Headquarters of JINR in Dubna
|Federal subject||Moscow Oblast|
|o Mayor||Valery Prokh|
|o Total||7.1 km2 (2.7 sq mi)|
|Elevation||125 m (410 ft)|
| o Estimate |
|o Rank||223rd in 2010|
|o Density||10,000/km2 (26,000/sq mi)|
|o Administratively subordinated to||Dubna Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|o Administrative center of||Dubna Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|o Urban okrug||Dubna Urban Okrug|
|o Administrative center of||Dubna Urban Okrug|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 49621|
Dubna (Russian: , IPA: [d?b'na]) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It has a status of naukograd (i.e. town of science), being home to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, an international nuclear physics research center and one of the largest scientific foundations in the country. It is also home to MKB Raduga, a defense aerospace company specializing in design and production of missile systems. The modern town was developed in the middle of the 20th century and town status was granted to it in 1956. Population: ;;.
The town is 120 meters (390 ft) above sea level, situated approximately 125 kilometers (78 mi) north of Moscow, on the Volga River, just downstream the Ivankovo Reservoir. The reservoir is formed by a hydroelectric dam across the Volga situated within the town borders. The town lies on both banks of the Volga, and the dam serves as the only bridge. The western boundary of the town is defined by the Moscow Canal joining the Volga, while the eastern boundary is defined by Dubna River joining the Volga.
Dubna is the northernmost town of Moscow Oblast.
Fortress Dubna (Russian: ) belonging to Rostov-Suzdal Principality was built in the area in 1132 by the order of Yuri Dolgoruki and existed until 1216. The fortress was destroyed during the feudal war between the sons of Vsevolod the Big Nest. The village of Gorodishche () was located on the right bank of the Volga River and was a part of the Kashin Principality. Dubna customs post (? ?) was located in the area and was a part of the Principality of Tver.
Before the October Revolution, few villages were in the area: Podberezye was on the left bank of the Volga, and Gorodishche, Alexandrovka, Ivankovo, Yurkino, and Kozlaki (Russian: ?) were on the right bank.
Right after the Revolution one of the first collective farms was organized in Dubna area.
In 1931, the Orgburo of the Communist Party made a decision to build the Volga-Moscow Canal. Genrikh Yagoda, then the leader of the State Political Directorate, was put in charge of construction. The Canal was completed in 1937. Ivankovo Reservoir and Ivankovo hydroelectrical plant were also created as a part of the project. Many villages and the town Korcheva were submerged under water. Dubna is mentioned in Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's book The Gulag Archipelago as the town built by Gulag prisoners.
The decision to build a proton accelerator for nuclear research was taken by the Soviet government in 1946. An impracticable place where the current town is situated was chosen due to remoteness from Moscow and the presence of the Ivankovo power plant nearby. The scientific leader was Igor Kurchatov. The general supervisor of the project including construction of a settlement, a road and a railway connecting it to Moscow (largely involving penal labour of Gulag inmates) was the NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria. After three years of intensive work, the accelerator was commissioned on December 13, 1949.
The town of Dubna was officially inaugurated in 1956, together with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), which has developed into a large international research laboratory involved mainly in particle physics, heavy ion physics, synthesis of transuranium elements, and radiobiology. In 1960 a town of Ivankovo situated on the opposite (left) bank of the Volga was merged into Dubna. In 1964, Dubna hosted the prestigious International Conference on High Energy Physics.
Outstanding physicists of the 20th century including Nikolay Bogolyubov, Georgy Flyorov, Vladimir Veksler, Bruno Pontecorvo used to work at the institute. A number of elementary particles and transuranium nuclei (most recently, the 117th element) have been discovered and investigated there, leading to the honorary naming of chemical element 105 dubnium (Db) for the town.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Dubna Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction--an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Dubna Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Dubna Urban Okrug.
Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, JINR and MKB Raduga were the main employers in the town. Since then their role has decreased significantly. Several small industrial enterprises have emerged, however the town still experiences some employment difficulties. Proximity to Moscow allows many to commute and work there. Plans by AFK Sistema and other investors including government structures have been announced to build a Russian analogue of Silicon Valley in Dubna. As of the beginning of 2007, nothing has commenced.
The public transport connections to Moscow include express trains, suburban trains and bus shuttles which depart from the Savyolovsky Rail Terminal.
Since 2007 Dubna is a headquarters and primary location of international jazz festival MuzEnergo with free for public one-day open air festival in summer and one-week events in local venues in spring and autumn.
There are several museums in Dubna, including:
Dubna's sports facilities include two stadiums, a waterski stadium on the Volga River, three swimming pools, tennis courts, and five sports complexes.
Popular water sports in Dubna include windsurfing, kitesurfing, and water-skiing.
Since 2004, Dubna has been a venue for Waterski World Cup stops. Dubna is a venue for the 2011 World Waterski Championships (July, 17-24 2011).
One of the world's tallest statues of Vladimir Lenin, 25 meters (82 ft) high, built in 1937, is located at Dubna at the confluence of the Volga River and the Moscow Canal. The accompanying statue of Joseph Stalin of similar size was demolished in 1961 during the period of de-stalinization.