Doric, or Dorian ( Ancient Greek: , romanized: D?rismós) was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus, Southern Italy, Crete, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea and some cities on the south east coast of Anatolia. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By Hellenistic times, under the Achaean League, an Achaean-Doric koiné language appeared, exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, which delayed the spread of the Attic-based Koine Greek to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC. 
It is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of
Epirus in northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all other regions during the Dorian invasion (c. 1150 BC) and the colonisations that followed. The presence of a Doric state ( Doris) in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the Balkans. The dialect's distribution towards the north extends to the Megarian colony of Byzantium and the Corinthian colonies of Potidaea, Epidamnos, Apollonia and Ambracia; there, it further added words to what would become the Albanian language,  probably via traders from a now-extinct  Illyrian intermediary. Local epigraphical evidence is restricted to the decrees of the  Epirote League and the Pella curse tablet (both in the early 4th century BC) as well to the Doric eponym , first attested in Macedonia (early 5th century BC). Machatas 
Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under
Greek dialects. The prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek. Some use the terms Northern Greek or Northwest Greek instead. The geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek."
Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north and on the fact that Doric is closely related to
Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion; certainly, Doric could only have further differentiated into its classical dialects when the Dorians were in place in the south. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects.
Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric (Spartan), is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, and an endangered dialect.
The dialects of the Doric Group are as follows:
Laconian Laconian was spoken by the population of Laconia in the southern Peloponnese and also by its colonies, Taras and Herakleia in Magna Graecia. Sparta was the seat of ancient Laconia.
Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the seventh century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the second quarter of the seventh century. Taras was founded in 706 and its founders must already have spoken Laconic.
Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived.
Homer calls it "hollow Lacedaemon", though he refers to a pre-Dorian period. The seventh century Spartan poet Alcman used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect.
Argolic Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnese at, for example, Argos, Mycenae, Hermione, Troezen, Epidaurus, and as close to Athens as the island of Aegina. As Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this dialect region in the Bronze Age, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take Attica. The Dorians went on from Argos to Crete and Rhodes.
Ample inscriptional material of a legal, political and religious content exists from at least the sixth century BC.
Corinthian Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Greece; that is, the Isthmus of Corinth. The cities and states of the Corinthian dialect region were Corinth, Sicyon, Archaies Kleones, Phlius, the colonies of Corinth in western Greece: Corcyra, Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia and others, the colonies in and around Italy: Syracuse, Sicily and Ancona, and the colonies of Corcyra: Dyrrachium, and Apollonia. The earliest inscriptions at Corinth date from the early sixth century BC. They use a Corinthian epichoric alphabet. (See under Attic Greek.)
Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the re-civilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece.
Northwest Greek group is closely related to Doric proper, while sometimes there is no distinction between Doric and the Northwest Greek. Whether it is to be considered a part of the Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two considered subgroups of West Greek, the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence. The Northwest Greek dialects differ from the Doric Group dialects in the below features:  Dative plural of the
third declension in - ( -ois) (instead of - ( -si)): ? ? Akarnanois hippeois for Akarnasin hippeusin (to the Acarnanian knights).
( en) + accusative (instead of ( eis)): en Naupakton (into Naupactus).
- ( -st) for - ( -sth): genestai for genesthai (to become), ? mistôma for misthôma (payment for hiring). ar for er:
amara /Dor. amera/Att. hêmera (day), Elean wargon for Doric wergon and Attic ergon (work) Dative singular in
-oi instead of -ôi: , Doric , Attic (to Asclepius) Middle participle in -eimenos instead of -oumenos
The dialects are as follows:
This dialect was spoken in
Phocis and in its main settlement, Delphi. Because of that it is also cited as Delphian. Plutarch says that Delphians pronounce b in the place of p ( for ) 
The dialect of
Elis is considered, after Aeolic Greek, one of the most difficult for the modern reader of epigraphic texts (earliest c. 600 BC)  
Northwest Greek Koiné hybrid dialect of Attic and certain Northwest Greek and Doric features
chiefly associated with the Aetolian Confederacy and dates to the second and third centuries BC.
Calydon sanctuary (earliest c. 600-575 BC) - Aetolian League 300-262 BC  
A school of thought maintains that the
Ancient Macedonian language may have been a Greek dialect, possibly of the Northwestern group in particular,      although other scholars would classify Macedonian as a separate marginal or "deviant Greek dialect" on its own.  
Proto-Greek long *? is retained as ?, in contrast to Attic developing a long open ? ( eta) in at least some positions.
Doric g ~ Attic ? m ?t?r g 'earth mother' ? m ?t?r
Compensatory lengthening of e and o
In certain Doric dialects (Severe Doric), *e and *o lengthen by compensatory lengthening or contraction to
eta or omega, in contrast to Attic ei and ou ( spurious diphthongs).
-? ~ Attic -ou (second-declension genitive singular)
-?s ~ -ous (second-declension accusative plural) -?n ~ -ein (present, second aorist infinitive active)
Contraction of a and e
Contraction: Proto-Greek *ae > Doric
? ( eta) ~ Attic ?.
Proto-Greek *eo, *ea > some Doric dialects'
Proto-Greek short *a > Doric short
a ~ Attic e in certain words.
Doric hi, aros Art ~ Attic amis hi 'holy', eros Art emis
Proto-Greek *-ti is retained (assibilated to
-si in Attic).
ph? ~ Attic ti ph? 'he says' (3rd sing. pres. of athematic verb) si
legon ~ ti legou 'they say' (3rd pl. pres. of thematic verb) si
w?ka ~ ti eiko 'twenty' si tri?ka ~ tioi tri?ko 'three hundred' sioi
Proto-Greek *ts >
-ss- between vowels. (Attic shares the same development, but further shortens the geminate to -s-.)
Proto-Greek *métsos > Doric me ~ Attic ssos me 'middle' (from Proto-Indo-Europan sos *méd?yos, compare Latin me) dius
Initial *w (
?) is preserved in earlier Doric (lost in Attic).
Doric ~ Attic woikos oikos 'house' (from Proto-Indo-European *wey?-, *woy?-, compare Latin 'village') v?cus
Literary texts in Doric and inscriptions from the Hellenistic age have no digamma.
For information on the peculiarities of Doric accentuation, see
Ancient Greek accent#Dialect variation
te ~ Attic tores te, Ionic ttares te "four".
pr ~ Attic-Ionic ?tos pr "first".
"this" ~ Attic-Ionic t?nos (e)
t for h (from Proto-Indo-European s) in article and demonstrative pronoun.
, toi ; tai , toutoi tautai ~ Attic-Ionic , hoi ; hai , houtoi . hautai
Third person plural, athematic or
root aorist -n ~ Attic -san.
Doric ed ~ Attic-Ionic on edo san
First person plural active
-mes ~ Attic-Ionic -men.
-se-? ~ Attic -s-?.
pr?x ( ?tai pr?k-se-etai) ~ Attic-Ionic pr?x etai
ka ~ Attic-Ionic an.
Doric ai ka, ai de ka, ai tis ka ~ ean, ean de, ean tis
Temporal adverbs in
-ka ~ Attic-Ionic -te.
Locative adverbs in
-ei ~ Attic/Koine -ou.
The aorist and future of verbs in
-iz?, -az? has x (versus Attic/Koine s).
Doric ag?ni ~ Attic xato ag?ni "he contended" sato
k before suffixes beginning with t.
? aigades (Attic aiges) "goats"
aiges (Attic kymata) "waves"
? (Attic halia ) "assembly" (Cf. ekkl?sia Heliaia)
(Attic brykainai ? hiereiai) "priestesses"
(Attic bryketos ? brygmos, bryk?thmos) "chewing, grinding, gnashing with the teeth"
(Attic damiorgoi ) "high officials". Cf. Attic archontes ? "public worker for the people (d?mos), craftsman, creator"; d?miourgos Hesychius ?· "prostitutes". Zamiourgoi Elean.
Elôos Hephaestus ?
(Attic karr?n kreitt?n) "stronger" (Ionic kreiss?n, Cretan kart?n )
? (Attic koryg?s k?ryx) "herald, messenger" (Aeolic karoux)
( laios Homeric, Attic and Modern Greek aristeros) "left". Cretan: ? laia, Attic aspis shield, Hesych. laipha laiba, because the shield was held with the left hand. Cf.Latin: laevus
? laia (Attic, Modern Greek ? leia) "prey"
(?) le(i)? (Attic ethel?) "will"
oin?tros "vine pole" (: Greek oinos "wine"). Cf. Oenotrus
mogionti (Ionic ? pyressousi) "they are on fire, have fever" (= Attic ? mogousi "they suffer, take pains to")
? (Attic myrm?dônes myrm?kes) "ants". Cf. Myrmidons
optillos or optilos 'eye' (Attic ophthalmos) ( Latin oculus) (Attic optikos of sight, Optics)
(Attic paomai ? ktaomai) "acquire"
poet, broiderer, pattern-weaver, boot-maker ( rhapidopoios rhapis needle for Attic ) rhaphis
skana (Attic skênê) tent, stage, scene) (Homeric klisiê) (Doric skanama encampment)
tanthalyzein (Attic ? tremein) "to tremble"
? tun? or toun? 'you nominative' (Attic ) dative teein (Attic soi) chanaktion (Attic m?ron)( chan goose)
Ballacrades title of Argive athletes on a feast-day (Cf.achras wild pear-tree) 
mimic festival at Argos (acc. Pausanias 10.4.9 daulis means Daulis thicket) (Hes.  daulon fire log)
strong (Attic ischyron, dynaton) droon
youngman (Attic neanias) kester
? kyllarabis discus and gymnasium at Argos
? ragged, tattered garments Attic rhak?, cf. himatia clothes) semalia ? ôbea eggs (Attic ôa )
agela "group of boys in the Cretan ". Cf. ag?g? Homeric Greek "herd" (Cretan agel? apagelos not yet received in agelê, boy under 17)
adnos holy, pure (Attic hagnos) ( Ariadne)
(Attic autos) Hsch. aWtos aus - . ?
legs (Attic akara skelê)
once (Attic hapax) hamakis
? argetos juniper, cedar (Attic arkeuthos)
? power (Attic alkê) auka
? Koine synepheboi (Attic hêlikiotai 'age-peers' of the same age balikiôtai hêlikia)
sweet (Attic glyku) britu
, Cretan and damioô Boeotian. for Attic zêmioô to damage, punish, harm
dampon first milk curdled by heating over embers (Attic puriephthon, puriatê)
? dôla ears (Attic ôta) (Tarentine ata)
for Welchanos Cretan Zeus and Welchanios, Belchanios, Gelchanos (Elchanios Cnossian month)
wergaddomai I work (Attic ergazomai)
? garment (Attic heima) (Aeolic emma) (Koine (h)immation)(Cf.Attic amphi-ennumi I dress, amph-iesis clothing) Wêma
? wine (Dialectal ibên Woînos Attic oinos) (accusative ibêna)
one (Attic hen itton )
and kosmos kormos archontes in Crete, body of kosmoi (Attic order, ornament, honour, world - kormos trunk of a tree)
?, ? head (Attic kephalê) kypheron, kuphê
rag, tattered garment (Attic rhakos) ( lakos Aeolic brakos long robe, lacks the sense 'ragged')
(Attic parthenos) Hsch: malakinnês. malkenis
mountain (Attic oros) (Cf. othrun Othrys)
darkness (Attic zophos, skotia) (Aeolic dnophos) seipha
title of Cretan officer (Cf.speudô speus- rush) speusdos
(Attic tauta) these things tagana
summer (Homeric, Attic theros) tiros you, accusative ( Attic se ) tre
? storeroom abêr ?, ? ?
? abôr dawn (Attic êôs) ( Latin aurora)
? adda need, deficiency (Attic endeia) Aristophanes of Byzantium(fr. 33)
? addauon dry (i.e. azauon) or addanon (Attic xêron)
? aikouda (Attic aischun?) ?. ?
? blood-broth, Spartan Melas Zomos haimatia Black soup) (haima haimatos blood)
aïtas (Attic ) "beloved boy (in a er?menos pederastic relationship)"
tube, bag (Attic askos) akkor
bed (Attic skimpous)( akchalibar Koine krabbatos)
? having begun, past participle(amphi or ana..+ ?) (Attic aparxamenos, aparchomai) (Doric -ixas for Attic -isas) ambrotixas
(Attic amphiesai) to dress ampesai
apaboidôr out of tune (Attic ekmelôs) (Cf.Homeric singer Aoidos) / emmelôs, aboidôr in tune
(Attic apella ) "assembly in ekkl?sia Sparta" (verb apellazein)
? arbylis (Attic ) (Hesychius: aryballos ?. ?)
wake up, get up (Attic anastêthi) attasi
? babalon imperative of cry aloud, shout (Attic kraugason)
? (Attic ? bagaron chliaron 'warm') (Cf. Attic ? ph?g? 'roast') ( Laconian word)
? broth (Attic zômos) (Attic bapha dipping of red-hot iron in water ( ? baphê Koine and Modern Greek ? vafi dyeing)
? twenty (Attic eikosi) beikati
? sun and dawn Laconian (Attic bela helios Cretan abelios)
Attic bernômetha klêrôsômetha we will cast or obtain by lot (inf. berreai) (Cf.Attic meiresthai receive portion, Doric bebramena for heimarmenê, allotted by Moirai)
bread (Attic artos) beskeros
hindrance, river dam (Laconian) bêlêma
? fennel (Attic marathos) ( bêrichalkon chalkos bronze)
? Spartan dance for boys and girls bibasis
bidyoi bideoi, bidiaioi also "officers in charge of the ephebes at Sparta"
? almost, maybe (Attic biôr ? isôs, schedon) wihôr (?)
spot (Attic kêlis) blagis
? "group of boys in the boua Spartan " ag?g?
(?)? bo(u)agos "leader of a boua at Sparta"
Laconian dancer (Attic bullichês orchêstês)
speech (Homeric, Ionic eirêma bônêma eireo) (Cf.Attic phônêma sound, speech)
labourer (ga earth wergon work) (Cf.geôrgos farmer) gabergor
? citizens, people (Attic gaiadas dêmos)
gonar mother Laconian (gonades children Eur. Med. 717)
? torch (Attic dalos)(Syracusan dabelos daelos, dawelos)(Modern Greek davlos) (Laconian ? (Attic dabêi kauthêi) it should be burnt)
? goat (Attic aix) and Hera aigophagos Goat-eater in Sparta diza
eir?n (Attic ) " eph?bos Spartan youth who has completed his 12th year"
(Attic eispn?las ? ) one who inspires love, a lover (Attic erast?s eispneô inhale, breathe)
exôbadia (Attic enôtia ; ôta ears)
(Attic ephoroi ) "high officials at Sparta". Cf. Attic archontes ephoros "overseer, guardian"
? Thoratês Apollon thoraios containing the semen, god of growth and increase
thrônax drone (Attic kêphên)
? washing, bathing-tub (Attic loutêr) (Cf. kapha skaphê basin, bowl)
keloia (kelya, kelea also) "contest for boys and youths at Sparta"
? fox (Attic kira alôpêx) (Hsch kiraphos).
? mesodma, messodoma woman and (Attic ? anthrôpô gunê)
myrtalis Butcher's broom (Attic oxumursinê) (Myrtale real name of Olympias)
pasor passion (Attic pathos)
leg, foot (Attic por pous)
restaurant (Koine mageirion) (Cf. pourdain purdalon, purodansion (from pyr fire hence pyre)
? cook (Common Doric/Attic salabar mageiros)
? 'pig' (Attic hus) and sika grôna female pig.
safeness (Attic siria asphaleia)
psithômias ill, sick (Attic asthenês) ?
? first dancer psilaker ôba (Attic ? k?m?) "village; one of five quarters of the city of Sparta"
Magna Graecian Doric
astyxenoi Metics, Tarentine
king bannas basileus, wanax, anax 
cavalry officers Tarentine (Attic beilarmostai ilarchai) (il?, squadron + Laconian harmost-)
? dostore 'you make' Tarentine (Attic ?)
Thaulia "festival of Tarentum", thaulakizein 'to demand sth with uproar' Tarentine, thaulizein "to celebrate like Dorians", Thaulos " Macedonian Ares", Thessalian ? ? Zeus Thaulios, Athenian ? Zeus Thaulon, Athenian family ? Thaulonidai
? easy rhaganon Thuriian (Attic rhaidion) (Aeolic braidion)
'back-side of neck' (Attic skytas trach?los)
till Tarentine (Attic tênês heôs)
whatever are fed or nursed, children, cattle (Attic thremmata) tryphômata huetis jug, amphora Tarentine (Attic hydris, hydria)( huetos rain)
agridion 'village' Aetolian (Attic chôrion)(Hesychius text: * dim. of , vA [? ] agros countryside, field)
aeria fog Aetolian (Attic omichlê, aêr air)(Hsch. ) , ? .
wallet, bag kibba Aetolian (Attic ? pêra) (Cypr. kibisis) (Cf.Attic ? kibôtos ark kibôtion box Suid. cites kibos) plêtomon Acarnanian old, ancient (Attic palaion, palaiotaton very old)
anchôrixantas having transferred, postponed   Chaonian (Attic metapherô, anaballô) (anchôrizo anchi near + horizô define and Doric x instead of Attic s) (Cf. Ionic anchouros neighbouring) not to be confused with Doric anchôreô Attic ana-chôreô go back, withdraw.
akathartia impurity (Attic/Doric akatharsia) (Lamelles Oraculaires 14)
apotrachô run away (Attic/Doric apotrechô) 
? fishes Athamanian (Attic ichthyes) ( aspaloi Ionic chlossoi) (Cf.LSJ aspalia angling, aspalieus fisherman, aspalieuomai I angle metaph. of a lover, aspalisai: halieusai, sagêneusai. ( hals sea)
? Aspetos divine epithet of Achilles in Epirus ( Homeric aspetos 'unspeakable, unspeakably great, endless' (Aristotle F 563 Rose; Plutarch, Pyrrhus 1; SH 960,4)    
gnôskô know (Attic gignôskô) (Ionic/Koine ginôskô) (Latin n?sco)(Attic gnôsis, Latin notio knowledge) (ref. Orion p. 42.17)
? diaitos (Hshc. judge kritês) (Attic diaitêtês arbitrator) Lamelles Oraculaires 16
? lend out eskichremen (Lamelles Oraculaires 8 of Eubandros) (Attic eis + inf. kichranai from chraomai use)
Weidus knowing (Doric ) weidôs) (Elean weizos) (Attic ) eidôs) ( PIE *weid- "to know, to see", Sanskrit veda I know) Cabanes, L'Épire 577,50
kham kaston wood Athamanian (Attic xylon from xyô scrape, hence xyston); Sanskrit ("wood, timber, firewood") (Dialectical kausimon kalon wood, traditionally derived from kaiô burn kauston sth that can be burnt, fuel)
? lêïtêres Athamanian priests with garlands Hes.text . (LSJ: lêitarchoi public priests ) (hence Leitourgia
? small Athamanian (Attic mikron, brachu) (Cf. manu manon rare) (PIE *men- small, thin) (Hsch. banon thin) ( manosporos thinly sown manophullos with small leaves Thphr.HP7.6.2-6.3)
Naios or Naos epithet of Dodonaean Zeus (from the spring in the oracle) (cf. Naiades and Pan Naios in Pydna SEG 50:622 (Homeric naô flow, Attic nama spring) ( PIE *sna-)
'wash in the spring' (of pagaomai Dodona) (Doric paga Attic pêgê running water, fountain)
pampasia (to ask peri pampasias cliché phrase in the oracle) (Attic pampêsia full property) (Doric paomai obtain)
or Peliganes Peligones ( Epirotan, Macedonian senators)
prami do optative (Attic prattoimi) Syncope (Lamelles Oraculaires 22)
? tine (Attic/Doric tini) to whom (Lamelles Oraculaires 7) ? trithutikon triple sacrifice tri + thuo(Lamelles Oraculaires 138)
Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Doric". . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Glottolog 3.0
^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in:
The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
Buck, Carl Darling (1900). "The Source of the So-Called Achaean-Doric ". . American Journal of Philology 21 (2): 193-196. doi: 10.2307/287905.
Çabej, E. (1961). "Die alteren Wohnsitze der Albaner auf der Balkanhalbinsel im Lichte der Sprache und der Ortsnamen". VII Congresso internaz. di sciense onomastiche: 241-251. ; Albanian version BUShT 1962:1.219-227
Eric Hamp. Birnbaum, Henrik; Puhvel, Jaan (eds.). . The position of Albanian, Ancient IE dialects, Proceedings of the Conference on IE linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25-27, 1963
Huld, Martin E. (1986). "Accentual Stratification of Ancient Greek Loanwords in Albanian". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung (99.2): 245-253.
Mendez Dosuna -Doric dialects, p.452
Goodwin, William Watson (1874). . Plutarch's Morals, tr. by several hands. Corrected and revised by W.W. Goodwin Greek questions 9
^ IG IX,1² 3:609
^ Sophie Minon, Les Inscriptions Éléennes Dialectale - Reviewed by Stephen Colvin
^ Die Inschriften von Olympia - IvO 1
^ IG IX,1² 1:152,a
^ IG IX,1² 1:15
Potter, John (1751). . Archaeologia Graeca Or the Antiquities of Greece
^ Lamelles Oraculaires 77
Lewis, D. M.; Boardman, John (1994). . Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge Ancient History ISBN . 978-0-521-23348-4
Auroux, Sylvain (2000). . Walter de Gruyter. Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaften. Bd. 2/1.: Ein internationales Handbuch zur Entwicklung der Sprachforschung von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart ISBN . 978-3-11-011103-3
^ Cabanes, L'Épire 534,1
Masson, Olivier (2003) . "[Ancient] Macedonian language". In Hornblower, S.; Spawforth A. (eds.). (revised 3rd ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 905-906. The Oxford Classical Dictionary ISBN . 0-19-860641-9
Hammond, N.G.L (1993) . The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History (reprint ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 0-19-814927-1
^ Michael Meier-Brügger,
Indo-European linguistics, Walter de Gruyter, 2003, p.28, on Google books
^ Roisman, Worthington, 2010, "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia", Chapter 5: Johannes Engels, "Macedonians and Greeks", p. 95:"This (i.e.
Pella curse tablet) has been judged to be the most important ancient testimony to substantiate that Macedonian was a north-western Greek and mainly a Doric dialect".
^ "...but we may tentatively conclude that Macedonian is a dialect related to North-West Greek.", Olivier Masson, French linguist, "Oxford Classical Dictionary: Macedonian Language", 1996.
Masson & Dubois 2000, p. 292: "...<<Macedonian Language>> de l' Oxford Classical Dictionary, 1996, p. 906: <<Macedonian may be seen as a Greek dialect, characterized by its marginal position and by local pronunciation (like for etc.)>>."
^ Brian Joseph sums up that "[t]he slender evidence is open to different interpretations, so that no definitive answer is really possible", but cautions that "most likely, Ancient Macedonian was not simply an Ancient Greek dialect on a par with Attic or Aeolic" (B. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.)
Facts about the world's major languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Online paper) In this sense, some authors also call it a "deviant Greek dialect."
^ Plutarch Greek question
^ Dionysism and Comedy
 by Xavier Riu
^ Raphael Kühner, Friedrich Blass, Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache
^ Elis -- Olympia -- bef. c. 500-450 BC
^ Epeiros --
Dodona -- 4th c. BC SEG 15:397
^ The Oracles of Zeus: Dodona, Olympia, Ammon - Page 261
 by Herbert William Parke
^ Epeiros -- Dodona -- ~340 BC
SEG 26.700 - Trans.
^ Alexander the Great: A Reader
 by Ian Worthing
^ Greek Mythography in the Roman World
By Alan Cameron (Aspetides) 
^ (cf. Athenian secretary: Aspetos, son of Demostratos from
Kytheros ~340 BC) 
^ Pokorny -
Further reading Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010.
A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Cassio, Albio Cesare. 2002. "The language of Doric comedy." In
The language of Greek comedy. Edited by Anton Willi, 51-83. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007.
A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Colvin, Stephen C. 2007.
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