Darughachi (Mongol form) or Basqaq (Turkic form) which originally designated officials in the Mongol Empire in charge of taxes and administration in a certain province, is the plural form of the Mongolian word darugha. They were sometimes referred to as governors. The term corresponds to the Persian d?rugheh and the Turkic basqaq (also spelled baskak) and to ta lu hua ch'ih (in Wade-Giles romanization, ? in Traditional Chinese characters, ? in Simplified Chinese characters, dál?hu?chì in Pinyin romanization) in Chinese.
The Secret History of the Mongols tells us that after the invasion and conquest of the Kipchaks and Rus' countries between 1237 and 1240, Ögödei places daru?a?in and tamma?in for to govern the peoples whose cities are Ornas, Sa?s?n, Bolghar and Kiev.
Under the Yuan Dynasty, it is replaced by the title of Zhangguan and there was one for each administrative subdivision , where he combined the functions of governor and chief of the armies. This title was also given to a person at the head of a central government office. This charge usually fell to a Mongol, probably to a Semu, thus guaranteeing the preservation of power within the Mongols. Some other populations, however, could have an administrative title with close functions.
The Turkic term basqaq does not appear in Mongolian sources. In Russian sources, the darughachi were almost always referred to as baskak (plural baskaki). They appear in the thirteenth-century soon after the Mongol Conquest but were withdrawn by 1328 and the Grand Prince of Vladimir (usually the Prince of Moscow) became the khan's tax collector and imperial son in law (kürgen), entrusted with gathering the dan' or tribute from the Rus' principalities for the Golden Horde.
The Mongol Empire attempted to send darughachi to Goryeo of Korea in 1231, after the first (of six) invasions. According to some records, 72 darughachi were sent and Mongol military garrisons withdrawn. However, repeated rebellions and continued Goryeo resistance to Mongol dominion (the original darughachi that were stationed were all killed by Goryeo forces in the summer of 1232) made the stationing of darughachi difficult. While there are questions regarding the actual number of darughachi stationed (the extant record denoting 72 darughachi was itself a derivation of an older record that has been lost; Goryeo was too small a territory to merit so many darughachi; the names of none of the 72 darughachi remain, which is unusual considering the importance of their position), most reliable sources (including the Goryeo-sa) indicate that at least some darughachi were stationed in Goryeo for the duration of its vassaldom to the Mongol Empire. While further mention of the darughachi in Korea is scarce in extant sources, after peace was secured between Goryeo and the Mongol Empire in 1259 establishing Korea as a vassal to the Empire, the stationing of darughachi in Korea was likely a more stable proposition.