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Josef Strauss and his wife Caroline visited Traunstein and lake Traunsee in 1866. At that time, Josef saw dragonflies flying on the water surface. Inspired by this experience, he composed the Polka-mazurka Die Libelle.
This work was premiered on 21 October 1866, immediately after the Austro-Prussian War, when the Austrian mood was still gloomy following its defeat.