Dialects of Korean
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Dialects of Korean
Korean
Native speakers
76 million (2007)[1]
Dialects
Language codes
ko
kor
kor
Glottologkore1280[2]
Koreandialects.png
Korean dialects in Korea and neighbouring areas

A number of Korean dialects are spoken in the Korean Peninsula. The peninsula is extremely mountainous and each dialect's "territory" corresponds closely to the natural boundaries between different geographical regions of Korea. Most of the dialects are named for one of the traditional Eight Provinces of Korea. One is sufficiently distinct from the others to be considered a separate language, the Jeju language.

The standard language

  • In South Korea, Standard Korean (//pyojun-eo) is defined by the National Institute of the Korean Language as "the modern speech of Seoul widely used by the well-cultivated" (? ? ). In practice, it tends not to include features that are found exclusively in Seoul.[]
  • In North Korea, the adopting proclamation stated that the Pyongan dialect spoken in the capital of Pyongyang and its surroundings should be the basis for the North Korean standard language (Munhwa?); however, in practice, it remains "firmly rooted" in the Gyeonggi dialect, which had been the national standard for centuries.[3]

Despite North-South differences in the Korean language, the two standards are still broadly intelligible. One notable feature within the divergence is the North's lack of anglicisms and other foreign borrowings due to isolationism and self-reliance--pure/invented Korean words are used in replacement.[4]

Regional dialects

Various words for "dragonfly" (Standard Korean of South Korea: ).

Korea is a mountainous country, and Korean is consequently divided into numerous small local dialects. There are few clear demarcations, so dialect classification is necessarily to some extent arbitrary. Nonetheless, the following divisions are commonly cited in the literature:

A recent statistical analysis of these dialects suggests that the hierarchical structure within these dialects are highly uncertain, meaning that there is no quantitative evidence to support a family-tree-like relationship among them.[7]

Outside of the Korean peninsula

Classification

Some researchers classify the Korean dialects in Western and Eastern dialects. Compared with Middle Korean, the Western dialects have preserved long vowels, while the Eastern dialects have preserved tones or pitch accent.[8] The Jeju language and some dialects in North Korean make no distinction between vowel length or tone.[8] But the Southeastern dialect and the Northeastern dialect may not be closely related to each other genealogically.

See also

References

  1. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Korean". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c d e Lee & Ramsey, 2000. The Korean language
  4. ^ Seo, Dong-shin (December 18, 2005). "North Chides South for Dirtying Korean Tongue". The Korea Times. Seoul, South Korea. Archived from the original on January 1, 2006. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Janhunen, Juha (1996). Manchuria: An Ethnic History. Finno-Ugrian Society. ISBN 978-951-9403-84-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  7. ^ Lee, Sean; Mokrousov, Igor (29 May 2015). "A Sketch of Language History in the Korean Peninsula". PLOS ONE. 10 (5): e0128448. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128448. PMC 4449120. PMID 26024377.
  8. ^ a b Yeon, Jaehoon. "Korean dialects: a general survey" (PDF).

Further reading

  • J.-J. Song (2005). The Korean Language: Structure, Use and Context. London: Routledge.
  • Kim, Mu-rim () (2004). (Gugeo-ui yeoksa, History of the Korean language). Seoul: Hankook Munhwasa. ISBN 89-5726-185-0.

External links

  • - . Korean dialect word differences

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