|Music of Indonesia|
Kempul gongs from Java
Dangdut is a genre of Indonesian folk and traditional popular music that is partly derived from Hindustani, Malay, and Arabic music. Dangdut is a very popular genre in Indonesia because of its melodious instrumentation and vocals. Indonesians dance in somewhat similar to the ghoomar while listening to dangdut music, but in a much slower version. Dangdut features a tabla and gendang beat.
Dangdut really has strong Indian music influence from the basis of harmony, instrument, beat, and rhythm. One of the most populous Dangdut musicians and singers such as Rhoma Irama, known as the King of Dangdut; Mansyur S.; Meggy Z; and Ellya Khadam include strong Indian-music influence in the basis of harmony, theme, and beat to their songs and also by other popular dangdut singers also.
A dangdut band typically consists of a lead singer, male or female, backed by four to eight musicians. Instruments usually include a tabla, gendang, flute, mandolin, guitars, sitar, drum machines, and synthesizers. The term has been expanded from the desert-style music to embrace other musical styles. Modern dangdut incorporates influences from Middle Eastern pop music, Western rock, house music, hip hop music, contemporary R&B, and reggae.
The term dangdut is a Javanese language onomatopoeia for the sound of the tabla (also known as gendang) drum, which is written dang and ndut. It was reportedly coined by music magazine Aktuil, although Rhoma Irama stated that it was coined as a term of derision by the rich to the music of the poor. Despite its derogatory intent, it was seized upon by those playing it, and the term appears in Rhoma's 1973 dangdut classic Terajana:
Dangdut as a term distinguished the music of Javanese from the Orkes Melayu of North Sumatran Malays.
Besides orkes Melayu, the primary musical influence on dangdut was Indian Bollywood music. The song "Terajana" pays homage to the 1959 Bollywood hit "Tera Jana Ke," and though dangdut is primarily written in the Indonesian language, respect was paid to the Indian influence. The next verse of "Terajana" is as follows:
Orkes Melayu singer Ellya Khadam switched to dangdut in the 1970s, and, by 1972, she was the number-one artist in Indonesia. Her success, with that of Rhoma Irama, meant that by 1975, 75 percent of all recorded music in Indonesia was of the dangdut genre, with pop bands such as Koes Plus adopting the style.
Most major cities, especially on Java, have one or more venues that have a dangdut show several times a week. The concerts of major dangdut stars are also broadcast on television.
Beginning in 2003, certain dangdut musicians became the focus of a national controversy in Indonesia regarding performances by singer Inul Daratista which religious conservatives described as pornography. Protests led by dangdut megastar and devout Muslim Rhoma Irama, called for Daratista to be banned from television, and legislation was passed in 2008 by the People's Consultative Assembly that introduced a broad range of activities described as pornography.
The flamboyant performances at some dangdut shows also attracted collateral attention in May 2012 when a row broke out in Indonesia over a planned performance by international star Lady Gaga in Jakarta due to be held in early June 2012. In the face of opposition from conservative Muslim groups in Indonesia, the planned show was cancelled. This cancellation led numerous commentators to note that opposition to Lady Gaga's performances was surprising given the nature of some dangdut shows.