Dz (digraph)
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Dz Digraph

Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, consisting of the consonants D and Z. It may represent , , or /z/, depending on the language.

Usage by language

Dz generally represents in Latin alphabets, including Hungarian, Kashubian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, and Slovak. However, in Dene Suline (Chipewyan) and Cantonese Pinyin it represents , and in Vietnamese it is a pronunciation respelling of the letter D to represent /z/.[1]

Esperanto

Some Esperanto grammars, notably Plena Analiza Gramatiko de Esperanto,[2] consider dz to be a digraph for the voiced affricate , as in "edzo" "husband". The case for this is "rather weak".[3] Most Esperantists, including Esperantist linguists (Janton,[4] Wells[5]), reject it.

Hungarian

⟨Dz⟩ is the seventh letter of the Hungarian alphabet. It is called dzé (IPA: [d?ze:]) as a letter of the alphabet, where it represents the voiced alveolar affricate phoneme .

?Dz? and ?dzs? were recognized as individual letters in the 11th edition of Hungarian orthography (1984).[6] Prior to that, they were analyzed as two-letter combinations ?d?+?z? and ?d?+?zs?.

Length

Like most Hungarian consonants, the sound /dz/ can be geminated. However, the letter is only doubled in writing (to ⟨ddz⟩) when an assimilated suffix is added to the stem: eddze, lopóddzon.

In several words, it is pronounced long, e.g.

  • bodza, madzag, edz, pedz

In some other ones, short, e.g.

  • brindza, dzadzíki, dzéta, Dzerzsinszkij

In several verbs ending in -dzik (approximately fifty), it can be pronounced either short or long, e.g.

  • csókolódzik, lopódzik, takaródzik

Alternation

In some verbs ⟨dz⟩ can be replaced by ⟨z⟩: csókolózik, lopózik, takarózik, in free variation. In other verbs, there is no variation: birkózik, mérk?zik (only with ⟨z⟩) but leledzik, nyáladzik (only with ⟨dz⟩, pronounced long). In some other verbs, there is a difference in meaning: levelez(ik) "to correspond", but leveledzik "to produce leaves".

Collation

Usage of this letter is similar to that of Polish and Slovak languages: though ⟨dz⟩ is a digraph composed of ⟨d⟩ and ⟨z⟩, it is considered one letter, and even acronyms keep the letter intact.

Polish

dz generally represents . However, when followed by i it is palatalized to .

Examples of dz

About this sounddzwon  (bell)
About this soundrodzaj  (kind, type)

Compare dz followed by i:
About this sounddziecko  (child)
About this sounddziewczyna  (girl, girlfriend)

Slovak

In Slovak, the digraph dz is the ninth letter of the Slovak alphabet. Example words with this phoneme include:

  • medzi = between, among
  • hrádza = dam, dike

The digraph may never be divided by hyphenation:

  • medzi -> me-dzi
  • hrádza -> hrá-dza

However, when d and z come from different morphemes, they are treated as separate letters, and must be divided by hyphenation:

  • odzemok = type of folk dance -> od-ze-mok
  • nadzvukový = supersonic -> nad-zvu-ko-vý

In both cases od- (from) and nad- (above) are a prefix to the stems zem (earth) and zvuk (sound).

Vietnamese

California State Route 39 in Little Saigon, Orange County, is named after Vietnamese-American singer-songwriter Vi?t Dz?ng, born Nguy?n Ng?c Hùng D?ng.

Dz is sometimes used in Vietnamese names as a pronunciation respelling of the letter D. Several common Vietnamese given names start with the letter D, including D?ng, D?ng, and Dng. Whereas D is pronounced as some sort of dental or alveolar stop in most Latin alphabets, an unadorned D in the Vietnamese alphabet represents either /z/ (Hanoian) or /j/ (Saigonese), while the letter ? represents a voiced alveolar implosive (/?/) or, according to Thompson (1959), a preglottalized voiced alveolar stop (/?d/).[7]Z is not included in the Vietnamese alphabet as a letter in its own right.

Many Vietnamese cultural figures spell their family names, pen names, or stage names with Dz instead of D, emphasizing the Hanoian pronunciation. Examples include the songwriter Dzoãn M?n, the poet H? Dz?nh, and the television chef Nguy?n Dzoãn C?m Vân.[8] Other examples include Bùi Dzinh and Trng ?ình Dzu.

Some Overseas Vietnamese residing in English-speaking countries also replace D with Dz in their names. A male named D?ng may spell his name Dzung to avoid being called "dung" in social contexts.[1] Examples of this usage include Vietnamese-Americans Vi?t Dz?ng and Dzung Tran. (Occasionally, D is instead replaced by Y to emphasize the Saigonese pronunciation, as with Yung Krall.[9])

Unicode

DZ is represented in Unicode as three separate glyphs within the Latin Extended-B block. It is one of the rare characters that has separate glyphs for each of its uppercase, title case, and lowercase forms.

Code Glyph Decimal Description
U+01F1
DZ
DZ Latin Capital Letter DZ
U+01F2
Dz
Dz Latin Capital Letter D with Small Letter Z
U+01F3
dz
dz Latin Small Letter DZ

The single-character versions are designed for compatibility with Yugoslav encodings supporting Romanization of Macedonian, where this digraph corresponds to the Cyrillic letter ?.

Variants

Additional variants of the Dz digraph are also encoded in Unicode.

  • ?, ? and ? (Dz with a caron over z), a digraph used in the Croatian, Bosnian, and Slovak alphabets as a letter in its own right, are encoded at U+01C4, U+01C5 and U+01C6 respectively.
  • ?, a ligature of lowercase dz, historically used to represent the Voiced alveolar affricate in the International Phonetic Alphabet, is encoded at U+02A3.
  • ?, a ligature of lowercase dz with a curl on the z, historically used to represent the Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate in the IPA, is encoded at U+02A5.
  • ?, a ligature of lowercase dz with retroflex hook, used in Sinological and Tibetanist transcription for a voiced retroflex affricate, is encoded at U+AB66.[10]
  • ? (dezh), a ligature of lowercase d and ezh (a z with a tail), is encoded at U+02A4.

References

  1. ^ a b Nguyên Nguyên (May 2004). "T? ch? Nôm n qu?c ng?: Dzng Quí Phi và C?m Gà H?i Nam" [From ch? Nôm to the Vietnamese alphabet: Dzng Quí Phi and Hainanese chicken rice] (in Vietnamese). Ái H?u Công Chánh. Retrieved 2015.
  2. ^ Kalocsay & Waringhien (1985) Plena analiza gramatiko de Esperanto, §17, 22
  3. ^ van Oostendorp, Marc (1999). Syllable structure in Esperanto as an instantiation of universal phonology. Esperantologio / Esperanto Studies 1, 52 80. p. 68
  4. ^ Pierre Janton, Esperanto: Language, Literature, and Community. Translated by Humphrey Tonkin et al. State University of New York Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7914-1254-7.
  5. ^ J. C. Wells, Lingvistikaj Aspektoj de Esperanto, Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1978. ISBN 92 9017 021 2.
  6. ^ http://real-j.mtak.hu/6065/1/MagyarNyelvor_1984.pdf p. 399
  7. ^ Thompson, Laurence (1959). "Saigon phonemics". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 35 (3): 458-461. doi:10.2307/411232. JSTOR 411232.
  8. ^ "Thói quen t tên có ch? "Dz" c?a ngi x?a là do ?âu?" [Where did the old practice of putting "Dz" in names come from?]. Trí Th?c Tr? (in Vietnamese). December 2, 2015. Retrieved 2015 – via Kenh14.vn.
  9. ^ Minh Anh (February 20, 2011). "Câu chuy?n v? gia ?ình n? c?u ?i?p viên CIA g?c Vi?t" [The story of the family of a Vietnamese former CIA spy]. Voice of America (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2015.
  10. ^ Everson, Michael (2017-08-17). "L2/17-299: Proposal to add two Sinological Latin letters" (PDF).

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Dz_(digraph)
 



 



 
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