E-sharp Minor
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E-sharp Minor
F minor
A-flat-major f-minor.svg
Relative key A major
Parallel key F major
Dominant key C minor
Subdominant B minor
Component pitches
F, G, A, B, C, D, E

F minor is a minor scale based on F, consisting of the pitches F, G, A, B, C, D, and E. Its key signature consists of four flats. Its relative major is A major and its parallel major is F major.

The F natural minor scale is:

\relative c' { 
  \clef treble \key f \minor \time 7/4 \hide Staff.TimeSignature f4^\markup "F natural minor scale" g aes bes c des es f es des c bes aes g2
}

Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary. The F harmonic minor and melodic minor scales are:

\relative c' { 
  \clef treble \key f \minor \time 7/4 \hide Staff.TimeSignature f4^\markup "F harmonic minor scale" g aes bes c des e f e des c bes aes g2
}
\relative c' { 
  \clef treble \key f \minor \time 7/4 \hide Staff.TimeSignature f4^\markup "F melodic minor scale (ascending and descending)" g aes bes c d e f es! des! c bes aes g2
}

Music in F minor

Three famous pieces in the key of F minor are Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata, Chopin's Piano Concerto No. 2 and Haydn's Symphony No. 49, La Passione.

Glenn Gould once said if he could be any key, he would be F minor, because "it's rather dour, halfway between complex and stable, between upright and lascivious, between gray and highly tinted... There is a certain obliqueness."[1]

Helmholtz once described F minor as harrowing and melancholy. Schubart described this key as "Deep depression, funereal lament, groans of misery and longing for the grave".[]

Notable compositions

E minor

E minor
G-sharp-major e-sharp-minor.png
Relative key G major (A major)
Parallel key E major (F major)
Dominant key B minor (C minor)
Subdominant A minor (B minor)
Enharmonic F minor
Component pitches
E, Fdouble sharp, G, A, B, C, D

E minor is a theoretical key based on the musical note E and consisting of the pitches E, Fdouble sharp, G, A, B, C and D. Its key signature has six sharps and one double sharp (or eight sharps).

The E natural minor scale is:

\relative c' { 
  \clef treble \key eis \minor \time 7/4 \hide Staff.TimeSignature eis4^\markup "Natural minor scale" fisis gis ais bis cis dis eis dis cis bis ais gis fisis eis2
}

Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary. The E harmonic minor and melodic minor scales are:

\relative c' { 
  \clef treble \key eis \minor \time 7/4 \hide Staff.TimeSignature eis4^\markup "Harmonic minor scale" fisis gis ais bis cis disis eis disis cis bis ais gis fisis eis2
}
\relative c' { 
  \clef treble \key eis \minor \time 7/4 \hide Staff.TimeSignature eis4^\markup "Melodic minor scale (ascending and descending)" fisis gis ais bis cisis disis eis dis! cis! bis ais gis fisis eis2
}

Its relative major is G? major, which is usually replaced by A major. Its parallel major, E? major, is usually replaced by F major, due to the presence of 4 double-sharps in the E? major scale causing it to be one of the more impractical key signatures in music to use. Although E? minor is usually notated as F minor, it could be used on a local level, such as a brief passage in Johann Sebastian Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1, Prelude and Fugue No. 3 in C major. (E minor is the mediant minor key of C major.)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Cathering Meng, Tonight's the Night (Apostrophe Books, 2007): 21

External links

  • Media related to F minor at Wikimedia Commons

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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