" elimination mechanism, the Ei mechanism.
In most organic elimination reactions, at least one hydron (H+) is lost to form the double bond: the unsaturation of the molecule increases. It is also possible that a molecule undergoes reductive elimination, by which the valence of an atom in the molecule decreases by two, though this is more common in inorganic chemistry. An important class of elimination reactions is those involving alkyl halides, with good leaving groups, reacting with a Lewis base to form an alkene. Elimination may be considered the reverse of an addition reaction. When the substrate is asymmetric, regioselectivity is determined by Zaitsev's rule or through Hofmann elimination if the carbon with the most substituted hydrogen is inaccessible.
During the 1920s, Christopher Kelk Ingold proposed a model to explain a peculiar type of chemical reaction: the E2 mechanism. E2 stands for bimolecular elimination. The reaction involves a one-step mechanism in which carbon-hydrogen and carbon-halogen bonds break to form a double bond (C=C Pi bond).
The specifics of the reaction are as follows:
E1 is a model to explain a particular type of chemical elimination reaction. E1 stands for unimolecular elimination and has the following specifications
An example in scheme 2 is the reaction of tert-butylbromide with potassium ethoxide in ethanol.
E1 eliminations happen with highly substituted alkyl halides for two main reasons.
Specific features :
The reaction rate is influenced by the reactivity of halogens, iodide and bromide being favored. Fluoride is not a good leaving group, so eliminations with fluoride as the leaving group have slower rates than other halogens. There is a certain level of competition between the elimination reaction and nucleophilic substitution. More precisely, there are competitions between E2 and SN2 and also between E1 and SN1. Substitution generally predominates and elimination occurs only during precise circumstances. Generally, elimination is favored over substitution when
In one study the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) was determined for the gas phase reaction of several alkyl halides with the chlorate ion. In accordance with an E2 elimination the reaction with t-butyl chloride results in a KIE of 2.3. The methyl chloride reaction (only SN2 possible) on the other hand has a KIE of 0.85 consistent with a SN2 reaction because in this reaction type the C-H bonds tighten in the transition state. The KIE's for the ethyl (0.99) and isopropyl (1.72) analogues suggest competition between the two reaction modes.
?-Elimination, with loss of electrofuge and nucleofuge on vicinal carbons, is by far the most common type of elimination. The ability to form a stable product containing a C=C or C=X bond, as well as orbital alignment considerations, strongly favors ?-elimination over other elimination processes. However, other types are known, generally for systems where ?-elimination cannot occur.
The next most common type of elimination reaction is ?-elimination. For a carbon center, the result of ?-elimination is the formation of a carbene, which includes "stable carbenes" such as carbon monoxide or isocyanides. For instance, ?-elimination the elements of HCl from chloroform (CHCl3) in the presence of strong base is a classic approach for the generation of dichlorocarbene, :CCl2, as a reactive intermediate. On the other hand, formic acid undergoes ?-elimination to afford the stable products water and carbon monoxide under acidic conditions. ?-Elimination may also occur on a metal center, one particularly common result of which is lowering of both the metal oxidation state and coordination number by 2 units in a process known as reductive elimination. (Confusingly, in organometallic terminology, the terms ?-elimination and ?-abstraction refer to processes that result in formation of a metal-carbene complex. In these reactions, it is the carbon adjacent to the metal that undergoes ?-elimination.)
In certain special cases, ?- and higher eliminations to form three-membered or larger rings is also possible in both organic and organometallic processes. For instance, certain Pt(II) complexes undergo ?- and ?-elimination to give metallocycles. More recently, ?-silyl elimination of a silylcyclobutyl tosylate has been used to prepare strained bicyclic systems.