Elena Bonner
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Elena Bonner

Yelena Georgievna Bonner
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BonnerSacharov1989.jpg
Yelena Bonner and Andrei Sakharov after their arrival for the conferment of the honorary doctorate in law from the University of Groningen, 15 June 1989
Born
Lusik Georgievna Alikhanova

(1923-02-15)15 February 1923
Died18 June 2011(2011-06-18) (aged 88)
NationalityArmenian
Citizenship Soviet Union (1923-1991),  Russian Federation (1991-2011)
Alma materHerzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, First Pavlov State Medical University of St. Peterburg
Occupationnurse during World War II, physician, human right activist
Known forHuman rights activism, participation in the Moscow Helsinki Group
MovementDissident movement in the Soviet Union
Andrei Sakharov (1972-1989; his death), Ivan Semyonov (until 1965)
ChildrenTatyana Yankelevich (born 1950), Alexey Semyonov (born 1956)
AwardsRafto Prize
Robert Schuman Medal
Giuseppe Motta Medal
Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
Order of Tomá? Garrigue Masaryk
Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
Truman-Reagan Medal of Freedom

Yelena Georgievna Bonner (Russian: ?; 15 February 1923 - 18 June 2011)[1][2][3][4] was a human rights activist in the former Soviet Union and wife of the physicist Andrei Sakharov. During her decades as a dissident, Bonner was noted for her characteristic blunt honesty and courage.[5][6]

Biography

Early life and education

Bonner was born Lusik Georgievna Alikhanova[7] in Merv, Turkmen SSR, USSR (now Mary, Turkmenistan). Her father, Georgy Alikhanov (Armenian name Gevork Alikhanyan), [8] was an Armenian who founded the Soviet Armenian Communist Party,[3] and was a highly placed member of the Comintern; her mother, Ruf (Ruth Bonner), was a Jewish Communist activist. She had a younger brother, Igor, who became a career naval officer. Her family had a summer dacha in Sestroretsk and Bonner had fond memories there.[9]

In 1937, Bonner's father was arrested by the NKVD and executed as part of Stalin's Great Purge; her mother was arrested a few days later as the wife of an enemy of the people, and served ten years in the Gulag[10] near Karaganda, Kazakhstan, followed by nine years of internal exile.[11][12] Bonner's 41-year-old maternal uncle, Matvei Bonner, was also executed during the purge, and his wife internally exiled. All four were exonerated (rehabilitated) following Stalin's death in 1953. In 1941 she volunteered for the Red Army´s Hospital when the Soviet Union was invaded, and she became head nurse.[10] While serving during World War II, Bonner was wounded twice, and in 1946 was honorably discharged as a disabled veteran. In 1947 Bonner was accepted as student in the medical institute in Leningrad.[10] After the war she earned a degree in pediatrics from the First Leningrad Medical Institute, presently First Pavlov State Medical University of St. Peterburg.[13]

Marriage and children

In medical school she met her first husband, Ivan Semyonov. They had a daughter, Tatiana, in 1950,[14] and a son, Alexey, in 1956. Her children emigrated to the United States in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Bonner and Semyonov separated in 1965, and eventually divorced.[15]

In October 1970, while attending the trial of human rights activists Revol't (Ivanovich) Pimenov and Boris Vail in Kaluga, Bonner met Andrei Sakharov, a nuclear physicist and human rights activist; they married in 1972.[3] The year before they met, 1969, Sakharov had been widowed from his wife, Klavdia Alekseyevna Vikhireva, with whom he had two daughters and a son.[16]

Activism

Beginning as early as the 1940s, Bonner had helped political prisoners and their families. Although Bonner had joined the Soviet Communist Party in 1964 while she was working as a physician,[3][17] only a few years later she was becoming active in the Soviet human rights movement. Her resolve towards dissidence was strengthened in August 1968 after Soviet bloc tanks rolled into Czechoslovakia in order to crush the Prague Spring movement. That event strengthened her belief that the system could not be reformed from within.[17]

At the Kaluga trial in 1970, Bonner and Sakharov met Natan Sharansky and began working together to defend Jews sentenced to death for attempting an escape from the USSR in a hijacked plane.[4] Under pressure from Sakharov, the Soviet regime permitted Yelena Bonner to travel to the West in 1975, 1977 and 1979 for treatment of her wartime eye injury. When Sakharov, awarded the 1975 Nobel Peace Prize, was barred from travel by the Soviet authorities, Bonner, in Italy for treatment, represented him at the ceremony in Oslo.[3]

Bonner became a founding member of the Moscow Helsinki Group in 1976.[13] When in January 1980 Sakharov was exiled to Gorky, a city closed to foreigners, the harassed and publicly denounced Bonner became his lifeline, traveling between Gorky and Moscow to bring out his writings. Her arrest in April 1984 for "anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda" and sentence to five years of exile in Gorky disrupted their lives again.[3] Sakharov's several long and painful hunger strikes forced the new Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev to let her travel to the U.S. in 1985 for sextuple bypass heart surgery. Prior to that, in 1981, Bonner and Sakharov went on a dangerous but ultimately successful hunger strike to get Soviet officials to allow their daughter-in-law, Yelizaveta Konstantinovna ("Lisa") Alexeyeva, an exit visa to join her husband, Bonner's son Alexei Semyonov, in the United States.[3]

In December 1986, Gorbachev allowed Sakharov and Bonner to return to Moscow.[13] Following Sakharov's death on 14 December 1989, she established the Andrei Sakharov Foundation, and the Sakharov Archives in Moscow. In 1993, she donated Sakharov papers in the West to Brandeis University in the U.S.; in 2004 they were turned over to Harvard University. Bonner remained outspoken on democracy and human rights in Russia and worldwide. She joined the defenders of the Russian parliament during the August Coup and supported Boris Yeltsin during the constitutional crisis in early 1993.[18]

In 1994, outraged by what she called "genocide of the Chechen people", Bonner resigned from Yeltsin's Human Rights Commission and was an outspoken opponent to Russian armed involvement in Chechnya and critical of the Kremlin for allegedly returning to KGB-style authoritarianism under Vladimir Putin. She was also critical of the international "quartet" two-state solution to the Israel-Palestinian conflict and has expressed fears about the rise of anti-semitism in Europe.[19] In 1999, Yelena Bonner received the Truman-Reagan Medal of Freedom.[20]

Bonner was among the 34 first signatories of the online anti-Putin manifesto "Putin must go", published 10 March 2010. Her signature was the first.[21]

Last years and death

From 2006, Bonner divided her time between Moscow and the United States, home to her two children, five grandchildren, one great-granddaughter, and one great-grandson.[3] She died on 18 June 2011 of heart failure in Boston, Massachusetts, aged 88, according to her daughter, Tatiana Yankelevich.[2][3] She had been hospitalized since 21 February.[3]

Works and awards

Bonner was the author of Alone Together (Knopf 1987),[22] and Mothers and Daughters (Knopf 1992),[23] and wrote frequently on Russia and human rights. She was a recipient of many international human rights awards, including the Rafto Prize in 1991,[24] the European Parliament's Robert Schuman Medal in 2001,[25] the awards of International Humanist and Ethical Union,[26] the World Women's Alliance, the Adelaida Ristori Foundation, the U.S. National Endowment for Democracy,[27] the Lithuanian Commemorative Medal of 13 January,[13] the Czech Republic Order of Tomá? Garrigue Masaryk, and others.

She was also awarded the Giuseppe Motta Medal in 2004 for protection of human rights.[28]

In 2005 Bonner participated in "They Chose Freedom", a four-part television documentary on the history of the Soviet dissident movement. Bonner was on the Board of Advancing Human Rights (NGO).[29]

Depiction in media

Bonner was portrayed by Glenda Jackson in the 1984 film Sakharov.

References

  1. ^ The Sunday Times Magazine, The Sunday Times, 18 December 2011, page 64
  2. ^ a b Sakharov's widow Yelena Bonner dies at 88 in U.S. - media Archived 21 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, RIA Novosti, 19 June 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Stanley, Alessandra. Schwirtz, Michael (19 June 2011). "Yelena Bonner, Russian Rights Activist, Dies at 88". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 June 2011. Retrieved 2012.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  4. ^ a b Beckerman, Gal (22 June 2011). "Remembering Yelena Bonner - Natan Sharansky Reminisces About His Ally and Friend". The Jewish Daily Forward (issue of 1 July 2011). Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 2011. [...] Bonner suggested that, in addition to Sakharov's assessment of the Soviet Union and the state of the dissident movement, they provide the new president with a list of political prisoners. By memory, she then wrote out the names of the 16 most difficult cases.
  5. ^ Schmemann, Serge (19 June 2011). "Elena Georgievna Bonner, A True Human Rights Activist for 40 Years". "The New York Times". Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 2012.
  6. ^ Bonner, Elena (1992). Description of Bonner found in Antonina W. Bouis, 'Translator's Introduction' in Bonner's memoir Mothers and Daughters (2nd ed.). New York: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-679-74335-4.
  7. ^ Yelena Bonner biography Archived 6 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine (In Russian)
  8. ^ Official site of Moscow Helsinki Group Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine(In Russian)
  9. ^ "Yelena Bonner". The Economist. 23 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  10. ^ a b c Montgomery, Isobel (19 June 2011). "Yelena Bonner obituary". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ Adler, Nanci (2002). The Gulag Survivor: Beyond the Soviet System. New Brunswick. p. 212.
  12. ^ Reuters (27 December 1987). "Ruth Bonner, Stalin Purge Victim". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d "Elena Bonner". The Independent Institute. Retrieved 2019.
  14. ^ Figes, Orlando. The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin´s Russia.
  15. ^ "Bonner a Human Rights 'Heroine,' but Soviets See a Modern Mata Hari". Los Angeles Times. 27 April 1986. Retrieved 2019.
  16. ^ Drell, Sidney D., and Sergei P. Kapitsa (eds.), Sakharov Remembered, pgs. 3, 92. New York: Springer, 1991.
  17. ^ a b Adler, Nanci (2004). The Gulag survivor: beyond the Soviet system. Transaction Publishers. p. 212. ISBN 978-0765805850.
  18. ^ "Jewish Ideas Daily » Daily Features » One Woman Army". www.jewishideasdaily.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 2018.
  19. ^ "On Israel and The World" Archived 24 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Address by Bonner at the Freedom Forum in Oslo.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "Russian Dissident Yelena Bonner Dies". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ Bonner, Elena (1987). ALONE TOGETHER Story of Elena Bonner and Andrei Sakharov's Internal Exile in the Soviet Union (First Paperback ed.). New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-394-75538-0.
  23. ^ "A Personal Take on Soviet History : MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS, by Elena Bonner, translated by Antonina W. Bouis, Alfred A. Knopf, $23; 349 pages". Los Angeles Times. 11 February 1992. Retrieved 2019.
  24. ^ "Yelena Bonner". The Rafto Foundation. Retrieved 2019.
  25. ^ "Elena Bonner-Sakharov receives the Robert Schuman Medal". Multimedia Centre (in German). Retrieved 2019.
  26. ^ "Elena Bonner". The Independent Institute. Retrieved 2019.
  27. ^ "News and Notes". Journal of Democracy. Retrieved 2019.
  28. ^ http://motta.gidd.eu.org/#!medal-winners-2004/cqa4 Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Giuseppe Motta Medal Website
  29. ^ Robert Bernstein "Why We Need A New Human Rights Organization", 24 February 2011. Archived 7 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine

Books, articles and interviews

Books
  • Bonner, Elena (1988) [1986]. Alone together (3 ed.). New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0394755380.
  • Bonner, Elena (1986). Un exil partagé [A shared exile] (in French). Paris: Seuil. ISBN 978-2020093941.
  • Bonner, Elena (1986). Soli insieme in esilio con Andrej Sacharov [Alone together in exile with Andrei Sakharov] (in Italian). Alessandria: Garzanti-Vallardi.
  • Bonn?r, Elena (1987). ? [Alone together] (in Hebrew). ?.
  • Bonner, Jelena (1998) [1991]. In Einsamkeit vereint. Meine Jahre mit Andrej Sacharow in der Verbannung [Alone together. My years with Andrei Sakharov in exile] (in German) (2 ed.). München, Zürich: Piper. ISBN 978-3492115223.
  • Bonner, Jelena (1993) [1992]. Mütter und Töchter - Erinnerungen an meine Jugend 1923 bis 1945 [Mothers and daughters - memories of my youth 1923-1945] (in German) (2 ed.). München, Zürich: Piper. ISBN 978-3492034401.
  • , (1990). . ? [Postscript: A book about the Gorky exile] (in Russian). Moscow: .
  • Bonner, Elena (1991). ?... [The bell tolls... A year without Andrei Sakharov] (in Russian). Moscow: .
  • Bonner, Elena (1992). Mothers and daughters. Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0091749118.
  • Bonner, Elena (1994). - [Mothers and daughters] (in Russian). Moscow?, .
  • Bonner, Elena (1996). ? ? ? [Free notes to the ancestry of Andrei Sakharov] (in Russian). Moscow? . ISBN 978-5771200170.
  • Cox, Caroline; Eibner, John; Bonn?r, Elena (1993). Ethnic cleansing in progress: war in Nagorno Karabakh. Institute for Religious Minorities in the Islamic World. ISBN 978-3952034521.
  • Bonner, Elena (2003). Madri e figlie [Mothers and daughters] (in Italian). Spirali. ISBN 978-8877706331.
  • Glucksmann, André; Bonner, Elena (2013). ? ?. ? ? [Protecting freedom. Dialogues by André Glucksmann to Elena Bonner] (in Ukrainian). Kiev: ? . ISBN 9789663783130.
Articles & interviews

Further reading

External links


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