Di%C5%A1 (cuneiform)
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Di%C5%A1 Cuneiform

Cuneiform for ana, di?, ti? and 1.
Amarna letter EA 288 which uses cuneiform di?.

The cuneiform sign Sumer dis.jpg has many uses in cuneiform texts. In the Amarna letters it is commonly used to denote Male individuals. (Women are denoted by sal (cuneiform), MUNUS-SAL-sinnishtu Cuneiform.svg. )

The sign is also used to denote "numbers of items". The sign is used for 1. Examples of multiple uses in the Amarna letters, is to address the Pharaoh, often as "servant-yours, at 2 Feet, .. I bow." An example of multiple uses in the Amarna letters, often the bowing down is done: " .. 7 and 7 times (I bow) !", with seven small strokes as units of number "1".

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, there are also uses for "di?", and "ti?". (In the Akkadian language, "d" & "t", are interchangeable (voiced vs unvoiced).

The glossenkeil usage of the angled sign

Many of the Amarna letters use glossenkeils, of two varieties: type 1: ?, and type 2: Sumer ge23.jpg (gl (AL)). Type 2 is found in example letters: EA 364, EA 245, and EA 287. (In CDLI listings (Chicago Digital Library Initiative), it is represented in transcription as ":". Likewise in the Moran, William L. translations.) Type 1 can be found in Amarna example letter EA 147.

The type 2 glossenkeil, is a shortened version of the large-angled-stroke, type 2; (the long stroke of the sign is slightly, or majorly, foreshortened. In the Amarna letters, often down to 50 % of the "full stroke".). The high quality photo of EA 364, line 8, shows the length about 3/4 of a full stroke-length.

Epic of Gilgamesh usage

The ana, (di?) sign usage in the Epic of Gilgamesh is as follows: ana-(151 times); di?-(6); ti?-(6); and 1-(87 times).[1]

See also & Ext link


  1. ^ Parpola, 197l. The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Sign List, pp. 155-165, no. 480, p. 164, ("ana"), "di?", etc.

  • Moran, William L. 1987, 1992. The Amarna Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, 1992. 393 pages.(softcover, ISBN 0-8018-6715-0)
  • Parpola, 197l. The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Parpola, Simo, Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, c 1997, Tablet I thru Tablet XII, Index of Names, Sign List, and Glossary-(pp. 119-145), 165 pages.

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