Democracy Index
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Democracy Index

The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map for 2018.[1]

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), a UK-based company. Its intention is to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 164 are UN member states.

The index was first published in 2006, with updates for 2008, 2010 and later years. The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories, measuring pluralism, civil liberties and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorises each country in one of four regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes.

Method

As described in the report,[2] the democracy index is a weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted alternative answers. Most answers are "experts' assessments". Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are grouped into five categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation, and political culture. Each answer is converted to a score, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer questions, 0, 0.5 or 1. With the exceptions mentioned below, within each category the scores are added, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g. if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?", is not considered, but automatically scored zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the Democracy Index for a given country. Finally, the Democracy Index, rounded to two decimals, decides the regime type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis is placed on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by surveys, but on the other hand, economic living standards are not weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators[who?] have done).[3][4]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer reviewed academic journals.[5]

Classification definitions

Full democracies are nations where civil liberties and basic political freedoms are not only respected but also reinforced by a political culture conducive to the thriving of democratic principles. These nations have a valid system of governmental checks and balances, an independent judiciary whose decisions are enforced, governments that function adequately, and diverse and independent media. These nations have only limited problems in democratic functioning.[vague][6]

Flawed democracies are nations where elections are fair and free and basic civil liberties are honored but may have issues (e.g. media freedom infringement). These nations have significant faults in other democratic aspects, including underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Hybrid regimes are nations with regular electoral frauds, preventing them from being fair and free democracy. These nations commonly have governments that apply pressure on political opponents, non-independent judiciaries, widespread corruption, harassment and pressure placed on the media, anemic[vague] rule of law, and more pronounced faults than flawed democracies in the realms of underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Authoritarian regimes are nations where political pluralism has vanished or is extremely limited. These nations are often absolute monarchies or dictatorships, may have some conventional institutions of democracy but with meager significance, infringements and abuses of civil liberties are commonplace, elections (if they take place) are not fair and free, the media is often state-owned or controlled by groups associated with the ruling regime, the judiciary is not independent, and there is omnipresent censorship and suppression of governmental criticism.[6]

Democracy Index by country 2018

Listing by country is available on The Economist website.[1]

Democracy Index 2018
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Regime
type
Continent
1  Norway 9.87 10.00 9.64 10.00 10.00 9.71 Full democracy Europe
2  Iceland 9.58 10.00 9.29 8.89 10.00 9.71 Full democracy Europe
3  Sweden 9.39 9.58 9.64 8.33 10.00 9.41 Full democracy Europe
4  New Zealand 9.26 10.00 9.29 8.89 8.13 10.00 Full democracy Oceania
5  Denmark 9.22 10.00 9.29 8.33 9.38 9.12 Full democracy Europe
6  Ireland 9.15 9.58 7.86 8.33 10.00 10.00 Full democracy Europe
 Canada 9.15 9.58 9.64 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy North America
8  Finland 9.14 10.00 8.93 8.33 8.75 9.71 Full democracy Europe
9  Australia 9.09 10.00 8.93 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy Oceania
10   Switzerland 9.03 9.58 9.29 7.78 9.38 9.12 Full democracy Europe
11  Netherlands 8.89 9.58 9.29 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy Europe
12  Luxembourg 8.81 10.00 8.93 6.67 8.75 9.71 Full democracy Europe
13  Germany 8.68 9.58 8.57 8.33 7.50 9.41 Full democracy Europe
14  United Kingdom 8.53 9.58 7.50 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy Europe
15  Uruguay 8.38 10.00 8.57 6.11 7.50 9.71 Full democracy South America
16  Austria 8.29 9.58 7.86 8.33 6.88 8.82 Full democracy Europe
17  Mauritius 8.22 9.17 8.21 5.56 8.75 9.41 Full democracy Africa
18  Malta 8.21 9.17 8.21 6.11 8.75 8.82 Full democracy Europe
19  Spain 8.08 9.17 7.14 7.78 7.50 8.82 Full democracy Europe
20  Costa Rica 8.07 9.58 7.50 6.67 7.50 9.12 Full democracy North America
21  South Korea[n 1] 8.00 9.17 7.86 7.22 7.50 8.24 Flawed democracy Asia
22  Japan 7.99 8.75 8.21 6.67 7.50 8.82 Flawed democracy Asia
23  Chile 7.97 9.58 8.57 4.44 8.13 9.12 Flawed democracy South America
 Estonia 7.97 9.58 8.21 6.67 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
25  United States 7.96 9.17 7.14 7.78 7.50 8.24 Flawed democracy North America
26  Cape Verde 7.88 9.17 7.86 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy Africa
27  Portugal 7.84 9.58 7.50 6.11 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy Europe
28  Botswana 7.81 9.17 7.14 6.11 7.50 9.12 Flawed democracy Africa
29  France 7.80 9.58 7.50 7.78 5.63 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
30  Israel 7.79 9.17 7.50 8.89 7.50 5.88 Flawed democracy Asia
31  Belgium 7.78 9.58 8.93 5.00 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
32  Taiwan 7.73 9.58 8.21 6.11 5.63 9.12 Flawed democracy Asia
33  Italy 7.71 9.58 6.07 7.78 6.88 8.24 Flawed democracy Europe
34  Czech Republic 7.69 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
35  Cyprus 7.59 9.17 6.43 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy Europe
36  Slovenia 7.50 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.25 8.24 Flawed democracy Europe
 Lithuania 7.50 9.58 6.43 6.11 6.25 9.12 Flawed democracy Europe
38  Latvia 7.38 9.58 6.07 5.56 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy Europe
39  Greece 7.29 9.58 5.36 6.11 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
40  South Africa 7.24 7.42 7.50 8.33 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy Africa
41  India 7.23 9.17 6.79 7.22 5.63 7.35 Flawed democracy Asia
42  Timor-Leste 7.19 9.08 6.79 5.56 6.88 7.65 Flawed democracy Asia
43  Trinidad and Tobago 7.16 9.58 7.14 6.11 5.63 7.35 Flawed democracy North America
44  Slovakia 7.10 9.58 6.79 5.56 5.63 7.94 Flawed democracy Europe
45  Panama 7.05 9.58 6.07 6.67 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy North America
46  Bulgaria 7.03 9.17 6.43 7.22 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy Europe
47  Argentina 7.02 9.17 5.36 6.11 6.25 8.24 Flawed democracy South America
 Jamaica 7.02 8.75 7.14 4.44 6.25 8.53 Flawed democracy North America
49  Suriname 6.98 9.17 6.43 6.67 5.00 7.65 Flawed democracy South America
50  Brazil 6.97 9.58 5.36 6.67 5.00 8.24 Flawed democracy South America
51  Colombia 6.96 9.17 6.79 5.00 5.63 8.24 Flawed democracy South America
52  Malaysia 6.88 7.75 7.86 6.67 6.25 5.88 Flawed democracy Asia
53  Philippines 6.71 9.17 5.71 7.22 4.38 7.06 Flawed democracy Asia
54  Poland 6.67 9.17 6.07 6.11 4.38 7.65 Flawed democracy Europe
 Guyana 6.67 9.17 5.71 6.11 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy South America
56  Lesotho 6.64 9.17 5.00 6.67 5.63 6.76 Flawed democracy Africa
57  Ghana 6.63 8.33 5.71 6.67 6.25 6.18 Flawed democracy Africa
 Hungary 6.63 8.75 6.07 5.00 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy Europe
59  Peru 6.60 9.17 5.00 5.56 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy South America
60  Croatia 6.57 9.17 6.07 5.56 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy Europe
61  Dominican Republic 6.54 9.17 5.36 6.11 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy North America
62  Mongolia 6.50 9.17 5.71 5.56 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy Asia
63  Serbia 6.41 8.25 5.36 6.11 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy Europe
 Tunisia 6.41 6.42 5.71 7.78 6.25 5.88 Flawed democracy Africa
65  Indonesia 6.39 6.92 7.14 6.67 5.63 5.59 Flawed democracy Asia
66  Singapore 6.38 4.33 7.86 6.11 6.25 7.35 Flawed democracy Asia
 Romania 6.38 9.17 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.65 Flawed democracy Europe
68  Ecuador 6.27 8.75 5.36 6.11 4.38 6.76 Flawed democracy South America
69  Namibia 6.25 5.67 5.36 6.67 5.63 7.94 Flawed democracy Africa
70  Paraguay 6.24 8.75 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.35 Flawed democracy South America
71  Sri Lanka 6.19 7.83 5.71 5.00 6.25 6.18 Flawed democracy Asia
 Mexico 6.19 8.33 6.07 7.22 3.13 6.18 Flawed democracy North America
73  Hong Kong 6.15 3.08 6.07 5.56 7.50 8.53 Flawed democracy Asia
 Senegal 6.15 7.50 6.07 4.44 6.25 6.47 Flawed democracy Africa
75  Papua New Guinea 6.03 6.92 6.07 3.89 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy Oceania
76  Albania 5.98 7.00 4.71 5.56 5.00 7.65 Hybrid regime Europe
77  El Salvador 5.96 9.17 4.29 5.56 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime North America
78  North Macedonia 5.87 6.50 5.36 6.67 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime Europe
79  Moldova 5.85 7.08 4.64 6.11 4.38 7.06 Hybrid regime Europe
 Fiji 5.85 6.58 5.36 6.11 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime Oceania
81  Montenegro 5.74 6.08 5.36 6.11 4.38 6.76 Hybrid regime Europe
 Benin 5.74 6.50 5.71 5.00 5.63 5.88 Hybrid regime Africa
83  Bolivia 5.70 7.50 4.64 5.56 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime South America
84  Ukraine 5.69 6.17 3.21 6.67 6.25 6.18 Hybrid regime Europe
85  Honduras 5.63 8.50 4.64 4.44 4.38 6.18 Hybrid regime North America
86  Zambia 5.61 6.17 4.64 3.89 6.88 6.47 Hybrid regime Africa
87  Guatemala 5.60 7.92 5.36 3.89 4.38 6.47 Hybrid regime North America
88  Bangladesh 5.57 7.83 5.07 5.56 4.38 5.00 Hybrid regime Asia
89  Georgia 5.50 7.83 3.57 6.11 4.38 5.59 Hybrid regime Europe
90  Malawi 5.49 6.58 4.29 4.44 6.25 5.88 Hybrid regime Africa
91  Tanzania 5.41 7.00 5.00 5.00 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
 Mali 5.41 7.42 3.93 3.89 5.63 6.18 Hybrid regime Africa
93  Liberia 5.35 7.42 2.57 5.56 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime Africa
94  Bhutan 5.30 8.75 6.79 2.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime Asia
95  Madagascar 5.22 6.08 3.57 6.11 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime Africa
96  Uganda 5.20 5.25 3.57 4.44 6.88 5.88 Hybrid regime Africa
97    Nepal 5.18 4.33 5.36 5.00 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime Asia
98  Kenya 5.11 3.50 5.36 6.67 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
 Kyrgyzstan 5.11 6.58 2.93 6.67 4.38 5.00 Hybrid regime Asia
100  Morocco 4.99 5.25 4.64 5.00 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
101  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.98 6.50 2.93 5.56 3.75 6.18 Hybrid regime Europe
102  Haiti 4.91 5.58 2.93 3.89 6.25 5.88 Hybrid regime North America
103  Armenia 4.79 5.67 4.64 5.56 2.50 5.59 Hybrid regime Europe
104  Burkina Faso 4.75 4.42 4.29 4.44 5.63 5.00 Hybrid regime Africa
105  Sierra Leone 4.66 6.58 1.86 3.33 6.25 5.29 Hybrid regime Africa
106  Lebanon 4.63 3.92 2.21 6.67 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime Asia
 Thailand 4.63 3.00 4.29 5.00 5.00 5.88 Hybrid regime Asia
108  Nigeria 4.44 6.08 4.64 3.33 3.75 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
109  Palestine 4.39 3.83 2.14 7.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime Asia
110  Turkey 4.37 4.50 5.00 5.00 5.00 2.35 Hybrid regime Europe
111  Gambia 4.31 4.48 4.29 3.33 5.63 3.82 Hybrid regime Africa
112  Pakistan 4.17 6.08 5.36 2.22 2.50 4.71 Hybrid regime Asia
113  Ivory Coast 4.15 4.83 2.86 3.33 5.63 4.12 Hybrid regime Africa
114  Iraq 4.06 4.75 0.07 6.67 5.00 3.82 Hybrid regime Asia
115  Jordan 3.93 3.58 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian Asia
116  Mozambique 3.85 3.58 2.14 5.00 5.00 3.53 Authoritarian Africa
 Kuwait 3.85 3.17 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian Asia
118  Myanmar 3.83 3.67 3.93 3.89 5.63 2.06 Authoritarian Asia
119  Mauritania 3.82 3.00 3.57 5.00 3.13 4.41 Authoritarian Africa
120  Niger 3.76 5.25 1.14 3.33 4.38 4.71 Authoritarian Africa
121  Comoros 3.71 4.33 2.21 4.44 3.75 3.82 Authoritarian Africa
122  Nicaragua 3.63 2.67 1.86 3.89 5.63 4.12 Authoritarian North America
123  Angola 3.62 1.75 2.86 5.56 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
124  Gabon 3.61 2.58 2.21 4.44 5.00 3.82 Authoritarian Africa
125  Cambodia 3.59 1.33 5.00 2.78 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian Asia
126  Algeria 3.50 2.58 2.21 3.89 5.00 3.82 Authoritarian Africa
127  Egypt 3.36 3.58 3.21 3.33 3.75 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
128  Ethiopia 3.35 0.00 3.57 5.56 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
 Rwanda 3.35 1.67 5.00 2.78 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
130  China 3.32 0.00 5.00 3.89 6.25 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
131  Republic of the Congo 3.31 3.17 2.50 3.89 3.75 3.24 Authoritarian Africa
132  Cameroon 3.28 3.17 2.86 3.33 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
133  Qatar 3.19 0.00 4.29 2.22 5.63 3.82 Authoritarian Asia
134  Zimbabwe 3.16 0.50 2.00 4.44 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian Africa
 Venezuela 3.16 1.67 1.79 4.44 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian South America
136  Guinea 3.14 3.50 0.43 4.44 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
137  Belarus 3.13 0.92 2.86 3.89 5.63 2.35 Authoritarian Europe
138  Togo 3.10 3.17 0.79 3.33 5.00 3.24 Authoritarian Africa
139  Vietnam 3.08 0.00 3.21 3.89 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian Asia
140  Oman 3.04 0.00 3.93 2.78 4.38 4.12 Authoritarian Asia
141  Eswatini 3.03 0.92 2.86 2.22 5.63 3.53 Authoritarian Africa
142  Cuba 3.00 1.08 3.57 3.33 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian North America
143  Afghanistan 2.97 2.92 1.14 4.44 2.50 3.82 Authoritarian Asia
144  Kazakhstan 2.94 0.50 2.14 4.44 4.38 3.24 Authoritarian Europe
 Russia 2.94 2.17 1.79 5.00 2.50 3.24 Authoritarian Europe
146  Djibouti 2.87 0.42 1.79 3.89 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
147  United Arab Emirates 2.76 0.00 3.93 2.22 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian Asia
148  Bahrain 2.71 0.83 3.21 2.78 4.38 2.35 Authoritarian Asia
149  Azerbaijan 2.65 0.50 2.14 3.33 3.75 3.53 Authoritarian Europe
150  Iran 2.45 0.00 3.21 4.44 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
151  Eritrea 2.37 0.00 2.14 1.67 6.88 1.18 Authoritarian Africa
 Laos 2.37 0.83 2.86 1.67 5.00 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
153  Burundi 2.33 0.00 0.43 3.89 5.00 2.35 Authoritarian Africa
154  Libya 2.19 1.00 0.36 1.67 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
155  Sudan 2.15 0.00 1.79 2.78 5.00 1.18 Authoritarian Africa
156  Uzbekistan 2.01 0.08 1.86 2.22 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian Asia
157  Guinea-Bissau 1.98 1.67 0.00 2.78 3.13 2.35 Authoritarian Africa
158  Yemen 1.95 0.00 0.00 3.89 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian Asia
159  Saudi Arabia 1.93 0.00 2.86 2.22 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
 Tajikistan 1.93 0.08 0.79 1.67 6.25 0.88 Authoritarian Asia
161  Equatorial Guinea 1.92 0.00 0.43 3.33 4.38 1.47 Authoritarian Africa
162  Turkmenistan 1.72 0.00 0.79 2.22 5.00 0.59 Authoritarian Asia
163  Chad 1.61 0.00 0.00 1.67 3.75 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
164  Central African Republic 1.52 2.25 0.00 1.11 1.88 2.35 Authoritarian Africa
165  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.49 0.50 0.71 2.22 3.13 0.88 Authoritarian Africa
166  Syria 1.43 0.00 0.00 2.78 4.38 0.00 Authoritarian Asia
167  North Korea 1.08 0.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 0.00 Authoritarian Asia
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Regime
type
Continent

Recent changes

In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy;[7] its score, which had been declining for some years, crossed the threshold from 8.05 in 2015 to 7.98 in 2016. The report states that this was caused by a myriad of factors dating back to at least the late 1960s which have eroded Americans' trust in governmental institutions.[7][8][9]

The 2017 Democracy index registered the worst year for global democracy since 2010-11. Asia was the worst-performing region overall. Venezuela was downgraded from a "hybrid regime" to an "authoritarian regime".

Australia (ranked 8th) and Taiwan (ranked 33rd) both legalised same-sex marriage in 2017. In China, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, further entrenched his power by writing his contribution to the Chinese Communist Party's ideology, dubbed "Xi Jinping Thought", into the party's constitution. Moldova was downgraded from a "flawed democracy" to a "hybrid regime" as a result of problematic elections. By contrast, Armenia was reupgraded from an "authoritarian regime" to a "hybrid regime"[10] as a result of constitutional changes that shifted power from the presidency to parliament.[11]

In 2017 the Gambia was reupgraded from an "authoritarian regime" to a "hybrid regime" after Yahya Jammeh, who was president from 1996 to 2017, was defeated by Adama Barrow, an opposition candidate in the 2016 presidential elections.

Criticism

The Democracy Index has been criticized for lacking transparency and accountability beyond the numbers. To generate the index, the Economist Intelligence Unit has a scoring system in which various experts are asked to answer 60 questions and assign each reply a number, with the weighted average deciding the ranking. However, the final report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts.[12]

Democracy Index by regime type

The following table gives the number and percentage of countries and the percentage of the world population for each regime type in 2018:[1]

Type of regime Score (s) Number of
countries
Percentage
of countries
Percentage of
world population
Full democracies 8 < s 20 12.0 4.5
Flawed democracies 6 < s 55 32.9 43.2
Hybrid regimes 4 < s 39 23.4 16.7
Authoritarian regimes s 53 31.7 35.6

World population refers to the total population of the 167 countries covered by the Index. Since this excludes only microstates, this is nearly equal to the entire estimated world population.

Democracy Index by region

The following table gives the index average by world region, and the number of covered countries in 2017. Note that some regional groups (e.g. Eastern Europe and Asia and Australasia) are very heterogeneous and composed of full democracies as well as authoritarian regimes:

Rank Region Countries 2006[4] 2008[13] 2010[3] 2011[14] 2012[2] 2013[15] 2014[16] 2015[6] 2016[17] 2017[18] 2018[1]
1 Northern America 2 8.64 8.64 8.63 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.56 8.56 8.56 8.56
2 Western Europe 21 8.60 8.61 8.45 8.40 8.44 8.41 8.41 8.42 8.40 8.38 8.35
3 Latin America and the Caribbean 24 6.37 6.43 6.37 6.35 6.36 6.38 6.36 6.37 6.33 6.26 6.24
4 Asia and Australasia 28 5.44 5.58 5.53 5.51 5.56 5.61 5.70 5.74 5.74 5.63 5.67
5 Central and Eastern Europe 28 5.76 5.67 5.55 5.50 5.51 5.53 5.58 5.55 5.43 5.40 5.42
6 Sub-Saharan Africa 44 4.24 4.28 4.23 4.32 4.33 4.36 4.34 4.38 4.37 4.35 4.36
7 Middle East and North Africa 20 3.54 3.48 3.52 3.62 3.73 3.68 3.65 3.58 3.56 3.54 3.54
  World 167 5.52 5.55 5.46 5.49 5.52 5.53 5.55 5.55 5.52 5.48 5.48

See also

Notes

  1. ^ An exact score of 8.00 is considered a Flawed democracy per the EIU website.

References

  1. ^ a b c d The Economist Intelligence Unit (8 January 2019). "Democracy Index 2018: Me Too?". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ a b Laza Kekic, director, country forecasting services (15 November 2006). "The Economist Intelligence Unit's index of democracy" (PDF). The World in 2007. Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ "More State than Nation: Lukashenko's Belarus | JIA SIPA". Journal of International Affairs. 65 (1): 93-113. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ a b Karlis, Nicole (31 January 2018). "New report classifies US as a "flawed democracy" - Partisanship and Trump were to blame for the US's dismal ranking in the Economist's annual Democracy Index report". Salon. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ Eshe Nelson (25 January 2017). "The US has been downgraded to a "flawed democracy," but not just because of Trump". Qz.com.
  9. ^ "Declining trust in government is denting democracy". The Economist. 25 January 2017.
  10. ^ "Democracy Index 2017". www.eiu.com. Retrieved .
  11. ^ "Democracy Index 2017 : Free Speech Under Attack" (PDF). www.eiu.com. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ "Peter Tasker: The flawed 'science' behind democracy rankings". asia.nikkei.com. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "Index of Democracy 2008" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 2017.
  14. ^ "Democracy index 2011: Democracy under stress". Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 2017.
  15. ^ "Democracy Index 2013: Democracy in limbo". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 2017.
  16. ^ "Democracy Index 2014:Democracy and its discontents" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 2017.
  17. ^ "Democracy Index 2016: Revenge of the "deplorables"". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  18. ^ "Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 2018.

External links


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