Da?-ghî t?ng-i?ng p?ng-im (Taiwanese phonetic transcription system, abbr: DT; Chinese: ) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based upon Tongyong Pinyin. It is able to use the Latin alphabet to indicate the proper variation of pitch with nine diacritic symbols.
DT in its present form has 17 initials, 18 finals and 8 tones.
Taiwanese is a tonal language, so the pitch (tone) of a spoken word affects its meaning, same as the written words. However, in non-tonal languages, a word's pitch constantly conveys emotion but often does not influence its meaning. In Taiwanese, which has nine tones and two extra tones, neutral tone and nasal vowel.
Tones are expressed by diacritics; checked syllables (i.e. those ending with glottal stops) are followed by the letter h. Where diacritics are not technically available, e.g. on some parts of the internet, tone alphabet may be used instead.
Examples for these tones: ci (elephant), bâ (leopard), bhè (horse), di (pig), z?a (snake), ?h (duck), lok (deer). And, a neutral tone, sometimes indicated by å(aj) in DT, has no specific contour; its pitch always depends on the tones of the preceding syllables. Taiwanese speakers refer to this tone as the "neutral tone" (Chinese: ).
Tone sandhi or chain shift by circulation, as the tones are encoded by appending and modifying spellings with attention to the rules of the DT system. The basic tone has no modification and tone mark. Generally speaking, the basic tone means the 7th tone (mid even tone; yangqu).
A DT word, like an English word, can be formed by only one syllable or several syllables, with the two syllables being the general typicality. Each syllable in DT follows one of the six underlying patterns:
|dt capital letter||A||B||Bh||C||D||E||G||Gh||H||I||K||L||M||N||Ng||O||Or||P||R||S||T||U||Z|
|dt lower case||a||b||bh||c||d||e||g||gh||h||i||k||l||m||n||ng||o||or||p||r||s||t||u||z|
bh, z, c, gh, h, r, g, k, l, m, n, ng, b, p, s, d, t
Note that unlike their typical interpretation in modern English language, bh and gh are voiced and unaspirated, whereas b, g, and d are plain unvoiced as in Hanyu Pinyin. p, k, and t are unvoiced and aspirated, corresponding closer to p, t, and k in English. It is inconsistent with the use of h's in the Legge romanization and the use of the diacritic in the International Phonetic Alphabet to signal consonantal aspiration.
The nasals m, n, and ng can be appended to any of the vowels and some of the diphthongs. In addition, m and ng can function as independent syllables by themselves.
The stops h, g, b and d can appear as the last letter in a syllable, in which case they are pronounced with no audible release. (The final h in DT stands for a glottal stop.)
|L?n-hâ-g?k sê-g?i r?n-k?an s?an-gh?n
Dê 1 di?u
L?ng-l?ng se?-låi zû-i?, z?i z?n-ghi?m g?h ku?n-l? siòng it-lip b?ng-dìng. In hù-iù li-sîng g?h li?ng-sim, lî-cia? ìng-gai i hi?nn-d? g?an-h? ? z?ng-s?n h?-si?ng dùi-d?i.
|Universal Declaration of Human Rights
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Voyager Golden Record
|Tài-kong b?ng-iù, lin hòr! Lin ziâ-bà bh?! Û-?ng, dôr-l?i ghun-zia z? òr.||Friends of space, how are you all! Have you eaten yet? Drop in on us if you have time.||Taiwanese(Amoy; Min nan; Formosan) sound record of voyager 1|