Dedekind-complete

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## Statement of the property

### Statement for real numbers

### Generalization to ordered sets

## Proof

### Logical status

### Proof using Cauchy sequences

## Applications

### Intermediate value theorem

### Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem

### Extreme value theorem

### Heine-Borel theorem

## History

## See also

## Notes

## References

This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Dedekind-complete

In mathematics, the **least-upper-bound property** (sometimes called **completeness** or **supremum property** or **l.u.b. property**)^{[1]} is a fundamental property of the real numbers. More generally, a partially ordered set *X* has the least-upper-bound property if every non-empty subset of *X* with an upper bound has a *least* upper bound (supremum) in *X*. Not every (partially) ordered set has the least upper bound property. For example, the set of all rational numbers with its natural order does *not* have the least upper bound property.

The least-upper-bound property is one form of the completeness axiom for the real numbers, and is sometimes referred to as **Dedekind completeness**.^{[2]} It can be used to prove many of the fundamental results of real analysis, such as the intermediate value theorem, the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem, the extreme value theorem, and the Heine-Borel theorem. It is usually taken as an axiom in synthetic constructions of the real numbers (see least upper bound axiom), and it is also intimately related to the construction of the real numbers using Dedekind cuts.

In order theory, this property can be generalized to a notion of completeness for any partially ordered set. A linearly ordered set that is dense and has the least upper bound property is called a linear continuum.

Let *S* be a non-empty set of real numbers.

- A real number
*x*is called an**upper bound**for*S*if*x*>=*s*for all*s*?*S*. - A real number
*x*is the**least upper bound**(or**supremum**) for*S*if*x*is an upper bound for*S*and*x*y for every upper bound*y*of*S*.

The **least-upper-bound property** states that any non-empty set of real numbers that has an upper bound must have a least upper bound in *real numbers*.

More generally, one may define upper bound and least upper bound for any subset of a partially ordered set *X*, with "real number" replaced by "element of *X*". In this case, we say that *X* has the least-upper-bound property if every non-empty subset of *X* with an upper bound has a least upper bound in *X*.

For example, the set **Q** of rational numbers does not have the least-upper-bound property under the usual order. For instance, the set

has an upper bound in **Q**, but does not have a least upper bound in **Q** (since the square root of two is irrational). The construction of the real numbers using Dedekind cuts takes advantage of this failure by defining the irrational numbers as the least upper bounds of certain subsets of the rationals.

The least-upper-bound property is equivalent to other forms of the completeness axiom, such as the convergence of Cauchy sequences or the nested intervals theorem. The logical status of the property depends on the construction of the real numbers used: in the synthetic approach, the property is usually taken as an axiom for the real numbers (see least upper bound axiom); in a constructive approach, the property must be proved as a theorem, either directly from the construction or as a consequence of some other form of completeness.

It is possible to prove the least-upper-bound property using the assumption that every Cauchy sequence of real numbers converges. Let *S* be a nonempty set of real numbers, and suppose that *S* has an upper bound *B*_{1}. Since *S* is nonempty, there exists a real number *A*_{1} that is not an upper bound for *S*. Define sequences *A*_{1}, *A*_{2}, *A*_{3}, ... and *B*_{1}, *B*_{2}, *B*_{3}, ... recursively as follows:

- Check whether (
*A*+_{n}*B*) / 2 is an upper bound for_{n}*S*. - If it is, let
*A*_{n+1}=*A*and let_{n}*B*_{n+1}= (*A*+_{n}*B*) / 2._{n} - Otherwise there must be an element
*s*in*S*so that*s*>(*A*+_{n}*B*) / 2. Let_{n}*A*_{n+1}=*s*and let*B*_{n+1}=*B*._{n}

Then *A*_{1}A_{2}A_{3}B_{3}B_{2}B_{1} and |*A _{n}* -

The least-upper-bound property of **R** can be used to prove many of the main foundational theorems in real analysis.

Let *f* : [*a*, *b*] -> **R** be a continuous function, and suppose that *f* (*a*) < 0 and *f* (*b*) > 0. In this case, the intermediate value theorem states that *f* must have a root in the interval [*a*, *b*]. This theorem can be proved by considering the set

*S*= {*s*? [*a*,*b*] :*f*(*x*) < 0 for all*x*s} .

That is, *S* is the initial segment of [*a*, *b*] that takes negative values under *f*. Then *b* is an upper bound for *S*, and the least upper bound must be a root of *f*.

The Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem for **R** states that every sequence *x _{n}* of real numbers in a closed interval [

*S*= {*s*? [*a*,*b*] :*s*x_{n}for infinitely many*n*} .

Clearly *b* is an upper bound for *S*, so *S* has a least upper bound *c*. Then *c* must be a limit point of the sequence *x _{n}*, and it follows that

Let *f* : [*a*, *b*] -> **R** be a continuous function and let *M* = sup *f* ([*a*, *b*]), where *M* = ? if *f* ([*a*, *b*]) has no upper bound. The extreme value theorem states that *M* is finite and *f* (*c*) = *M* for some *c* ? [*a*, *b*]. This can be proved by considering the set

*S*= {*s*? [*a*,*b*] : sup*f*([*s*,*b*]) =*M*} .

If *c* is the least upper bound of this set, then it follows from continuity that *f* (*c*) = *M*.

Let [*a*, *b*] be a closed interval in **R**, and let {*U _{?}*} be a collection of open sets that covers [

*S*= {*s*? [*a*,*b*] : [*a*,*s*] can be covered by finitely many*U*} ._{?}

This set must have a least upper bound *c*. But *c* is itself an element of some open set *U _{?}*, and it follows that [

The importance of the least-upper-bound property was first recognized by Bernard Bolzano in his 1817 paper *Rein analytischer Beweis des Lehrsatzes dass zwischen je zwey Werthen, die ein entgegengesetztes Resultat gewäahren, wenigstens eine reelle Wurzel der Gleichung liege*.^{[3]}

**^**Bartle and Sherbert (2011) define the "completeness property" and say that it is also called the "supremum property". (p. 39)**^**Willard says that an ordered space "X is Dedekind complete if every subset of X having an upper bound has a least upper bound." (pp. 124-5, Problem 17E.)**^**Raman-Sundström, Manya (August-September 2015). "A Pedagogical History of Compactness".*American Mathematical Monthly*.**122**(7): 619-635. arXiv:1006.4131. doi:10.4169/amer.math.monthly.122.7.619. JSTOR 10.4169/amer.math.monthly.122.7.619.

- Abbott, Stephen (2001).
*Understanding Analysis*. Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-95060-5. - Aliprantis, Charalambos D; Burkinshaw, Owen (1998).
*Principles of real analysis*(Third ed.). Academic. ISBN 0-12-050257-7.

- Bartle, Robert G.; Sherbert, Donald R. (2011).
*Introduction to Real Analysis*(4 ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-43331-6. - Bressoud, David (2007).
*A Radical Approach to Real Analysis*. MAA. ISBN 0-88385-747-2. - Browder, Andrew (1996).
*Mathematical Analysis: An Introduction*. Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-94614-4. - Dangello, Frank; Seyfried, Michael (1999).
*Introductory Real Analysis*. Brooks Cole. ISBN 978-0-395-95933-6. - Rudin, Walter (1976).
*Principles of Mathematical Analysis*. Walter Rudin Student Series in Advanced Mathematics (3 ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-054235-8. - Willard, Stephen (2004) [1970].
*General Topology*. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486434797.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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