Eight Principles of Yong
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Eight Principles of Yong
The character ?, y?ng, "forever", "permanence"
Stroke order animated (left)
and in color gradation from black to red (right)
Yong's skeleton.png
The strokes numbered
Where there are multiple numbers in an area, the strokes
overlap briefly and continue from the previous number to the next.
The eight strokes
The strokes together, and separated
Sequence numbers and stroke directions in red
Eight Principles of Yong

The Eight Principles of Yong (Chinese: ?; pinyin: Y?ngzì B? F?; Japanese: ?/?, eiji happ?; Korean: ?/?, Yeongjapalbeop) explain how to write eight common strokes in regular script which are found all in the one character, ? (pinyin: y?ng, "forever", "permanence"). It was traditionally believed that the frequent practice of these principles as a beginning calligrapher could ensure beauty in one's writing.

The Eight Principles are influenced by the earlier Seven Powers () by Lady Wei Shuo () of Eastern Jin. Publications on the Principles include:

Table of naming usages

List of Y?ngzì principles (by stroke order)
Stroke Name[]
(pinyin, trad./simp.)
CJK stroke name L?'s name Additional description
1 D black.png , (?/?) "Sideway" Di?n, (?/?) "Dot" Guài Shí, () "Strange stone" Tiny dash, speck.
2 H black.png , (?) "Bridle" Héng, (?) "Horizontal" Yù Àn, () "Jade table" Rightward stroke.
3 S black.png N?, (?), "Crossbow";
N?, (?) "Strive"
Shù, (?) "Erect";
Ti?ch?, (/) "Iron staff"[]
Ti?zhù, (/) "Iron pillar" Downward stroke.
4 G black.png , (?) "Jump" G?u, (?) "Hook" Xièzhu?, () "Pincer of a crab" Appended to other strokes, suddenly going down or going left only.
5 T black.png , (?) "Horsewhip" , (?) "Raise";
Ti?o, (?) "Lifting off"[]
H?yá, () "Tiger's tooth" Flick up and rightwards.
6 W black.png Lüè, (?) "Passing lightly" W?n, (?/?) "Bend, curve" X?ji?o, () "Horn of rhinoceros" A tapering thinning curve, usually concave left (convex outward right) and with fast speed as if skimming.
7 P black.png Zhuó, (?) "Pecking" Pi?, (?) "Throw away, slant";
Du?n Pi? () "Short slant"[]
Ni?o Zhuó, ()/() "Bird pecking" Falling leftwards (with slight curve).
8 N black.png Zhé, (?) "Dismemberment" , (?) "Pressing forcefully";
P?, (?) "Wave"[]
J?nd?o, () "Golden dao (knife)" Falling rightwards (fattening at the bottom), where the end point is "as sharp as a knife" (hence the name "Dismemberment").

Note: XG-black.png - Xié ? is sometimes added to the ?'s strokes. It is a concave Shù falling right, always ended by a G?u, visible on this image.

CJK strokes

In addition to these eight common strokes in ?, there are at least two dozen strokes of combinations which enter in the composition of CJK strokes and by inclusion the CJK characters themselves.

See also


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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