In poetic meter, diaeresis ( or , also spelled diæresis or dieresis) has two meanings: the separate pronunciation of the two vowels in a diphthong for the sake of meter, and a division between feet that corresponds to the division between words.
Diaeresis comes from the Ancient Greek noun diaíresis () "taking apart" or "division" (also "distinction"), from the verb diairé? (?) "take apart", a compound of the verb airé? () "take" and the preposition diá () "through" (in compounds, "apart").
In the phonology of Standard French, the letters ie are normally pronounced [je] or [j?] except after Cr or Cl, when they indicate two syllables, [ije] or [ij?]. (That exception came into the language only around the 17th century, as can be seen in poems before then.)
In some French dialects, however, diaeresis is the norm, with the two-syllable pronunciation found after any consonant. In Standard French, the pronunciation of hier (yesterday) varies between the two, [j] or [ij], depending on the context.
Diaeresis as separate pronunciation of vowels in a diphthong was first named where it occurred in the poetry of Homer.
In this example, diaereses are in bold. The vowels in each diaeresis are placed in separate syllables when the line is scanned:
Dactylic hexameter depends on the sequence of long and short (or heavy and light) syllables. It is composed of six feet, five of which are in two basic patterns: long–short–short (dactyl) or long–long (spondee).
In the scansion of the line above, long syllables are uppercase, short syllables are lowercase, and feet are divided by a vertical line. All feet in the line conform to one of the two patterns of dactylic hexameter.
If the pairs of vowels are contracted into diphthongs by synaeresis (i.e., ?? ?) and the diphthongs are placed in one syllable each, one foot (in red) no longer follows the patterns, no matter how the line is scanned:
The form with diaeresis is the original form, since the word comes from Proto-Indo-European *esu (e-grade of ablaut), which is cognate with Sanskrit su- (zero-grade). In Proto-Greek, s between vowels became h (debuccalization), and later was lost.