Drive-by Shooting
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Drive-by Shooting

A drive-by shooting is a type of assault that typically involves the perpetrator firing a weapon from within a motor vehicle and then fleeing.[1] Such shootings are often associated with gang violence in urban areas of the United States but also occur in other contexts and other countries. The tactic is also known in the media as simply a "drive-by".[2] The primary motivations for a gang-involved drive-by include intimidation, terrorization, and assassination of rival street gang members.[3] Drive-by shootings allow the perpetrator(s) to quickly strike their target and then flee the scene before law enforcement is able to respond. The invention of drive by shooting is often attributed to Nestor Makhno[4][5][6][7][8][9], commander of the Revolutionary Insurrection Army of Ukraine at the beginning of the 20th century. He combined horse and carriage with a machine gun in order to quickly assault targets and get away before they could properly react.

Numerous hip-hop artists have been targeted in drive-bys;[10] prominent rappers who were killed in such incidents include Tupac Shakur,[11]The Notorious B.I.G.,[12]Big L, XXXTentacion, and Mac Dre.[13]

Usage

Motorcycle ride-by killings were a common form of murder used by drug lord Griselda Blanco during her years controlling the Miami cocaine trade routes in the late 1970s and early 1980s.[14] Blanco herself died by this method after having been shot twice in the head by a motorcyclist in a drive-by shooting in Medellín, Colombia.[15][16][17] Drive-by shootings are also included in the Ku Klux Klan's modus operandi,[18][19] and in the first decade of the 21st century, drive-by shootings were also used by militants in Iraq, including the assassinations of Waldemar Milewicz[20] and Hatem Kamil.[21] From the 1970s into the 21st century, the Camorra in Naples, Italy have been known for performing drive-by shootings during clan or gang wars.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hutson, H. Range; Anglin, Deirdre; Pratts, Michael J. Jr. (3 February 1994). "Adolescents and Children Injured or Killed in Drive-By Shootings in Los Angeles". New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/NEJM199402033300506. 
  2. ^ "3-year-old boy killed in drive-by shooting identified". WKYC-TV. Cleveland, Ohio. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  3. ^ Hutson, H. Range; Anglin, Deirdre; Kyriacou, Demetrios N. (4 October 1995). "The Epidemic of Gang-Related Homicides in Los Angeles County From 1979 Through 1994". New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530130037025. 
  4. ^ William Henry Chamberlin, Russia's Iron Age, Ayer Publishing, 1970, p201; V. Rapoport, Y. Alekseev, V. G. Treml (translated by B. Adams)
  5. ^ High Treason: Essays on the History of the Red Army, 1918-1938, Duke University Press, 1985, p68
  6. ^ Michael Malet, Nestor Makhno in the Russian Civil War, Macmillan, 1982, p85
  7. ^ Steve Zaloga, Leland S. Ness, Red Army Handbook, 1939-45, Sutton, 1998, p105
  8. ^ Leon Trotsky, How the Revolution Armed: The Military Writings and Speeches of Leon Trotsky, New Park Publications, 1981, p 295
  9. ^ Edward R. Kantowicz, The Rage of Nations: The World In The Twentieth Century, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999, p173
  10. ^ Coleman, C. Vernon II (1 February 2013). "They Shootin': 10 Rappers That Were Targeted In Drive-By Shootings". HipHopWired. Retrieved 2015. 
  11. ^ Dominguez, Robert (14 September 1996). "Tupac Shakur dies days after drive-by shooting in 1996". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2015. Rapper Tupac Shakur died yesterday from wounds suffered in a Las Vegas drive-by shooting, becoming a casualty of the kind of bullet-sprayed urban violence captured in his lyrics. 
  12. ^ Millner, Denene (10 March 1997). "Biggie Smalls is killed in a drive-by shooting in 1997". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2015. 
  13. ^ "Rapper Mac Dre Killed In Kansas City". Billboard.com. 2 November 2004. Retrieved 2015. 
  14. ^ Corben, Billy (4 September 2012). "Griselda Blanco: So Long and Thanks for All the Cocaine". Vice. Retrieved 2017. 
  15. ^ Luscombe, Richard (September 4, 2012). "'Godmother of cocaine' shot dead in Colombia". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014. 
  16. ^ Robles, Frances & Bargent, James (September 5, 2012). "The life and death of 'cocaine godmother' Griselda Blanco". Miami Herald. 
  17. ^ Luscombe, Richard (September 4, 2012). "'Godmother of cocaine' shot dead in Colombia (Griselda Blanco, who remained under suspicion for the deaths of all three of her husbands)". The Guardian. 
  18. ^ Fontaine, Smokey (2009). "GOOD NEWS: Victim Of KKK and Drive-By Shooting Opens Successful Restaurant". NewsOne. Retrieved 2017. 
  19. ^ Hamilton, Matt (February 28, 2016). "Mother and son are killed in a drive-by shooting outside a Carson home". Los Angeles Times. 
  20. ^ "Top Baghdad official shot dead: Aftermath of attack on Baghdad deputy governor: Attackers rammed the deputy governor's car and shot him dead (Gunmen have assassinated the deputy governor of Baghdad and wounded two of his bodyguards, Iraqi officials say)". BBC News. 7 May 2004. Retrieved 2012. 
  21. ^ "Polish TV crew attacked in Iraq: Waldemar Milewicz was a well-known war correspondent (Gunmen in Iraq have killed a leading Polish journalist and his picture editor in a drive-by shooting)". BBC News. 1 November 2004. Retrieved 2012. 
  22. ^ Ambrose, Tom (2008). The Nature of Despotism. New Holland. 

External links


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