Duduk
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Duduk

The duduk (doo-DOOK) (Armenian: ?)[1] is an ancient double reed woodwind instrument made of apricot wood. It is indigenous to Armenia[2] although variations of the Duduk are found in other regions of the Caucasus and the Middle East including Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia and Turkey.[3][4] It is commonly played in pairs: while the first player plays the song, the second plays a steady drone called dum, and the sound of the two instruments together creates a richer, more haunting sound.

The unflattened reed and cylindrical body produce a sound closer to the English horn than to more commonly known double reeds. Unlike other double reed instruments like the oboe or shawm, the duduk has a very large reed proportional to its size.

UNESCO proclaimed the Armenian duduk and its music as a Masterpiece of the Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2005 and inscribed it in 2008.[5][6] Duduk music has been used in a number of films, most notably in The Russia House and Gladiator.

Etymology

The word "duduk" (Armenian: ?) is derived from Turkish "düdük"[7] which means whistle.[8][9] The word dudka in Slavic languages is a diminutive of duda and is of native Proto-Slavic origin.[10]

This instrument is not to be confused with the northwestern Bulgarian folk instrument of the same name (see below, Balkan duduk).

Overview

Duduk1.jpg
A duduk mouthpiece

The duduk is a double reed instrument with ancient origins, having existed since at least the fifth century, while there are Armenian scholars who believe it existed more than 1,500 years before that.[11] The earliest instruments similar to the duduk's present form are made of bone or entirely of cane. Today, the duduk is exclusively made of wood with a large double reed, with the body made from aged apricot wood.[12]

The particular tuning depends heavily on the region in which it is played. In the twentieth century, the Armenian duduk began to be standardized diatonic in scale and single-octave in range. Accidentals, or chromatics are achieved using fingering techniques. The instrument's body also has different lengths depending upon the range of the instrument and region. The reed (Armenian: , e?egn), is made from one or two pieces of cane in a duck-bill type assembly. Unlike other double-reed instruments, the reed is quite wide, helping to give the duduk both its unique, mournful sound, as well as its remarkable breath requirements. The duduk player is called dudukahar () in Armenian.

The performer uses air stored in their cheeks to keep playing the instrument while they inhales air into their lungs. This "circular" breathing technique is commonly used with all the double-reed instruments in the Middle East.[13]

Duduk "is invariably played with the accompaniment of a second dum duduk, which gives the music an energy and tonic atmosphere, changing the scale harmoniously with the principal duduk."[14]

History

Armenian musicologists cite evidence of the duduk's use as early as 1200 BC, though Western scholars suggest it is 1,500 years old.[15] Variants of the duduk can be found in Armenia and the Caucasus. The history of the Armenian duduk music is dated to the reign of the Armenian king Tigran the Great,[16] who reigned from 95-55 B.C.[17] According to ethnomusicologist Dr. Jonathan McCollum, the instrument is depicted in numerous Armenian manuscripts of the Middle Ages, and is "actually the only truly Armenian instrument that's survived through history, and as such is a symbol of Armenian national identity ... The most important quality of the duduk is its ability to express the language dialectic and mood of the Armenian language, which is often the most challenging quality to a duduk player."[18]

Balkan duduk

While "duduk" most commonly refers to the double reed instrument described on this page, by coincidence there is a different instrument of the same name played in northwestern Bulgaria. This is a blocked-end flute resembling the Serbian frula, known also as kaval or kaval?e in a part of Macedonia,[19] and as duduk () in northwest Bulgaria.[20][21] Made of maple or other wood, it comes in two sizes: 700-780 millimetres (28-31 in) and 240-400 millimetres (9.4-15.7 in) (duduce). The blocked end is flat. Playing this type of duduk is fairly straightforward and easy,[] and its sound is clean and pleasant.

In popular culture

The sound of the duduk has become known to wider audiences through its use in popular film soundtracks. Starting with Peter Gabriel's score for Martin Scorsese's The Last Temptation of Christ, the duduk's archaic and mournful sound has been employed in a variety of genres to depict such moods. Djivan Gasparyan played the duduk in Gladiator, Syriana, and Blood Diamond, among others.[22] The duduk was also used extensively in Battlestar Galactica.[23] The duduk was also used in the series Avatar: The Last Airbender. Its computer-altered sound was given to the fictitious Tsungi horn, played by a number of the characters. The sound of the duduk was used in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe for a lullaby which Mr. Tumnus plays on a fictitious double flute.[24] The duduk is used in the theme song of the Dothraki clan in the TV adaptation of Game of Thrones.[25]

The 2010 Eurovision Song Contest entry from Armenia "Apricot Stone", which finished 7th in the final, featured prominent duduk played by Djivan Gasparyan.

Film soundtracks

The duduk has been used in a number of films, especially "to denote otherworldliness, loneliness, and mourning or to supply a Middle Eastern/Central Asian atmosphere."[26]

Benik Ignatyan playing the duduk at the Armenian Genocide memorial complex in Yerevan, Armenia, 1997.
Duduk player at the Forom des langues du monde in Toulouse, France.

Television soundtracks

Video game scores

Popular music

Anime soundtracks

  • Tales from Earthsea by Tamiya Terashima, in the tracks "The Trip", "The Spider" and "Violent Robbery/The Seduction of the Undead".[42]

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Duduk and National Identity in Armenia". Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society. American Musical Instrument Society. 32: 183. 2006. ...the duduk (pronounced doo-dook)... 
  2. ^ "...which is indigenous to Armenia,..." Archived 2018-05-09 at the Wayback Machine., World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East p.335
  3. ^ Stokes, Jamie, ed. (2008). Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Volume 1. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8160-7158-6. One of the oldest indigenous Armenian instruments is the duduk, a woodwind instrument usually made from apricot wood, with a double reed mouthpiece. 
  4. ^ "Armenian duduk and other Armenian folk instruments" (PDF). UNESCO. June 2003. p. 32. Retrieved 2014. Duduk is considered to be the most Armenian of all folk instruments for its Armenian origin and honest expression. It has a 1500 - year history and is native to Armenia, Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan. 
  5. ^ "Sounds of Armenian duduk". UNESCO. November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Duduk and its music were inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008 (originally proclaimed in 2005). The duduk, or "dziranapogh" in Armenian, is a double-reed woodwind instrument made of apricot wood, conventionally called the "Armenian oboe". 
  6. ^ "Duduk and its music". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  7. ^ Malkhasyants, Stepan (1944). "? (duduk)". Hayer?n bac?atrakan ba?aran [Armenian Explanatory Dictionary] (in Armenian). Yerevan: State Publishing House. p. 537. 
  8. ^ " [Duduk]" (in Russian). Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2012-03-29. 
  9. ^ " [Duduk]" (in Russian). Russian language dictionary in 4 volumes. Volume 1. 1999. Archived from the original on 2009-09-25. 
  10. ^ "?" Archived 2011-08-15 at Wikiwix in ?. (1986), ? (?), 2-? . -- ? ? ? ? ?.?.
  11. ^ Broughton, Simon; Ellingham, Mark; and Trillo, Richard, eds. (1999). World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East. p. 334. ISBN 9781858286358. 
  12. ^ Andrea L. Stanton; Edward Ramsamy; Peter J. Seybolt, eds. (2012). Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. p. 167. ISBN 9781412981767. 
  13. ^ Albright, Ch. (15 December 1988). "B?L?B?N". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. 
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-03-04. Retrieved .  Duduk Info at Ethnicinstruments.co.uk
  15. ^ Encyclopedia.com:DJIVAN GASPARYAN Archived 2011-06-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ Torkomyan, Hovik (2017-07-01). "The Duduk Flute". History Of Armenia. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08. Retrieved . 
  17. ^ "The roots of Armenian duduk music go back to the times of the Armenian king Tigran the Great (95-55 BC)": "The Duduk and its Music Archived 2014-03-16 at the Wayback Machine.. UNESCO. Accessed February 8, 2010.
  18. ^ Turpin, Andy (12 February 2010). "Nothing Sounds Armenian Like a Duduk: ALMA Lecture". Armenian Weekly. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 2014. 
  19. ^ www.macedoniadirect.com/instruments/supelki.htm Archived 2006-05-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ " : Horo.bg - ? ? ?, , , , ?" (in Bulgarian). Horo.bg. Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved . 
  21. ^ For a detailed description of the instrument (in Bulgarian), see "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-16. Retrieved . 
  22. ^ "Jivan Gasparyan". IMDb. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 2018. 
  23. ^ "Bear McCreary - Official site". www.bearmccreary.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 2018. 
  24. ^ Harry Gregson-Williams Talks Narnia & Narnian Lullaby Clip Archived 2012-07-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ No flutes allowed: Composer Ramin Djawadi on the music of 'Game of Thrones' Archived 2016-11-01 at the Wayback Machine., Deutsche Welle
  26. ^ Hung, Eric (2011). Leonard, Kendra Preston, ed. Buffy, Ballads, and Bad Guys Who Sing: Music in the Worlds of Joss Whedon. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 259. ISBN 9780810877658. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Chris Bleth Movie Credits". Chrisbleth.com. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. 
  28. ^ "Gladiator (Soundtrack) by Hans Zimmer and Lisa Gerrard". www.tracksounds.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 2018. 
  29. ^ "Hotel Rwanda Film Music""Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-29. Retrieved . 
  30. ^ "Hulk Editorial Review". Filmtracks. 8 June 2003. Archived from the original on 22 July 2003. 
  31. ^ Brennan, Mike (2 December 2005). "The Chronicles of Narnia Review". Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. These include the use of the duduk as Mr. Tumnus' pipe in "A Narnia Lullaby"... 
  32. ^ Savita Gautham. "inese rhapsody". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 2004-02-25. Retrieved . 
  33. ^ "Instruments of Battlestar Galactica: Duduk". Bearmccreary.com. 2006-09-28. Archived from the original on 2010-05-31. Retrieved . 
  34. ^ Runner, Blade (2004-02-26). "Duduk: The Instrument That Makes Hollywood Cry". Galactica-station.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved . 
  35. ^ "Battlestar Galactica: Season Two". Musicweb-international.com. Archived from the original on 2011-10-14. Retrieved . 
  36. ^ "Children of Dune". Cinemusic.net. Archived from the original on November 15, 2009. Retrieved . 
  37. ^ "'Game of Thrones' Composer Ramin Djawadi: 'I'm Just Trying to Create Something Magical' (Q&A)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2013-12-25. Retrieved . 
  38. ^ "Jeff Beal - Interview". www.soundtrack.net. Archived from the original on 9 May 2018. Retrieved 2018. 
  39. ^ "Civ5in". Michaelcurran.net. Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved . 
  40. ^ "Rome - Augustus Caesar War - "Ancient Roman Melody Fragments" by Geoff Knorr". ISSUU. Archived from the original on 2015-04-22. Retrieved . 
  41. ^ Bloodworth, Daniel (2012-04-09). "BackTrack: Composing Mass Effect - Jack Wall Interview, Part 1 | Side Mission". GameTrailers. Archived from the original on 2012-06-05. Retrieved . 
  42. ^ Benoit Basirico (2005-11-14). "Gedo Senki (Les Contes de Terremer)". Cinezik.org. Archived from the original on 2009-05-01. Retrieved . 

Further reading

External links


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