Dynasty
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Dynasty

Charles I of England and his son, the future James II of England, from the House of Stuart.
The Qing dynasty was the final imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1636 to 1912.
The Topkap? Palace served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the sultans of the Ottoman dynasty.

A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to .

The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members.

Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt (3100-30 BC) and Imperial China (221 BC-AD 1912), using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, and also to describe events, trends and artifacts of that period (for example, "a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references (id est, "a Ming vase").

Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.[3]

Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter usually established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house. This has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant. The earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance. Less frequently, a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic (or polydynastic) system - that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession.

Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties; modern examples are the Vatican City State, the Principality of Andorra, and the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta. Throughout history, there were monarchs that did not belong to any dynasty; non-dynastic rulers include King Arioald of the Lombards and Emperor Phocas of the Byzantine Empire. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; two modern examples are the monarchies of Malaysia and the royal families of the United Arab Emirates.

The word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is also extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team.[1]

Etymology

The word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia (), where it referred to "power", "dominion", and "rule" itself.[4] It was the abstract noun of dynást?s (),[5] the agent noun of dynamis (?), "power" or "ability",[6] from dýnamai (?), "to be able".[7]

Dynasts

A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is also used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne. For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication.

In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Even since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position.

The term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, and sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown; in that sense, he is a British dynast, but since he is not a patrilineal member of the British royal family, he is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor.

On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles (although he is entitled to reclaim the former royal dukedom of Cumberland). He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015.[8] Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who marry Roman Catholics are considered "dead" for the purpose of succession to the British throne.[9] That exclusion, too, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Roman Catholic.[8]

A "dynastic marriage" is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, so that the descendants are eligible to inherit the throne or other royal privileges. The marriage of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands to Queen Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child Princess Catharina-Amalia is expected to inherit the Crown of the Netherlands eventually. However, the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau to Princess Mabel of Orange-Nassau in 2003 lacked governmental support and parliamentary approval. Thus, Prince Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession to the Dutch throne, lost his title as a "Prince of the Netherlands", and left his children without dynastic rights.

Gallery

List of dynasties and dynastic regimes by region

Some dynasties appear more than once in this list, because:

Africa

Central African Republic

Chad

Congo

Egypt

Eswatini (Swaziland)

Ethiopia

Guinea

Lesotho

  • House of Moshesh (1822-present)

Madagascar

Morocco

Nigeria

Senegambia

Somalia

South Africa

Sudan

Asia

Afghanistan

Armenia

Bahrain

Bhutan

Brunei

Cambodia

Central Asia

Champa

  • 1st dynasty (192-336)
  • 2nd dynasty (336-420)
  • 3rd dynasty (420-529)
  • 4th dynasty (529-758)
  • 5th dynasty (758-854)
  • 6th dynasty (854-989)
  • 7th dynasty (989-1044)
  • 8th dynasty (1044-1074)
  • 9th dynasty (1074-1139)
  • 10th dynasty (1139-1145)
  • 11th dynasty (1145-1190)
  • 12th dynasty (1190-1318)
  • 13th dynasty (1318-1390)
  • 14th dynasty (1390-1458)
  • 15th dynasty (1458-1471)
  • vacant (1471-1695)
  • Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih (1695-1822)

China

  • Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (?( ? `)) (2852-2070 BC) - Mythical
  • Yu dynasty (()) - Legendary
  • Xia dynasty ((` )) (2070-1600 BC) - Semi-legendary; Ruled by the House of Si (?) of Huaxia descent
  • Shang dynasty (()) (1600-1046 BC) - Ruled by the House of Zi (?) of Huaxia descent
  • Zhou dynasty (()) (1046-256 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Huaxia descent
  • Spring and Autumn period (?( `)/?) (771-476 BC)
    • Total of 148 dynastic states were recorded during the Spring and Autumn period (See list)
  • Warring States period (?(` ? `)/?) (475-221 BC)
    • Yue (?(`)) (2032-334 BC) - Ruled by the House of Si (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Ba (?()) (1122-316 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Song (?(`)) (1114-286 BC) - Ruled by the House of Zi (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Cai (?(`)) (1046-447 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Teng (?()) (1046-297 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Qi (?()/?) (1046-221 BC)
    • Shu (?()) (1045-316 BC)
    • Yan (?()) (1044-222 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Lu (?()/?) (1042-249 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Wei (?(`)/?) (1040-209 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Chu (?()) (1030-223 BC) - Ruled by the House of Mi (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Qin (?(?)) (897-207 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ying (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Zheng (?(`)/?) (806-375 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Yiqu ((?` )/) (720-272 BC)
    • Zhongshan (()) (414-296 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Beidi descent
    • Han (?()/?) (403-230 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Wei (?(`)) (403-225 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ji (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Zhao (?(`)/?) (403-222 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ying (?) of Huaxia descent
    • Dai (?(`)) (228-222 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ying (?)
  • Minyue ((? `)/) (334-111 BC) - Ruled by the House of Zou (?/?)
  • Dian Kingdom (( ?)/) (278-109 BC)
  • Qin dynasty ((? )) (221-206 BC) - Ruled by the House of Ying (?) of Huaxia descent
  • Xiongnu confederation (()) (209 BC-AD 48) - Ruled by the House of Luandi (/) of Xiongnu descent
  • Eighteen Kingdoms (( ?)/) (206 BC)
  • Western Chu (()) (206-202 BC) - Ruled by the House of Xiang (?/?) of Huaxia descent
  • Nanyue (( `)) (204-111 BC) - Ruled by the House of Zhao (?/?) of Huaxia descent
  • Han dynasty ((` )/) (202 BC-AD 9, AD 23-220) - Ruled by the House of Liu (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Yelang ((` )) (3rd century-27 BC)
  • Shule Kingdom (( `)) (200 BC-AD 790)
  • Dong'ou (( ?)/) (191-138 BC) - Ruled by the House of Zou (?/?)
  • Loulan Kingdom (()/) (176-77 BC)
  • Gouding (()) (111 BC-AD 316)
  • Kucha (()/) (72 BC-AD 788)
  • Jushi Kingdom (( ?)/) (71 BC-AD 508)
  • Goguryeo (()/) (37 BC-AD 668) - Ruled by the House of Go (?) of Yemaek descent
  • Xin dynasty (()) (AD 9-23) - Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Chengjia (()) (AD 25-36) - Ruled by the House of Gongsun (/) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Khotan (( ?)/) (AD 56-1006) - Ruled by the House of Yuchi (/) of Saka descent
  • Zhongjia ((` )) (AD 197-199) - Ruled by the House of Yuan (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Three Kingdoms (( ?)/) (AD 220-280)
    • Cao Wei (( `)) (AD 220-266) - Ruled by the House of Cao (?) of Han Chinese descent
    • Shu Han (( `)/) (AD 221-263) - Ruled by the House of Liu (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
    • Eastern Wu (()/) (AD 222-280) - Ruled by the House of Sun (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Jin dynasty ((` )/) (AD 266-316, AD 317-420) - Ruled by the House of Sima (/) of Han Chinese descent
    • Western Jin (( `)/) (AD 266-316)
    • Eastern Jin (( `)/) (AD 317-420)
  • Tuyuhun (( ?` ?)/) (AD 284-670) - Ruled by the House of Murong () of Xianbei descent
  • Chouchi (()) (AD 296-371, AD 385-442, AD 443-477, AD 478-580) - Ruled by the House of Yang (?/?) of Di descent
    • Former Chouchi ((? )) (AD 296-371)
    • Later Chouchi ((` )/) (AD 385-442)
    • Wudu Kingdom (( ?)/) (AD 443-477)
    • Wuxing Kingdom (( ?)/) (AD 478-506, AD 529-553)
    • Yinping Kingdom (( ? ?)/) (AD 479-580)
  • Sixteen Kingdoms (( ` ?)/) (AD 304-439)
    • Han Zhao ((` `)/) (AD 304-329) - Ruled by the House of Liu (?/?) of Xiongnu descent
      • Northern Han (( `)/) (AD 304-319)
      • Former Zhao ((? `)/) (AD 319-329)
    • Cheng Han (( `)/) (AD 304-347) - Ruled by the House of Li (?) of Di descent
      • Cheng (?()) (AD 304-338)
      • Han (?(`)/?) (AD 338-347)
    • Later Zhao ((` `)/) (AD 319-351) - Ruled by the House of Shi (?) of Jie descent
    • Former Liang ((? ?)/) (AD 320-376) - Ruled by the House of Zhang (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
    • Former Yan ((? )) (AD 337-370) - Ruled by the House of Murong () of Xianbei descent
    • Former Qin ((? ?)) (AD 351-394) - Ruled by the House of Fu (?) of Di descent
    • Later Yan ((` )/) (AD 384-409) - Ruled by the House of Murong () of Xianbei descent
    • Later Qin ((` ?)/) (AD 384-417) - Ruled by the House of Yao (?) of Qiang descent
    • Western Qin (( ?)) (AD 385-400, AD 409-431) - Ruled by the House of Qifu () of Xianbei descent
    • Later Liang ((` ?)/) (AD 386-403) - Ruled by the House of Lü (?/?) of Di descent
    • Southern Liang (( ?)/) (AD 397-414) - Ruled by the House of Tufa (/) of Xianbei descent
    • Northern Liang (( ?)/) (AD 397-439) - Ruled by the House of Juqu () of Xiongnu descent
      • Northern Liang of Gaochang (?( ?)/?) (AD 443-460)
    • Southern Yan (()) (AD 398-410) - Ruled by the House of Murong () of Xianbei descent
    • Western Liang (( ?)/) (AD 400-421) - Ruled by the House of Li (?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Later Western Liang ((` ?)/) (AD 422-442)
    • Xia (?(`)) (AD 407-431) - Ruled by the House of Helian (/) of Xiongnu descent
    • Northern Yan (()) (AD 407-436) - Ruled by the House of Feng (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dai (?(`)) (AD 310-376) - Ruled by the House of Tuoba () of Xianbei descent
  • Rouran Khaganate (()) (AD 330-555) - Ruled by the House of Yujiulü (/)
  • Ran Wei (( `)) (AD 350-352) - Ruled by the House of Ran (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Duan Qi ((` )/) (AD 350-356) - Ruled by the House of Duan (?) of Xianbei descent
  • Western Yan (()) (AD 384-394) - Ruled by the House of Murong () of Xianbei descent
  • Zhai Wei (( `)) (AD 388-392) - Ruled by the House of Zhai (?) of Dingling descent
  • Huan Chu ((? )) (AD 401-404) - Ruled by the House of Huan (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Western Shu (()) (AD 405-413) - Ruled by the House of Qiao (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Northern and Southern dynasties (()) (AD 420-589)
    • Northern dynasties (())
      • Northern Wei (( `)) (AD 386-535) - Ruled by the House of Tuoba () of Xianbei descent
      • Northern Qi (()/) (AD 550-577) - Ruled by the House of Gao (?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Northern Zhou (()) (AD 557-581) - Ruled by the House of Yuwen () of Xianbei descent
    • Southern dynasties (())
      • Liu Song ((? `)/) (AD 420-479) - Ruled by the House of Liu (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Southern Qi (()/) (AD 479-502) - Ruled by the House of Xiao (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Liang dynasty ((? )) (AD 502-557) - Ruled by the House of Xiao (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Chen dynasty (()/) (AD 557-589) - Ruled by the House of Chen (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Hou Han (( `)/) (AD 551-552) - Ruled by the House of Hou (?) of Jie descent
  • Turkic Khaganate (?( ? ?)/?) (AD 552-630) - Ruled by the House of Ashina () of Göktürk descent
  • Mong Mao (()) (AD 560-1604) - Ruled by the House of Si (?) of Dai descent
  • Sui dynasty ((? )) (AD 581-618) - Ruled by the House of Yang (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Xueyantuo (( ?)) (AD 605-646)
  • Xia (?(`)) (AD 617-621) - Ruled by the House of Dou (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liang (?(?)) (AD 617-628) - Ruled by the House of Liang (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liang (?(?)/?) (AD 618-619) - Ruled by the House of Li (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Xu (?()/?) (AD 618-619) - Ruled by the House of Yuwen () of Xianbei descent
  • Tang dynasty (()) (AD 618-690, AD 705-907) - Ruled by the House of Li (?) of Han Chinese descent
    • Wu Zhou (()) (AD 690-705) - Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zheng (?(`)/?) (AD 619-621) - Ruled by the House of Wang (?)
  • Balhae (()) (AD 698-926) - Ruled by the House of Dae (?) of Mohe descent
  • Nanzhao (( `)/) (AD 738-902) - Ruled by the House of Meng (?) of Bai descent
    • Dali ((` )/) (AD 859-877)
    • Dafengmin ((` ?)) (AD 878-902)
  • Uyghur Khaganate (?(? ?)/?) (AD 744-840) - Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (/) of Uyghur descent and the House of Ediz () of Tiele descent
  • Yan (?()) (AD 756-763)
    • Former Yan ((? )) (AD 756-759) - Ruled by the House of An (?) of Sogdian descent
    • Later Yan ((` )/) (AD 759-763) - Ruled by the House of Shi (?) of Göktürk descent
  • Chu (?()) (AD 784-786) - Ruled by the House of Li (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Qocho (?( ? )/?) (AD 843-1370)
  • Qi (?()/?) (AD 881-884) - Ruled by the House of Huang (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom (?( ? )/?) (AD 894-1036) - Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (/) of Uyghur descent
  • Dachanghe ((` )/) (AD 902-928) - Ruled by the House of Zheng (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Qi (?()) (AD 907-924) - Ruled by the House of Li (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (?( ` ?)/?) (AD 907-960)
    • Five Dynasties (( `))
      • Later Liang ((` ?)/) (AD 907-923) - Ruled by the House of Zhu (?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Later Tang ((` )/) (AD 923-937) - Ruled by the House of Li (?) of Shatuo descent
        • Jin (?(`)/?) (AD 907-923)
      • Later Jin ((` `)/) (AD 936-947) - Ruled by the House of Shi (?) of Shatuo descent
      • Later Han ((` `)/) (AD 947-951) - Ruled by the House of Liu (?/?) of Shatuo descent
      • Later Zhou ((` )/) (AD 951-960) - Ruled by the House of Guo (?) of Han Chinese descent
    • Ten Kingdoms (( ?)/)
      • Former Shu ((? )) (AD 907-925) - Ruled by the House of Wang (?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Yang Wu (()/) (AD 907-937) - Ruled by the House of Yang (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Ma Chu (()/) (AD 907-951) - Ruled by the House of Ma (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Wuyue (( `)/) (AD 907-978) - Ruled by the House of Qian (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Min Kingdom (?(?)/?) (AD 909-945) - Ruled by the House of Wang (?) of Han Chinese descent
        • Yin (?()) (AD 943-945)
      • Southern Han (( `)/) (AD 917-971) - Ruled by the House of Liu (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Jingnan (()) (AD 924-963) - Ruled by the House of Gao (?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Later Shu ((` )/) (AD 934-965) - Ruled by the House of Meng (?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Southern Tang (()) (AD 937-976) - Ruled by the House of Li (?) of Han Chinese descent
      • Northern Han (( `)/) (AD 951-979) - Ruled by the House of Liu (?/?) of Shatuo descent
  • Liao dynasty ((? )/) (AD 907-1125) - Ruled by the House of Yelü () of Khitan descent
    • Northern Liao (( ?)/) (AD 1122-1123)
    • Western Liao (( ?)/) (AD 1124-1218)
    • Eastern Liao (( ?)/) (AD 1213-1269)
    • Later Liao ((` ?)/) (AD 1216-1219)
  • Zhao (?(`)/?) (AD 910-921) - Ruled by the House of Wang (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Yan (?()) (AD 911-914) - Ruled by the House of Liu (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dongdan Kingdom (()/) (AD 926-936) - Ruled by the House of Yelü () of Khitan descent
  • Datianxing ((` )/) (AD 928-929) - Ruled by the House of Zhao (?/?)
  • Dayining ((` ?` ?)/) (AD 929-937) - Ruled by the House of Yang (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dali Kingdom ((` ?)/) (AD 937-1094, AD 1096-1253) - Ruled by the House of Duan (?) of Bai descent
    • Later Dali ((` ` )/) (AD 1096-1253)
  • Jeongan ((` ? ?)/) (AD 938-986)
  • Song dynasty ((` )) (AD 960-1279) - Ruled by the House of Zhao (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Li Shu (()) (AD 994) - Ruled by the House of Li (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Heungyo (( ? ?)/) (AD 1029-1030) - Ruled by the House of Dae (?)
  • Changqi (()/) (AD 1029-1055) - Ruled by the House of Nong (?/?) of Zhuang descent
    • Dali ((` `)/) (AD 1041-1045)
    • Nantian (()) (AD 1045-1052)
    • Danan ((` )) (AD 1052-1055)
  • Western Xia (( `)) (AD 1038-1227) - Ruled by the House of Tuoba () of Tangut descent
  • Dazhong Kingdom ((` ?)/) (AD 1094-1096) - Interrupted the Dali Kingdom; Ruled by the House of Gao (?) of Bai descent
  • Ziqi Kingdom ((?` ?)/) (AD 1100-1259)
  • Jin dynasty (()) (AD 1115-1234) - Ruled by the House of Wanyan (/) of Jurchen descent
  • Xi (?()) (AD 1123) - Ruled by the House of Xi (?) of Kumo Xi descent
  • Chu (?()) (AD 1127) - Ruled by the House of Zhang (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liu Qi ((? )/) (AD 1130-1137) - Ruled by the House of Liu (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Mongol Empire (?( ` ?)/?) (AD 1206-1368) - Ruled by the House of Borjigin (?/?) of Mongol descent
  • Eastern Xia (( `)/) (AD 1215-1233) - Ruled by the House of Puxian (/) of Jurchen descent
  • Tianwan (()) (AD 1351-1360) - Ruled by the House of Xu (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zhou (?()) (AD 1354-1367) - Ruled by the House of Zhang (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Han Song (( `)/) (AD 1355-1366) - Ruled by the House of Han (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Chen Han (( `)/) (AD 1360-1364) - Ruled by the House of Chen (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ming Xia ((? `)) (AD 1362-1371) - Ruled by the House of Ming (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ming dynasty ((? )) (AD 1368-1644) - Ruled by the House of Zhu (?) of Han Chinese descent
    • Western Wu (()/) (AD 1364-1368)
    • Southern Ming (( ?)) (AD 1644-1662)
  • Kara Del (( ` ?)/) (AD 1380-1513)
  • Dzungar Khanate ((? ?)/) (AD 1634-1758) - Ruled by the House of Choros (/) of Oirat descent
  • Qing dynasty (()) (AD 1636-1912, AD 1917) - Ruled by the House of Aisin Gioro (?/?) of Manchu descent
  • Shun dynasty ((` )/) (AD 1644-1645) - Ruled by the House of Li (?) of Tangut descent
  • Xi (?()) (AD 1644-1646) - Ruled by the House of Zhang (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Tungning (?( ? ?)/?) (AD 1661-1683) - Ruled by the House of Zheng (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zhou (()/) (AD 1678-1681) - Ruled by the House of Wu (?/?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Middag (?(` ` ?)/?) (?-AD 1732)
  • Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (?(` ? ?)/?) (AD 1851-1864) - Ruled by the House of Hong (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Pingnan Sultanate ((? ?)/) (AD 1856-1873) - Ruled by the House of Du (?) of Hui descent
  • Empire of China (?( ? ` ?)/?) (AD 1915-1916) - Ruled by the House of Yuan (?) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Tjaquvuquvulj ((` )/) (?-AD 1930)

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Cyprus

Georgia

Indian Subcontinent

Indonesia

Iran (Persia)

Israel

Japan

Jordan

Korea

Kuwait

Laos

Malaysia

The Maldives

Mesopotamia

Mongolia

Myanmar (Burma)

Nepal

Oman

The Philippines

Royal families

Qatar

Ryukyu

Saudi Arabia

Siberia

Singapore

Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

Thailand (Siam)

Tibet

Timor-Leste

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

Vietnam

Yemen

Europe

Albania

Austria

Barbarians

Bavarii
Franks
Huns

This is a list of rulers of the Huns. Period Ruler

  • Vund c. 360
  • Balamber 360-378
  • Baltazár (Alypbi) 378-390
  • Uldin (Khan of the Western Huns) 390-410
  • Donatus (Khan of the Eastern Black Sea Huns & beyond) 410-412
  • Charaton (Aksungur) 412-422
  • Octar[1] 422-432
  • Rugila 432-434
  • Bleda with Attila c. 434 - c. 445
  • Attila "the Hun" c. 434-453
  • Ellac 453 - c. 455
  • Tuldila fl. c. 457
  • Dengizich (Sabirs attack c. 460-463) ?-469 with Hernach/BelkErmak
  • Hernach/BelkErmak[2] 469-503
  • House of Dulo Bulgaria (390-503) A Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans genealogy claims that the Dulo clan is descended from Attila the Hun.
Scirii
Avars
Lombards
Ostrogoths
Suebi
Vandals
Visigoths

Belgium

Medieval feudal states[10]
Kingdom of Belgium

Bohemia/Czechia

Great Moravia
Duchy of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia

Bosnia

Bulgaria

Croatia

Denmark

England

Finland

France

Germany

Bavaria
Saxony

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Liechtenstein

Luxembourg

Malta

Monaco

Montenegro

Netherlands

Norway

Poland

Portugal

County of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal

Roman Empire

Romania

Before the Unification
Moldavia
Wallachia
After the Unification

Russia

Scotland

Serbia

Spain

Before the Unification
Aragon
Asturias
Barcelona
Castile
León
Navarre
After the Unification (1516)

Sweden

Ukraine

Wales

North America

Alaska

Antigua and Barbuda

  • House of Stuart (AD 1632-1649, AD 1660-1714) - Antigua and Barbuda under English rule (AD 1632-1649, AD 1660-1707) and Antigua and Barbuda under British rule (AD 1707-1714)
  • House of Hanover (AD 1714-1901) - Antigua and Barbuda under British rule
  • House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (AD 1901-1917) - Antigua and Barbuda under British rule

The Bahamas

Barbados

Belize

Bermuda

Canada

Cuba

El Salvador

Greenland

Grenada

Haiti

Jamaica

Maya

Mexico

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Conterminous United States

South America

Argentina

Brazil

Chile

Peru

Oceania

Australia

Cook Islands

Fiji

Hawaii

New Zealand

Papua New Guinea

Solomon Islands

Tahiti

Tonga

Tuvalu

Antarctica

List of dynasties currently in power

As of 2019, there are 44 sovereign states with a monarch as head of state, of which 22 are ruled by dynasties.

Political dynasties in republics

Though in elected governments, rule does not pass automatically by inheritance, political power often accrues to generations of related individuals in republics. Eminence, influence, tradition, genetics, and nepotism may contribute to the phenomenon.

Family dictatorships are a different concept in which political power passes within a family because of the overwhelming authority of the leader, rather than informal power accrued to the family.

Some political dynasties in republics:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "house, n.¹ and int, " Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2011.
  3. ^ Thomson, David (1961). "The Institutions of Monarchy". Europe Since Napoleon. New York: Knopf. pp. 79-80. The basic idea of monarchy was the idea that hereditary right gave the best title to political power...The dangers of disputed succession were best avoided by hereditary succession: ruling families had a natural interest in passing on to their descendants enhanced power and prestige...Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, Maria Theresa of Austria, were alike infatuated with the idea of strengthening their power, centralizing government in their own hands as against local and feudal privileges, and so acquiring more absolute authority in the state. Moreover, the very dynastic rivalries and conflicts between these eighteenth-century monarchs drove them to look for ever more efficient methods of government
  4. ^ Liddell, Henry George & al. A Greek-English Lexicon: "". Hosted by Tufts University's Perseus Project.
  5. ^ Liddell & al. A Greek-English Lexicon: "".
  6. ^ Liddell & al. A Greek-English Lexicon: "?".
  7. ^ Liddell & al. "?".
  8. ^ a b Statement by Nick Clegg MP, UK parliament website, 26 March 2015 (retrieved on same date).
  9. ^ "Monaco royal taken seriously ill". BBC News. London. 8 April 2005. Retrieved 2013.
  10. ^ including County of Flanders, Marquisate of Namur, Duchy of Brabant, County of Hainaut, Duchy of Limburg, County of Luxembourg

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Dynasty
 



 



 
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