De (Cyrillic)
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De Cyrillic
Cyrillic letter De
Cyrillic letter De (v2).svg
Phonetic usage:[d]
Numeric value:4
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
Non-Slavic letters
Archaic letters

De (? ?; italics: ? ?) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

De commonly represents the voiced dental stop /d/, like the pronunciation of ⟨d⟩ in "door".

De is romanised using the Latin letter D.


The Cyrillic letter De was derived from the Greek letter Delta (? ?).

In the Early Cyrillic alphabet its name was (dobro), meaning "good".

In the Cyrillic numeral system, De had a value of 4.


The major graphic difference between De and its modern Greek equivalent lies in the two descenders ("feet") below the lower corners of the Cyrillic letter. The descenders were borrowed from a Byzantine uncial shape of uppercase Delta.

De, like the Cyrillic letter El, has two typographical variants: an older variant where its top is pointed (like Delta), and a modern one (first used in mid-19th-century fonts) where it is square. Nowadays, almost all books and magazines are printed with fonts with the second variant of the letter; the first one is rather stylish and only a few popular text fonts use it (the best known example is "Baltika" designed in 1951-52 by V. G. Chiminova and others).

handwritten forms

In italic (Russian) type, the lowercase form looks more like the lowercase Latin ⟨d⟩, or a numeral "6" flipped horizontally: ⟨?⟩. Southern (Serbian, Bulgarian, Macedonian) typography may prefer a variant that looks like a lowercase Latin ⟨g⟩. Cursive lowercase De has the same two shapes, but with a different distribution: for example, the g-shaped variant is a standard for Russian schools.[1]

The (Russian-Ukrainian-Belarusian-Bulgarian) cursive form of capital De looks like Latin D as the printed version is not comfortable enough to be written quickly. The Serbian cursive form is closer to the shape of a numeral "2" (identical to the form sometimes used for uppercase cursive Latin Q); this form is unknown in Russia.


It most often represents the voiced dental plosive /d/. However, word-finally and before voiceless consonants, it represents a voiceless [t]. Before a palatalizing vowel, it represents /d?/.

Related letters and other similar characters

Computing codes

Character information
Preview Д д
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1044 U+0414 1076 U+0434 7297 U+1C81
UTF-8 208 148 D0 94 208 180 D0 B4 225 178 129 E1 B2 81
Numeric character reference Д Д д д ᲁ ᲁ
Named character reference Д д
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 228 E4 196 C4
Code page 855 167 A7 166 A6
Windows-1251 196 C4 228 E4
ISO-8859-5 180 B4 212 D4
Macintosh Cyrillic 132 84 228 E4


  1. ^ "? ?" [Russian alphabet]. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of ? at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of ? at Wiktionary

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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