Danzig (region)
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Danzig Region
Danzig

Regierungsbezirk Danzig
Region
CountryPrussia (since 1871 part of Germany)
ProvinceWest Prussia (till 1829 and after 1878)
Province of Prussia (1829-1878)
SeatDanzig
Administrative regions of West Prussia:
  Regierungsbezirk Danzig
  Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder

The Danzig Region (Regierungsbezirk Danzig) was a government region, within the Prussian Provinces of West Prussia and of Prussia. The regional capital was Danzig (Gda?sk).[1] Prussian government regions[2] were no bodies of regional self-rule of the districts and cities comprised, but shear top-to-down government agencies to apply federal or state law and supervise local entities of self-rules, such as municipalities, rural and urban districts.

History

Polish westerly Royal Prussia was annexed by the easterly Kingdom of Prussia during the late 18th century Partitions of Poland, with the city of Danzig becoming part of the Prussian Kingdom in 1793. The territory was administered in the new province of West Prussia (1772-1829, 1878-1920) and the new Province of Prussia (1829-1878).

In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, West Prussia was divided into the Regions of Marienwerder and Danzig. While the governor and provincial authorities were based in Danzig, the provincial court [de] was in the town of Marienwerder in West Prussia (Kwidzyn).

West Prussia was reorganised into districts (Kreise) within each government region from 1815-18. The Danzig Region included the urban districts (Stadtkreise) of Danzig and Elbing (Elbl?g) (since 1874), as well as the rural districts of Berent [pl], Danzig-Land [pl], Elbing-Land [pl], Karthaus [pl], Marienburg [pl], Neustadt [pl], and Preußisch Stargard [pl].

In 1887 a number of districts changed in the Danzig Region. The rural district of Danzig was divided into the rural districts of Danziger Höhe (Danzig Heights) and Danziger Niederung (Danzig Lowlands) [pl]; the seats of each district were in the city of Danzig. Two more new districts were formed, the southern parts of the former Danzig District became part of the new Dirschau [pl]. The northern areas of the Neustadt District were partitioned off to form the new Putzig [pl].

As a result of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles allocated most of West Prussia to the Second Polish Republic, and the Danzig Region was dissolved in 1920. The city of Danzig and its environs became the Free City of Danzig. A few eastern areas of the Danzig Region remained in the Free State of Prussia in Weimar Germany, however. In 1920 the rural districts of Elbing and Marienburg in West Prussia as well as the city of Elbing were added to the truncated Marienwerder Region, which in 1922 was renamed as West Prussia Region for reason of tradition when it was transferred from the defunct Province of West Prussia to the Province of East Prussia.

Districts

Urban districts

Danzig formed an urban district from the beginning, Elbing reached that status in 1874 and was thus partitioned from Elbing Rural District, and several times enlarged on the expense of the surrounding rural district.

  1. 1818-1920: Stadtkreis Danzig (Gda?sk);[3] thereafter persisting as urban district within Free Danzig
  2. 1874-1920: Stadtkreis Elbing (Elbl?g);[4] thereafter persisting till 1945 as an urban district in Germany

Rural districts

The period when a district formed part of the Danzig Region is indicated by the years before the district names.

  1. 1818-1920: Berent [de], seated in Berent in West Prussia (Ko?cierzyna);[5]
  2. 1818-1887: Danzig-Land [de], seat: Russoschin (till 1828), Praust (till 1845), then Danzig; partitioned into the new districts of Danzig Heights, Lowlands and Dirschau
  3. 1887-1920: Danziger Höhe (Heights), seat: Danzig; the district persisted till 1939 as part of Free Danzig
  4. 1887-1920: Danziger Niederung (Lowlands) [de], seat: Danzig; the district persisted till 1939 as part of Free Danzig
  5. 1772-1818, 1887-1920: Dirschau [de], seat: Dirschau (Tczew)[6]
  6. 1818-1920: Elbing-Land [de], seat: Elbing; persisting till 1945 as a rural district in Germany, with its area west of the Nogat ceded to the new Großes Werder district [de] in Free Danzig
  7. 1818-1920: Karthaus [de], seat: Carthaus/Karthaus in West Prussia (Kartuzy)[7]
  8. 1818-1920: Marienburg in West Prussia [de], seat: Marienburg in West Prussia (Malbork);[8] persisting till 1945 as a rural district in Germany, with its area west of the Nogat ceded to Großes Werder district in Free Danzig
  9. 1818-1920: Neustadt in West Prussia [de], seat: Neustadt an der Rheda (Wejherowo)[9]
  10. 1772-1920: Preußisch Stargard [de], seat: Preußisch Stargard (Starogard Gda?ski)[10]
  11. 1887-1920: Putzig [de], seated in Putzig (Puck);[11] the district was partitioned from the Neustadt District, northern part

Demographics

Ethnolinguistic Structure of Regierungsbezirk Danzig (1905 census)
Kreis (district) Polish Name Population 1905 Polish, Kashubian in Percent German in Percent
Elbing-Stadt Elbl?g 55,627 175 0.31 55,328 99.46
Elbing-Land Elbl?g 38,871 105 0.27 38,737 99.66
Marienburg Malbork 63,110 1,705 2.70 61,044 96.73
Danzig-Stadt (City) Gda?sk 160,090 3,065 1.91 154,629 96.59
Danzig-Niederung (lowland) Gda?sk 36,519 178 0.49 36,286 99.36
Danziger Höhe (highland) Gda?sk 50,148 5,703 11.73 44,113 87.97
Dirschau Tczew 40,856 15,144 37.07 25,466 62.33
Preußisch Stargard Starogard Gda?ski 62,465 44,809 71.73 17,425 27.90
Berent Ko?cierzyna 53,726 29,898 55.65 23,515 43.77
Karthaus Kartuzy 66,612 46,281 69.48 20,203 30.33
Neustadt Wejherowo 55,587 27,358 49.22 27,048 48.66
Putzig Puck 25,701 17,906 69.67 7,629 29.68
Total for Danzig Region 709,312 192,327 27.11 511,423 72.10

District presidents

Seat of the Government of Danzig

Each of the nineteen Regierungsbezirke featured a non-legislative governing body called a Regierungspräsidium or Bezirksregierung (district government) headed by a Regierungspräsident (district president), concerned mostly with administrative decisions on a local level for districts within its jurisdiction.[12]

1816-1819: Theodor von Schön (1773-1856)
1819-1825: Theodor Nicolovius (1768-1831)
1825-1840: Johann Carl Rothe (1771-1853)[13]
1841-1863: Robert von Blumenthal (1806-1892)
1863-1868: Robert von Prittwitz und Gaffron (1806-1889)
1868-1876: Gustav von Diest (1826-1911)
1876-1878: Otto von Hoffmann (1833-1905)
1878-1881: Heinrich von Achenbach (1829-1899)
1881-1883: Wilhelm von Saltzwedel (1820-1882)
1883-1887: Anton Rothe (1837-1905)
1887-1890: Adolf von Heppe (1836-1899)
1890-1902: Friedrich von Holwede (1841-1921)
1902-1909: Jaroslaw von Jarotzky (1851-1928)
1909-1918: Lothar Foerster (1865-1939)

Notes

  1. ^ German article of Danzig Region
  2. ^ Unlike regions in Alsace-Lorraine, Bavaria and the Palatinate, which are of double nature, government agencies and bodies of districts' and cities' self-rule represented by elected bodies.
  3. ^ Since 1945 the official name of the city is Gda?sk.
  4. ^ Before the existence as urban district and thereafter, between 1466-1772, and since 1945 the official name of the town is Elbl?g.
  5. ^ Before the existence of the district and thereafter, between 1466-1772, and since 1920 the official name of the town, at times forming the district capital, is Ko?cierzyna.
  6. ^ Before the existence of the district and thereafter, between 1466-1772, 1807-1815, and since 1920 the official name of the town, at times forming the district capital, is Tczew.
  7. ^ Before the existence of the district and thereafter, between 1466-1772, and since 1920 the official name of the town, at times forming the district capital, is Kartuzy.
  8. ^ Before the existence of the district and thereafter, between 1466-1772, and since 1945 the official name of the town, at times forming the district capital, is Malbork.
  9. ^ Before the existence of the district and thereafter, between 1643-1772, and since 1920 the official name of the town, at times forming the district capital, is Wejherowo.
  10. ^ Before the existence of the district and thereafter, between 1466-1772, 1807-1815, and since 1920 the official name of the town, at times forming the district capital, is Starogard (Gda?ski).
  11. ^ Before the existence of the district and thereafter, between 1466-1772, and since 1920 the official name of the town, at times forming the district capital, is Puck.
  12. ^ Regional Governments in France, Germany, Poland and The Netherlands (HTML version of PowerPoint presentation) - Cachet, A (coordinator), Erasmus University, Rotterdam[dead link]
  13. ^ Barbara Dettke: Die asiatische Hydra: Die Cholera von 1830/31 in Berlin und den preußischen Provinzen, Posen, Preußen und Schlesien. De Gruyter, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-11-014493-X, S. 102. (eingeschränkte Vorschau bei Google Book Search).

References

  • Georg Hassel. Vollständige und neueste Erdbeschreibung der Preußischen Monarchie und des Freistaates Krakau. Weimar, 1819, pp. 577-586 (online).
  • H. Oelrichs. Statistische Mitteilungen über den Regierungsbezirk Danzig. Danzig, 1867 (online).

Coordinates: 54°10?N 19°00?E / 54.17°N 19.0°E / 54.17; 19.0


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Danzig_(region)
 



 



 
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